Praise of the Sahabah and ‘Ulama’ for Aisha

Chapter 3 – The Excellences of Aisha and Comparing her with the Nobles of the Household of Nubuwwah and her Father
August 6, 2021
Comparing her with the Nobles of the Household of Nubuwwah and her Father
August 10, 2021

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Praise of the Sahabah and ‘Ulama’ for Aisha

 

Praise of the Sahabah for Aisha

 

1. ‘Umar ibn al Khattab

Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu stipulated 10 000 [silver coins] for the Ummahat al Mu’minin and supplemented Sayyidina Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha with 2 000, commenting:

إنها حبيبة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

She is certainly the beloved of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. [1]

 

2. ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib

Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu declared:

لو كانت امرأة تكون خليفة لكانت عائشة

Had any woman been worthy to serve as khalifah, it would be Aisha.[2]

 

He also stated:

إنها لزوجة نبيكم صلى الله عليه وسلم في الدنيا والآخرة

Indeed, she is the wife of your Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the world and the Hereafter.[3]

 

3. Umm Salamah

 

لما سمعت أم سلمة رضي الله عنها الصرخة على عائشة أرسلت جاريتها انظري ماذا صنعت فجاءت فقالت قد قضت فقالت يرحمها الله والذي نفسي بيده لقد كانت أحب الناس كلهم إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلا أبوها

When Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha heard the call for help over Aisha, she sent her slave girl saying, “See what has happened to her!” She returned and informed her that Aisha has passed on[4] hearing which Umm Salamah remarked, “May Allah have mercy on her. By the Being in whose Hand is my life, she was the most beloved of all people to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam besides her father.”[5]

 

Another narration reads:

 

أذهب عنك يا عائشة فما كان على ظهر الأرض نسمة أحب إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم منك ثم قالت أستغفر الله غير أبيها

May He remove from you [difficulty], O Aisha! There was no soul on the face of the earth more beloved to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam than you. She continued: I seek Allah’s forgiveness, besides her father.[6]

 

Ziyad sent wealth to the wives of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and favoured Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha above the others. The messenger began apologising to Sayyidah Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha for this, upon which she acknowledged:

 

لقد كان يفضلها من كان أعظم علينا تفضيلا من زياد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

Someone more respected in our eyes than Ziyad, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, would favour her considerably.[7]

 

4. Ibn ‘Abbas

When Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma entered her presence during her fatal illness, he told her:

 

كنت أحب نساء رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إليه ولم يكن يحب إلا طيبا

You were the most beloved wife to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and he would only love someone pure and faithful.[8]

 

He comforted her with the words:

زوجة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ولم يتزوج بكرا غيرك ونزل عذرك من السماء

[You are] the wife of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he never married a virgin besides you, and your innocence was revealed from the sky.[9]

Another narration has the wording:

 

يا أم المؤمنين تقدمين على فرط صدق على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم و على أبي بكر

O Mother of the Believers, you are approaching a truthful predecessors[10], the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Abu Bakr.[11]

 

During his dialogue and debate with the Khawarij, he explained:

 

وأما قولكم قاتل فلم يسب ولم يغنم أتسبون أمكم عائشة ثم تستحلون منها ما يستحل من غيرها فلئن فعلتم لقد كفرتم وهي أمكم ولئن قلتم ليست بأمنا لقد كفرتم فإن الله يقول النَّبِيُّ أَوْلىٰ بِالْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ فأنتم تدورون بين ضلالتين أيهما صرتم إليها صرتم إلى ضلالة فنظر بعضهم إلى بعض قلت أخرجت من هذه قالوا نعم

“With regards to your issue that he [‘Ali] fought but neither took prisoners nor spoils of war. Will you enslave your mother Aisha and then regard her as permissible as you regard others besides her? If you do this then you have definitely committed disbelief as she is your mother. Alternatively, if you declare that she is not your mother, then you have fallen into disbelief for certainly Allah declares: The Prophet is more worthy of the believers than themselves, and his wives are [in the position of] their mothers.[12] You therefore oscillate between two deviances, whichever of them you opt for, you fall into deviation.”

Hearing this, they simply looked at one another [dumbfounded].

I asked, “Have I clarified this point?”

“Yes,” they replied.[13]

 

5. Usayd ibn Hudayr

Sayyidina Usayd ibn Hudayr radiya Llahu ‘anhu addressed Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

جزاك الله خيرا فوالله ما نزل بك أمر قط إلا جعل الله لك منه مخرجا وجعل للمسلمين فيه بركة

May Allah reward you abundantly. By Allah, no calamity ever befell you except that Allah opened an exit for you and converted it into blessings for the Muslims.”[14]

 

Another narration has the wording:

ما هي بأول بركتكم يا آل أبي بكر

This is not your first blessing, O family of Abu Bakr.[15]

 

6. ‘Ammar ibn Yasir

Sayyidina ‘Ammar ibn Yasir radiya Llahu ‘anhu shouted:

 

ما تريد من حبيبة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ما تريد من أم المؤمنين فأنا أشهد أنها زوجته في الجنة

What do you want with the Beloved of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? What do you want from Umm al Mu’minin? I bear testimony that she is his wife in Jannat.”

He made this statement in the presence of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu who remained silent and listened on.[16]

 

He also affirmed:

إنها زوجته في الدنيا والآخرة

She is his wife in the world and the Hereafter.[17]

 

A man insulted Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha in the presence of Sayyidina ‘Ammar ibn Yasir radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He yelled:

 

اغرب مقبوحا منبوحا أتؤذي حبيبة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

Get lost, disgraced and humiliated. Are you harming the beloved of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam?[18]

 

7. Hassan ibn Thabit

Sayyidina Hassan ibn Thabit radiya Llahu ‘anhu praises Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha in his poem:

وتصبح غرثى من لحوم الغوافل

حصان رزان ما تزن بريبة

Chaste[19], composed[20], unblemished[21] with suspicion.

You wake up hungry[22] from the flesh of the unaware.

Until he says:

وطهرها من كل سوء وباطل

مهذبة قد طيب الله خيمها

Cultured, Allah has perfumed her pavilions,

and purified it from every evil and falsehood.[23]

8. ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair

When Sayyidina Ibn al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma would report from Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, he would announce:

 

والله لا تكذب عائشة على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أبدا

By Allah, Aisha never ever falsely attributed anything to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[24]

 

9. Abu Ayub al Ansari[25]

Sayyidah Umm Ayub told her husband Sayyidina Abu Ayub radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

يا أبا أيوب أما تسمع ما يقوله الناس في عائشة رضي الله عنها قال نعم وذلك الكذب أكنت فاعلة ذلك يا أم أيوب قالت لا والله ما كنت لأفعله قال فعائشة والله خير منك

“O Abu Ayub, have you not heard what people are accusing Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha of?”

“Yes, but it is a blatant lie,” he confirmed. “Would you commit the shameless act, O Umm Ayub?”

“Never, by Allah, I would never.”

“Aisha is far superior to you, by Allah,” he proclaimed.[26]

 

Praise of the ‘Ulama’ for Aisha

None from the Ahlus Sunnah disagree in praising Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha and recognising her virtue. Nonetheless, we desire to list some of their declarations, notwithstanding the diverse mazahib (schools of thought), masalik (policies), and manahij (methodologies); from the early scholars, latter scholars, and contemporary scholars. Some are adherents of the various fiqhi schools of thought, others are masters in ‘aqidah, other are mystics, etc. This is to emphasise the anomaly, deviation, and irregularity of those who oppose them. Hereunder, their declarations are listed:

 

1. ‘Ubaid ibn ‘Umair (d. 68 A.H)

 

قدم رجل فسأل عبيد بن عمير كيف كان وجد الناس على عائشة فقال كان فيهم وكان ثم قال أما إنه لا يحزن عليها إلا من كانت أمه

A person arrived and enquired from ‘Ubaid ibn ‘Umair, “How were people’s emotions at Aisha’s demise?”

He replied, “They were extremely grief stricken.”

He then declared, “Harken, only the person whose mother she was will grieve over her.”[27]

 

2. ‘Isa ibn Talhah[28] (d. 100 A.H)

‘Isa ibn Talhah rahimahu Llah asserted:

عائشة زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في الجنة

Aisha will be the wife of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Jannat.[29]

 

3. Al Sha’bi (d. 103 A.H)

 

قال رجل للشعبي كل أمهات المؤمنين أحب إلي من عائشة فقال له الشعبي أما أنت فقد خالفت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم هي كانت أحبهن إليه

A person told al Sha’bi, “All the Ummahat al Mu’minin are more beloved to me than Aisha.”

Al Sha’bi reprimanded him, “You have opposed the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as she was the most beloved to him from them all.[30]

 

4. Abu Bakr al Khallal[31] (d. 311 A.H)

Abu Bakr al Khallal rahimahu Llah remarked:

صدقت أم المؤمنين رضوان الله عليها المبرأة من عند الله عز وجل

Umm al Mu’minin spoke the truth—may Allah’s pleasure be upon her—the exonerated from the side of Allah—the Mighty and Majestic.[32]

 

5. Al Ajurri (d. 360 A.H)

Al Ajurri rahimahu Llah wrote:

 

أعلموا رحمنا الله وإياكم أن عائشة رضي الله عنها وجميع أزواج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أمهات المؤمنين فضلهن الله عز وجل برسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم أولهن خديجة رضي الله عنها … وبعدها عائشة رضي الله عنها شرفها عظيم وخطرها جليل … زوجة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في الدنيا و الآخرة

Realise—may Allah have mercy upon us and you—that Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha and all of the wives of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are Mothers of the Believers. Allah—the Mighty and Majestic—conferred virtue upon them by virtue of His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The first of them is Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. After her comes Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. Her honour is grand and her significance is remarkable. She is the consort of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in this world and the Hereafter.[33]

 

He also wrote:

 

لقد خاب وخسر من أصبح وأمسى وفي قلبه بغض لعائشة رضي الله عنها أو لأحد من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أو لأحد من أهل بيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فرضي الله عنهم أجمعين ونفعنا بحبهم

Unsuccessful and deprived is the one who passes his days harbouring enmity for Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, or any of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, or any of his household members. May Allah be pleased with them all and make their love advantageous for us.[34]

 

6. Ibn Shahin (d. 385 A.H)

Ibn Shahin rahimahu Llah stated:

 

ولعائشة من الفضائل ما يكثر ذكرها ما لم يشاركها في ذلك أحد فيه فنزل القرآن ببراءتها ست عشرة آية متوالية ومنه تواتر مزاح النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم معها بأشياء كثيرة ومنه تدللها عليه بكلام لم يفصح به أحد لرسول الله ومنه أنه أجمع أكثر أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أنها كانت من أحب الخلق إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كما روته أم سلمة وعمار وغيرهما ومنه قول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فضل عائشة على النساء كفضل الثريد على سائر الطعام ومنه سباق النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لها ومنه أنها سمعته يقوله في يوم من الأيام فقدها فقال واعروساه فجمعها الله عز وجل عليه وغير ذلك

Aisha has plenty virtues—listing them all is a lengthy task—in which no one partners her. The Qur’an, sixteen verses in concession, were revealed to exonerate her. One virtue is the frequency of the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam humour with her in many aspects. Another is her flirtatious dialogue with the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and no one ever spoke to him in this manner. Another virtue is that majority of the Sahabah of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam have unanimously agreed that she was one of the most beloved of creation to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, as reported by Umm Salamah, ‘Ammar’, and others. Another merit is the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam statement, “The virtue of Aisha over other women is like the virtue of tharid over other foods.” Another is the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam racing with her. Another virtue is that she heard him saying one day when he was missing her, “O my bride,” hence Allah—the Mighty and Majestic—joined her with him. And the list goes on.[35]

 

7. Abu Nuaim[36] (d. 430 A.H)

Abu Nuaim rahimahu Llah said:

كانت للدنيا قالية وعن سرورها لاهية وعلى فقد أليفها باكية

She detested the world, was oblivious of its pleasure, and cried over the loss of her intimate friend.[37]

 

He says at another place:

 

ولعائشة من الفضائل التي لم يشركها فيها أحد ما يكثر ويطول منه تنزيل القرآن ببراءتها ست عشرة آية متوالية ومنها تواتر مزاح النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم معها بأشياء كثيرة ومنها تدللها بكلام لم يفصح به أحد لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ومنه أجمع أكثر أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أنها كانت من أحب الخلق إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كما روته أم سلمة وعمار بن ياسر وغيرهما ومنه سباق النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لها ومنه أنه سمع في يوم من الأيام فقدها فقال واعروساه فجمعها الله عليه في غير ذلك من مناقبها

Aisha has plenty virtues in which no one partners her, which are innumerable and numerous. One is the Qur’an, sixteen verses in concession, revealed to exonerate her. Another is the constancy of the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam humour with her in many aspects. Another is her coquettish behaviour with the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with such speech no one ever spoke to the Messenger of Allah. Another virtue is that majority of the Sahabah of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam have unanimously agreed that she was among the most beloved creation to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, as reported by Umm Salamah, ‘Ammar’ ibn Yasir, and others. Another virtue is the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam racing with her. Another virtue is that he was heard exclaiming one day when missing her, “O my bride,” hence Allah—the Mighty and Majestic—joined her with him. And the list goes on.[38]

 

8. Ibn Battal (d. 449 A.H)

Ibn Battal comments on the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam statement, “She is certainly the daughter of Abu Bakr”:

 

ففي هذا إشارة إلى التفضيل بالشرف والفهم

This contains indication to her virtue in eminence and understanding.[39]

 

9. Ibn Hazm (d. 456 A.H)

Ibn Hazm rahimahu Llah explains:

 

فصح أن كلامه عليه السلام في أحب الناس إليه وحي أوحاه الله تعالى إليه ليكون كذلك ويخبر بذلك لا عن هوى له ومن ظن ذلك فقد كذب الله تعالى لكن لاستحقاقها لذلك الفضل في الدين والتقديم فيه على جميع الناس والموجب لأن يحبها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أكثر من محبته لجميع الناس فقد فضلها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على أبيها وعلى عمرو وعلى علي وعلى فاطمة تفضيلا ظاهرا بلا شك

It is authentically established that his—upon him be peace—statement regarding the most beloved person to him is revelation revealed upon him by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala for it to be such. He informs of this, not out of his own desire. Whoever supposes this has indeed belied Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. More accurately, it is due to her being worthy of this superiority in Din and enjoying preference over all people which necessitates that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam loves her more than he loves all people. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has indeed awarded her superiority over her father, over ‘Amr, over ‘Ali, and over Fatimah, clearly without any doubt.[40]

 

10. Al Bayhaqi (d. 458 A.H)

Al Bayhaqi rahimahu Llah writes:

 

وأنزل في براءة عائشة بنت الصديق مما رميت به في قوله إِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ جَاءُوْا بِالْإِفْكِ عُصْبَةٌ مِّنْكُمْ إلى آخر الآيات فهي تتلى في مساجد المسلمين وفي صلواتهم وفي محاريبهم وتكتب في مصاحفهم وألواحهم إلى يوم الدين وفيها بيان عفتها وحصانتها وطهارتها وكبير إثم من رماها وعظيم عذابه ولعنه في الدنيا والآخرة وكفى لها بذلك شرفا ولمن وقع فيها عذابا معدا ولعنا متتابعا عاجلا وآجلا

To exonerate Aisha bint al Siddiq from the slander aimed at her, her innocence was revealed in His statement: Indeed, those who came with falsehood are a group among you[41] till the end of the verses. These will be recited in the Masajid of the Muslims, their salahs, and their mihrabs and written in their mushafs and tablets until the Day of Resurrection. It highlights her chastity, loyalty, purity, as well as the enormity of the sin of one who slanders her, his enormous punishment, and him being accursed in the world and the Hereafter—and this is sufficient nobility for her. Finally, for the one who slanders her, a punishment with continuous curse, instant and delayed, will be his recompense.[42]

 

11. Abu al Qasim Ismail al Asbahani[43] (d. 535 A.H)

Abu al Qasim Ismail al Asbahani rahimahu Llah declares:

 

وأن عائشة الصديقة بنت الصديق حبيبة حبيب الله مبرأة من كل دنس طاهرة من كل ريبة فرضي الله عنها وعن جميع أزواج رسول الله

Aisha—al Siddiqah bint al Siddiqah, the Beloved of Allah’s beloved—is exonerated from every filth and pure from every doubt. May Allah be pleased with her and all the wives of the Messenger of Allah.[44]

 

12. Al Zamakhshari (d. 538 A.H)

Al Zamakhshari rahimahu Llah points out:

ولو فليت القرآن وفتشت عما أوعد الله به العصاة لم تر الله عز وجل قد غلظ في شيء تغليظه في إفك عائشة

If you search the Qur’an and examine the warnings Allah sounded for the disobedient, you will not see Allah—the Mighty and Majestic—exhibiting the amount of sternness in anything the way He displayed in the slander against Aisha.[45]

 

13. Al Razi (d. 606 A.H)

Al Razi rahimahu Llah concludes:

 

فيعلم بذلك أن أزواج الرسول عليه الصلاة والسلام هن معه في الجنة وقد وردت الأخبار بذلك ويحتمل أن يكون المراد بشرط اجتناب الكبائر والتوبة والأول أولى لأنا إنما نحتاج إلى الشرط إذا لم يمكن حمل الآية عليه أما إذا أمكن فلا وجه لطلب الشرط وهذا يدل على أن عائشة رضي الله عنها تصير إلى الجنة

It is comprehended from this that the wives of the Messenger—may salutations and peace be upon him—will be with him in Jannat. Many traditions have asserted this. It is probable that the purport is with the condition of avoiding major sins and repentance. The first is, nevertheless, more worthy of acceptance since we are only in need of a condition when application of the verse is not possible. On the other hand, when application of the verse is possible, then there is no reason to search for a condition. This denotes that Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha will go to Jannat.[46]

 

14. Ibn Qudamah[47] (d. 620 A.H)

Ibn Qudamah rahimahu Llah guides:

 

ومن السنة الترضي عن أزواج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أمهات المؤمنين المطهرات المبرآت من كل سوء أفضلهن خديجة بنت خويلد وعائشة بنت الصديق التي برأها الله في كتابه زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في الدنيا والآخرة فمن قذفها بما برأها الله منه فقد كفر بالله العظيم

From the Sunnah is to be pleased with the wives of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the Ummahat al Mu’minin, the pure and exonerated from every evil. The most superior of them is Khadijah bint Khuwaylid and Aisha bint al Siddiq whose innocence was declared by Allah in His Book. She is the wife of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the world and the Hereafter. Therefore, whoever slanders her with that which Allah has exonerated her from has indeed disbelieved in Allah, the Great.[48]

 

15. Ibn ‘Asakir[49] (d. 620 A.H)

Ibn ‘Asakir rahimahu Llah deduces:

وفي اختيارهن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مع ضيقة العيش دليل فضلهن وتوفيقهن وتقديم عائشة دليل على محبته لها أشد من غيرها

Them choosing the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam despite the ruggedness of life is proof for their virtue and their good fortune. Beginning with Aisha is proof for his love for her, more intense than the others.[50]

 

16. Ibn al Athir (d. 630 A.H)

Ibn al Athir rahimahu Llah said:

ولو لم يكن لعائشة من الفضائل إلا قصة الإفك لكفى بها فضلا وعلو مجد فإنها نزل فيها من القرآن ما يتلى إلى يوم القيامة

Had there been no other virtue to Aisha’s name besides the Slander Incident, it was sufficient for her eminence and great magnificence for certainly a portion of the Qur’an was revealed about her which will be recited till the Day of Qiyamah.[51]

 

17. Al Amudi[52] (d. 631 A.H)

Al Amudi rahimahu Llah confirms:

ذهب أهل السنة وأصحاب الحديث إلى أن عائشة أفضل نساء العالمين

The Ahlus Sunnah and the Masters of Hadith are of the opinion that Aisha is the most superior female in the universe.[53]

 

18. Al Qurtubi (d. 671 A.H)

Al Qurtubi rahimahu Llah reports:

 

قال بعض أهل التحقيق إن يوسف عليه السلام لما رمي بالفاحشة برأه الله على لسان صبي في المهد وإن مريم لما رميت بالفاحشة برأها الله على لسان ابنها عيسى صلوات الله عليه وإن عائشة لما رميت بالفاحشة برأها الله تعالى بالقرآن فما رضي لها ببراءة صبي ولا نبي حتى برأها الله بكلامه من القذف والبهتان

A researcher has observed: When Yusuf ‘alayh al Salam was accused of fornication, Allah exonerated him on the tongue of a child in the cradle. When Maryam was accused of fornication, Allah exonerated her on the tongue of her son, ‘Isa, may Allah’s salutations be upon him. When Aisha was accused of adultery, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala exonerated her with the Qur’an. He was not pleased with the exoneration of a child or a Nabi. Allah declared her innocence with His Speech from slander and defamation.[54]

 

19. Al Nawawi (d. 676 A.H)

Al Nawawi rahimahu Llah states:

 

وفيه فضيلة عائشة ورجحانها على جميع أزواجه الموجودات ذلك الوقت وكن تسعا إحداهن عائشة رضي الله عنها وهذا لا خلاف فيه بين العلماء وإنما اختلفوا في عائشة وخديجة رضي الله عنهما

This contains a great virtue of Aisha and her preference over all his wives that were alive at the time, all in all nine in number, one of them being Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. There is no dispute in this among the ‘Ulama’. They only differ regarding Aisha and Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.[55]

 

He also said:

روى عنها خلق كثير من الصحابة والتابعين وفضائلها ومناقبها مشهورة معروفة

A great amount of Sahabah and Tabi’in transmitted from her. Her virtues and merits are famous and well-known.[56]

 

He comments on the hadith: “Who is the most beloved person to you?” He replied, “Aisha.”

 

هذا تصريح بعظيم فضائل أبي بكر وعمر وعائشة رضي الله عنهم

This is a declaration of the great virtues of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[57]

 

20. Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 728 A.H)

Ibn Taymiyyah rahimahu Llah explains:

أهل السنة عندهم أن أهل بدر كلهم في الجنة وكذلك أمهات المؤمنين عائشة وغيرها

The Ahlus Sunnah hold the belief that all the participants of Badr are in Jannat. Likewise, the Ummahat al Mu’minin: Aisha and others.[58]

 

21. Ibn Sayed al Nas[59] (d. 734 A.H)

Ibn Sayed al Nas rahimahu Llah declares:

وكانت فضائلها جمة ومناقبها كثيرة

Her virtues are numerous and her merits are abundant.[60]

 

22. Ibn Juzayy (d. 741 A.H)

Ibn Juzayy rahimahu Llah points out:

 

برأ عائشة من الإفك يإنزال القرآن في شأنها ولقد تضمنت هذه الآيات الغاية القصوى في الاعتناء بها والكرامة لها والتشديد على من قذفها

He exonerated Aisha from the slander by revealing the Qur’an in her regard. These verses contain the maximum limit of consideration for her, honouring her, and sternness against those who slander her.[61]

 

23. Al Dhahabi (d. 748 A.H)

Al Dhahabi rahimahu Llah asserts:

 

فما تزوج بكرا سواها وأحبها حبا شديدا كان يتظاهر به … وما كان عليه السلام ليحب إلا طيبا … وحبه عليه السلام لعائشة كان أمرا مستفيضا

He did not marry a virgin besides her. He loved her intensely and would display his love for her. He ‘alayh al Salam would only marry someone pure and chaste. His ‘alayh al Salam love for Aisha is an elaborate issue.[62]

 

He observes:

وهذا الجواب منه دال على أن فضل عائشة على سائر أمهات المؤمنين بأمر إلهي وراء حبه لها وأن ذلك الأمر من أسباب حبه لها

This response of his is indication that the virtue of Aisha over the other Ummahat al Mu’minin is a divine decree, beyond his love for her. And this is one of the reasons for his intense love for her.[63]

 

He determines:

ولم يتزوج النبي بكرا غيرها ولا أحب امرأة حبها … ونشهد أنها زوجة نبينا محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم في الدنيا والآخرة فهل فوق ذلك مفخر

The Nabi did not marry a virgin besides her and did not love any woman the way he loved her. We testify that she is the wife of our Nabi Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the world and the Hereafter. Now is there any glorious trait beyond this?[64]

 

24. Ibn al Qayyim (d. 751 A.H)

Ibn al Qayyim rahimahu Llah says:

 

ومن خصائصها أن الله سبحانه برأها مما رماها به أهل الإفك وأنزل في عذرها وبراءتها وحيا يتلى في محاريب المسلمين وصلواتهم إلى يوم القيامة وشهد لها بأنها من الطيبات ووعدها المغفرة والرزق الكريم

Among her specialities is that Allah, glorified be He, exonerated her from what the slanderers accused her of and revealed in her innocence and blamelessness revelation (Qur’an) which will be recited in the maharib of the Muslims and their salahs until the Day of Qiyamah. He testified that she is among the pure and chaste and promised her forgiveness and a noble provision.[65]

 

25. Al Subki[66] (d. 756 A.H)

Al Subki rahimahu Llah clarifies:

 

ولا يرد على هذا أن عمر رضي الله عنه كان يفضل عائشة في العطاء لأنه فعل رضي الله عنه ما يجب عليه من تعظيم من يحبه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وهي تفعل ما يليق بها فلم تكن تدخر شيئا رضي الله عنها وعن أبيها

An objection cannot be raised that ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu would give preference to Aisha in stipends since he radiya Llahu ‘anhu did what was binding upon him, i.e. honouring the one the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam loved, whereas she did what was becoming of her so she would not store anything. May Allah be pleased with her and her father.[67]

 

26. Al Yafi’i[68] (d. 768 A.H)

Al Yafi’i rahimahu Llah compliments her:

 

أم المؤمنين الصديقة ابنة الصديق الفقيهة المحدثة الفصيحة ذات التحقيق ومن مناقبها نزول القرآن الكريم في براءتها ونزول جبرائيل عليه السلام على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم وهو في لحافها وكونها أحب الناس إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم كما ورد في الحديث الصحيح … ولم يتزوج النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم بكرا غيرها وفيها آيات الكتاب المبين تتلى إلى يوم الدين … ذات المحاسن الحميدة والمناقب العديدة عائشة بنت أبي بكر رضي الله عنهما

Umm al Mu’minin al Siddiqah bint al Siddiq, the Jurist, the Muhaddithah, the Eloquent, the Researcher. Among her virtues is the revelation of the glorious Qur’an highlighting her innocence, the descending of Jibril ‘alayh al Salam upon the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam while he was under her sheet, her being the most beloved person to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as appears in an authentic hadith, and the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not marrying a virgin besides her. Concerning her the verses of the Clear Book will be recited till the Day of Retribution. She is the possessor of praiseworthy attributes and numerous merits. She is Aisha bint Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.[69]

 

27. Ibn Kathir (d. 774 A.H)

Ibn Kathir rahimahu Llah lists her virtues:

 

وأما عائشة فإنها كانت أحب أزواج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إليه ولم يتزوج بكرا غيرها ولا يعرف في سائر النساء في هذه الأمة بل ولا في غيرها أعلم منها ولا أفهم وقد غار الله لها حين قال لها أهل الإفك ما قالوا فأنزل براءتها من فوق سبع سماوات وقد عمرت بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قريبا من خمسين سنة تبلغ عنه القرآن والسنة وتفتي المسلمين وتصلح بين المختلفين وهي أشرف أمهات المؤمنين حتى خديجة بنت خويلد أم البنات والبنين في قول طائفة من العلماء السابقين واللاحقين والأحسن الوقف فيهما

As for Aisha, she was the most beloved wife of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to him. He never married a virgin besides her. No female more knowledgeable and understanding than her is known among all the women of this Ummah, in fact not even among the other nations. Allah displayed His possessiveness over her when the slanderers levelled nasty allegations against her and He revealed her innocence from beyond the seven skies. She lived long after the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, almost fifty years, conveying the Qur’an and Sunnah from him and issuing verdicts to the Muslims and reconciling between two belligerent parties. She is the most eminent of the Ummahat al Mu’minin even more than Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, the mother of [his] daughters and sons according to the view of a group of early and latter-day scholars. The best, nonetheless, is to observe tawaqquf (neutrality) in their matter.[70]

 

28. Abu Hafs Siraj al Din al No’mani[71] (d. 775 A.H)

Abu Hafs Siraj al Din al No’mani rahimahu Llah deduces:

 

واعلم أنه لما وصف طعن اليهود في مريم بأنه بهتان عظيم ووصف طعن المنافقين في عائشة بأنه بهتان عظيم حيث قال سُبْحَانَكَ هٰذَا بُهْتَانٌ عَظِيْمٌ دل ذلك على أن الروافض الذين يطعنون في عائشة بمنزلة اليهود الذين يطعنون في مريم عليها السلام

Realise that when He described the Jews’ slander against Maryam as a great slander and the hypocrites’ accusation against Aisha a great slander when he said: Exalted are you, [O Allah]; this is a great slander.[72] This indicates that the Rawafid who slander Aisha are like the Jews who slander Maryam ‘alayh al Salam.[73]

 

29. Al ‘Iraqi[74] (d. 806 A.H)

Al ‘Iraqi rahimahu Llah introduces her as:

 

عائشة بنت أبي بكر الصديق أم المؤمنين الصديقة المبرأة من كل عيب حبيبة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الفقيهة الربانية وكنيتها أم عبد الله

Aisha bint Abi Bakr al Siddiq, Umm al Mu’minin, al Siddiqah, the Exonerated from every flaw, the Beloved of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the Jurist, the devout worshipper. Her agnomen is Umm ‘Abdullah.[75]

 

30. Ibn Hajar (d. 852 A.H)

Ibn Hajar rahimahu Llah says:

عائشة بنت أبي بكر الصديق أم المؤمنين الحميراء أفقه النساء مطلقا وأفضل أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إلا خديجة ففيهما خلاف شهير

Aisha bint Abi Bakr al Siddiq, Umm al Mu’minin, (al Humaira’). The greatest female jurist unrestrictedly and the most virtuous wife of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam besides Khadijah. There is a famous difference of opinion regarding them.[76]

 

He affirms:

ومناقبها وفضائلها كثيرة جدا

Her merits and excellences are in great abundance.[77]

 

31. Badr al Din al ‘Ayni (d. 855 A.H)

Badr al Din al ‘Ayni rahimahu Llah commented on the hadith, “The people would wait for the day of Aisha to present their gifts”:

 

وفيه الدلالة على فضل عائشة رضي الله تعالى عنها

This is evidence for the superiority of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha.[78]

 

32. Al Biqa’i[79] (d. 885 A.H)

Al Biqa’i rahimahu Llah asserts:

 

كما هدى الله من هدى من المؤمنين لتبرئة عائشة رضي الله عنها قبل إنزال براءتها بكون الله اختارها لنبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم ولا يختار له إلا طيبا طاهرا

As Allah guided some believers to exonerate Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha before revealing her innocence, on the basis of Allah selecting her for His Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—and He would only select one chaste and pure for him.[80]

 

33. Al Suyuti (d. 911 A.H)

Al Suyuti rahimahu Llah elucidated on the hadith, “The superiority of Aisha over women is as the superiority of tharid…”:

 

نعتقد أن أفضل النساء مريم وفاطمة وأفضل أمهات المؤمنين خديجة وعائشة

We believe firmly that the most superior women are: Maryam and Fatimah and the most superior of the Ummahat al Mu’minin are: Khadijah and Aisha.[81]

 

34. Safiyy al Din al Khazraji[82] (d. after 923 A.H)

Safiyy al Din al Khazraji rahimahu Llah introduces her as:

 

عائشة بنت أبي بكر الصديق رضي الله عنهما التيمية أم عبد الله الفقيهة أم المؤمنين الربانية حبيبة النبي

Aisha bint Abi Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, al Taymiyyah, Umm ‘Abdullah. The Jurist, the Mother of the Believers, the devout worshipper, the Beloved of the Nabi.[83]

 

35. Al Mulla ‘Ali Qari[84] (d. 1014 A.H)

Al Mulla ‘Ali Qari rahimahu Llah expounds on the hadith, “The superiority of Aisha over women”:

 

والأظهر أنها أفضل من جميع النساء كما هو ظاهر الإطلاق من حيث الجامعية للكمالات العلمية والعملية المعبر عنهما في التشبيه بالثريد فإنما يضرب المثل بالثريد لأنه أفضل طعام العرب وأنه مركب من الخبز واللحم والمرقة ولا نظير لها في الأغذية ثم إنه جامع بين الغذاء اللذة والقوة وسهولة التناول وقلة المؤنة في المضغ وسرعة المرور في الحلقوم و المريء فضرب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لها المثل به ليعلم أنها أعطيت مع حسن الخلق وحسن الخلق وحسن الحديث وحلاوة المنطق وفصاحة اللهجة وجودة القريحة ورزانة الرأي ورصانة العقل التحبب إلى البعل فهي تصلح للتبعل والتحدث والاستئناس بها والإصغاء إليها وإلى غير ذلك من المعاني التي اجمتعت فيها وحسبك من تلك المعاني أنها عقلت من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ما لم تعقل غيرها من النساء وروت عنه ما لم يرو مثلها من الرجال والله أعلم بالحال

It is obvious that she is superior to all women as the apparent text suggests, from the angle of encompassing excellences of knowledge and practice, referred to by assimilating them with tharid. He presented a simile with tharid for it is the most superior food of the Arabs. It consists of bread, meat, and gravy. It has no parallel among foodstuffs. Moreover, it encompasses nourishment, tastiness, strength, ease to swallow, little effort in chewing, and quick movement in the throat and gullet. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam likened her to it so that it be realised that she was given a beautiful appearance, excellent character, splendid communication, sweet speech, eloquent tone, magnificent disposition, strong opinion, and sound intelligence, together with being beloved to the husband and being suitable for marriage, having conversations with, finding comfort and solace in, and inclination towards, as well as other meanings and qualities combined in her. Sufficient above all these qualities is that she learnt from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which other women did not and narrated from him the like of which men did not narrate from him. And Allah knows the condition the best![85]

 

36. Ismail Haqqi al Sufi[86] (d. 1127 A.H)

Ismail Haqqi al Sufi rahimahu Llah explains:

 

إن الله تعالى لا يجري على خواص عباده إلا ما يكون سببا لحقيقة اللطف وإن كان في صورة القهر تأديبا وتهذيبا وموجبا لرفعة درجاتهم وزيادة في قرابتهم وإن قصة الإفك وإن كانت في صورة القهر كانت في حق النبي عليه السلام وفي حق عائشة وأبويها وجميع الصحابة ابتلاء وامتحانا لهم وتربية وتهذيبا فإن البلاء للأولياء كاللهب للذهب كما قال عليه السلام إن أشد الناس بلاء الأنبياء ثم الأولياء ثم الأمثل فالأمثل وقال عليه السلام يبتلى الرجل على قدر دينه فإن الله غيور على قلوب خواص عباده المحبوبين

Certainly, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala does not enforce upon His special bondsmen except what is a steppingstone to the reality of benevolence—even though it appears in the form of wrath—to nurture them, refine them, raise their stages, and increase their proximity. The Slander Incident—although in the form of wrath—was in relation to the Nabi ‘alayh al Salam, Aisha, her parents, and all the Sahabah a test and examination for them; to train and refine them. Trials for the pious servants of Allah are like the flame for gold as he ‘alayh al Salam affirmed, “Indeed, the most severely tested are the Prophets, then the Auliya, then those who are closest to them, and then those closest to them.” He ‘alayh al Salam also said, “A man is tested according to the extent of his Din.” Undoubtedly, Allah is extremely possessive over the hearts of His special beloved bondsmen.[87]

 

37. Al Sindi[88] (d. 1138 A.H)

Al Sindi rahimahu Llah comments on the hadith, “By Allah, revelation did not descend upon me…”:

 

وكفى بهذا شرفا وفخرا وفي الحديث أن محبته صلى الله عليه وسلم تابعة لعظم منزلتها عند الله تعالى

This is sufficient honour and pride. The hadith states that his salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam love was subject to her lofty rank in the sight of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.[89]

 

He elucidates on the hadith, “The superiority of Aisha over other women is like the superiority of tharid …”:

 

فضل عائشة بوجوده لحسن الخلق وفصاحة اللسان ورزانة الرأي ولهذا ذكر فضل عائشة بكلام مستقل ولم يعطف عائشة على السابقتين

The superiority of Aisha is owing to his existence; her excellent character, eloquent tongue, and sound opinion. Following this, he mentioned the virtue of Aisha in a separate sentence and did not join Aisha with the previous two.[90]

 

38. Al Mazhari al Sufi[91] (d. 1225 A.H)

Al Mazhari al Sufi rahimahu Llah instructs:

 

إن عائشة كانت تستحق الثناء والدعاء لما كانت عليه من الحصانة والشرف ولما كانت بنتا للصديق زوجا للرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم أما للمؤمنين واجبة الإكرام والاحترام فمن رماها بسوء قلب الأمر عن وجهه غاية القلب

Certainly, Aisha is deserving of praise and supplication owing to her chastity and dignity. Since she is the daughter of al Siddiq, the wife of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and the Mother of the Believers, her honour and veneration is compulsory. So, whoever accuses her of any evil, it is turned completely and directed towards him.[92]

 

39. Muhammad Siddiq Khan al Qanuji[93] (d. 1307 A.H)

Muhammad Siddiq Khan al Qanuji rahimahu Llah states:

 

وكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم طيبا فكان أولى أن تكون له الطيبة وكانت عائشة الطيبة وكانت أولى بأن يكون لها الطيب

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was chaste. Accordingly, he was deserving of a chaste woman. Aisha was chaste. Accordingly, it was appropriate for her to have a chaste husband.[94]

 

40. ‘Abdur Rahman al Sa’di (d. 1376 A.H)

‘Abdur Rahman al Sa’di rahimahu Llah writes in his Tafsir:

 

فالقدح في عائشة رضي الله عنها بهذا الأمر قدح في النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم و هو المقصود بهذا الإفك من قصد المنافقين فمجرد كونها زوجة للرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم يعلم أنها لا تكون إلا طيبة طاهرة من هذا الأمر القبيح فكيف وهي هي صديقة النساء و أفضلهن و أعلمهن و أطيبهن حبيبة رسول رب العالمين

Slandering Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha of adultery is defamation of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who is the hypocrites’ ultimate object by this slander. Simply being the wife of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam affirms that she can only be pure and chaste from this loathsome action. What must be the case when she is who she is? The Siddiqah of all women, the most superior of them, the most knowledgeable of them, the purest of them, and the beloved of the Messenger of the Lord of the universe.[95]

 

41. Sayed Qutb[96] (d. 1385 A.H)

Sayed Qutb rahimahu Llah declares:

 

فها هي ذي عائشة الطيبة الطاهرة ها هي ذي في براءتها ووضاءة ضميرها ونظافة تصوراتها ها هي ذي ترمى في أعز ما تعتز به ترمى في شرفها وهي ابنة الصديق الناشئة في العش الطاهر الرفيع وترمى في أمانتها وهي زوج محمد بن عبد الله من ذروة بني هاشم وترمى في وفائها وهي الحبيبة المدللة القريبة من ذلك القلب الكبير … ثم ترمى في إيمانها وهي المسلمة الناشئة في حجر الإسلام من أول يوم تفتحت عيناها فيه على الحياة وهي زوج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

She is the one: Aisha, the chaste and pure. She is unique in her innocence, wholesome internal, and pure ideas. She is the unique one: slandered in the most precious affair, slandered in her honour. She is the daughter of al Siddiq, nurtured in a lofty pure nest. She is slandered in her trust whereas she is the wife of Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah—from the summit of the Banu Hashim. She is slandered in her loyalty while she is the beloved, the pampered, the close one to that great heart. Then she is slandered in her faith whereas she is the Muslimah, nurtured in the lap of Islam from the very first day her eyes opened to life and she is the spouse of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[97]

 

42. Muhammad al Tahir ibn ‘Ashur[98] (d. 1393 A.H)

Muhammad al Tahir ibn ‘Ashur rahimahu Llah writes:

الله برأها بنصوص لا تقبل التأويل وتواتر أنها نزلت في شأن عائشة

Allah exonerated her with emphatic texts which cannot be interpreted [in any other way]. It is unanimously agreed that they were revealed in favour of Aisha.[99]

 

43. Ibn ‘Uthaymin[100] (d. 1421 A.H)

Ibn ‘Uthaymin explains:

 

ومزية عائشة حسن عشرتها مع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في آخر أمره وأن الله برأها في كتابه مما رماها به أهل الإفك وأنزل فيها آيات تتلى إلى يوم القيامة وأنها حفظت من هدي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وسنته ما لم تحفظه امرأة سواها وأنها نشرت العلم الكثير بين الأمة وأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يتزوج بكرا سواها فكانت تربيتها الزوجية على يده

The speciality of Aisha lies in her blissful marital life with the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam towards the ending of his life, Allah exonerating her in His book from the slander of the slanderers, revealing verses about her that will be recited till the Day of Qiyamah, her memorising the practices and habits of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which no other woman has memorised, her disseminating an abundance of knowledge in the Ummah, and the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not marrying a virgin besides her. Her marital nurturing was at his hands.[101]

 

Commenting on the hadith, “The superiority of Aisha over other women is like the superiority of tharid,” he concludes:

 

وهذا يدل على أنها أفضل النساء مطلقا

This indicates that she is the most superior of all women, unrestrictedly.[102]

 

He also points out:

 

أما كونها صديقة فلكمال تصديقها لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وكمال صدقها في معاملته وصبرها على ما حصل من الأذى في قصة الإفك ويدلك على صدقها وصدق إيمانها بالله أنه لما نزلت براءتها قالت إني لا أحمد غير الله وهذا يدل على كمال إيمانها وصدقها

With regards to her being Siddiqah, this was owing to the perfection of her belief in the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, her perfect truthfulness in dealing with him, and her patience over the hurt in the Slander Incident. What indicates to her truthfulness and the sincerity of her faith in Allah is when her innocence was revealed, she remarked, “Certainly, I do not praise anyone besides Allah.” This reveals her perfect faith and truthfulness.[103]

 

NEXT⇒ Comparing her with the Nobles of the Household of Nubuwwah and her Father


[1] Al Amali, Hadith: 242; I’tilal al Qulub, Hadith: 25; al Mustadrak, vol. 4 pg. 9. Al Hakim comments, “It is sahih according to the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim but they have not documented it due to the irsal of Mutarrif ibn Turayf.”

[2] Qiwam al Sunnah: al Mahajjah, vol. 2 pg. 401.

[3] Saif ibn ‘Umar: al Fitnah wa Waq’at al Jamal, pg. 183; Tarikh al Tabari, vol. 4 pg. 544; al Muntazam fi Tarikh al Muluk wa al Umam, vol. 5 pg. 94; al Kamil, vol. 2 pg. 614; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 10 pg. 472; Nihayat al Arab, vol. 20 pg. 50.

[4] Qadat: she completed her time. The word qada has many meanings in language, which boil down to the termination of, completion of, or separation from a thing. Al Zujaj: Ma’ani al Qur’an wa I’rabuhu, vol. 4 pg. 222; Tafsir al Raghib al Asfahani, vol. 1 pg. 302; Mashariq al Anwar, vol. 2 pg. 189; Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 7 pg. 223.

[5] Musnad Abi Dawood al Tayalisi, vol. 3 pg. 185, Hadith: 1718; Hilyat al Auliya, vol. 2 pg. 44. The isnad has been declared sahih by al Busiri in Ithaf al Khiyarah al Maharah, vol. 7 pg. 248.

[6] Al Sunnah, Hadith: 1234.

[7] Al Mujam al Awsat, vol. 3 pg. 114, Hadith: 2651. Al Haythami classified the isnad hassan in Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 245.

[8] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 1 pg. 276, Hadith: 2496; Musnad Abi Ya’la, vol. 5 pg. 57, Hadith: 2648; Sahih Ibn Hibban, vol. 16 pg. 41, Hadith: 7108; al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 10 pg. 321, Hadith: 10783. Ahmed Shakir labelled the isnad sahih in Tahqiq Musnad Ahmed, vol. 4 pg. 169. Al Albani labelled it sahih li ghayrihi in Sahih Mawarid al Zam’an, Hadith: 1893.

[9] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4753.

[10] Al farat: one who goes ahead of those coming and prepares for them what they are in need of. Here it comes in the meaning of forerunner in reward and intercession. Muqaddamat Fath al Bari, pg. 166.

[11] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3771. Al ‘Ayni clarifies:

مطابقته للترجمة من حيث إن ابن عباس قطع لعائشة بدخول الجنة إذ لا يقال ذلك إلا بتوقيف وهذه فضيلة عظيمة

The conformity of the hadith with the heading is from the angle that Ibn ‘Abbas emphatically affirmed entry into Jannat for Aisha. This cannot be said without hearing it directly from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. And this is a magnificent virtue. ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 16 pg. 251.

[12] Surah al Ahzab: 6.

[13] Sunan al Nasa’i, vol. 5 pg. 165, Hadith: 8575; al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 10 pg. 257, Hadith: 10598; al Mustadrak, vol. 2 pg. 164; Sunan al Bayhaqi, vol. 8 pg. 179, Hadith: 17186. Ibn Taymiyyah authenticates the isnad in Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah, vol. 8 pg. 530. Al Haythami comments in Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 6 pg. 242, “His narrators are the narrators of Sahih al Bukhari.” Al Wadi’i labels it hassan in al Sahih al Musnad, Hadith: 711.

[14] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3773; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 367.

[15] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 334; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 367.

[16] Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 2 pg. 868.

[17] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3772.

[18] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3888.

[19] Hassan: chaste. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 1 pg. 397.

[20] Razan: woman of endurance, dignity, and chastity. Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 13 pg. 179.

[21] Ma tuzannu: you are not accused. Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 13 pg. 200.

[22] Ghartha: hungry. Mukhtar al Sihah, pg. 471.

[23] Diwan Hassan ibn Thabit, pg. 190.

[24] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 69.

[25] He is Khalid ibn Zaid ibn Kulayb, Abu Ayub al Ansari radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam chose to stay at his place from all the Banu al Najjar. He was present at al ‘Aqabah and Badr and all the other battles. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed him as governor over Basrah. He witnessed alongside him the Battle against the Khawarij and waged war against Constantinople alongside Yazid. He passed away in 50 A.H or thereafter. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 402; al Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 234.

[26] Tafsir Ibn Abi Hatim, vol. 8 pg. 2546; Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 16 pg. 48.

[27] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 78.

[28] He is ‘Isa ibn Talhah ibn ‘Ubaid Allah, Abu Muhammad al Madani. He was from the tolerant esteemed reliable scholars. He visited Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He passed away in 100 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 4 pg. 367; Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 1 pg. 113.

[29] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 79.

[30] Al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 23 pg. 182.

[31] He is Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Harun, Abu Bakr al Khallal al Hanbali. The Imam, the ‘Allamah, the Hafiz, the Jurist, the Sheikh and ‘Alim of the Hanabilah. He spent his life in compiling the mazhab of Imam Ahmed. He authored al ‘Ilal and al Jami’ li ‘Ulum al Imam Ahmed. It is said that no book like it was authored in any mazhab. He passed away in 311 A.H. Tabaqat al Hanabilah, vol. 2 pg. 11; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 14 pg. 297.

[32] Al Sunnah, vol. 2 pg. 340.

[33] Al Shari’ah, vol. 5 pg. 2394.

[34] Al Shari’ah, vol. 5 pg. 2428.

[35] Ibn Shahin: Sharh Mazahib Ahlus Sunnah, pg. 303.

[36] He is Ahmed ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed, Abu Nuaim al Asbahani. The Hafiz, the Muhaddith of the era. He was born in 336 A.H. He was a Hafiz and is the sole narrator of many lofty chains. The Huffaz travelled to meet him. Among his books is Hilyat al Auliya and Ma’rifat al Sahabah. He passed away in 430 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 17 pg. 453; Wafiyyat al A’yan, vol. 7 pg. 372.

[37] Hilyat al Auliya wa Tabaqat al Asfiya’, vol. 2 pg. 44.

[38] Abu Nuaim: Fada’il al Khulafa’, pg. 133.

[39] Ibn Battal: Sharh Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 7 pg. 94.

[40] Al Fasl fi al Milal wa al Ahwa’ wa al Nihal, vol. 4 pg. 95. Study the discussion on superiority which will appear shortly.

[41] Surah al Nur: 11.

[42] Al I’tiqad, pg. 325.

[43] He is Ismail ibn Muhammad ibn al Fadl, Abu al Qasim al Asbahani. The Great Hafiz, the Sheikh of Islam. Born in 457 A.H, he rose to become the Imam of the scholars of his time. He was given the title Qiwam al Sunnah. He dictated and authored, declared [narrators] reliable and unreliable, and was one of the masters of Arabic. Al Targhib wa al Tarhib is one of his masterpieces. He passed away in 535 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 20 pg. 80; Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 4 pg. 104.

[44] Qiwam al Sunnah: al Hujjah fi Bayan al Mahajjah, vol. 1 pg. 248.

[45] Al Ijabah li Irad ma istadrakathu Aisha ‘ala al Sahabah, pg. 59, 60.

[46] Al Razi: Mafatih al Ghayb, vol. 23 pg. 355.

[47] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed ibn Qudamah, Abu Muhammad al Maqdisi. The Sheikh of Islam, the Jurist, the Ascetic. He was born in 541 A.H. He was one of the Imams of the Hanabilah at Jami’ Dimashq. He was reliable, an authority, pious, a worshipper, and upon the established principle of the Salaf. He authored al Mughni and al Kafi. He passed away in 620 A.H. Ibn Rajab: Dhayl Tabaqat al Hanabilah, vol. 3 pg. 281; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 22 pg. 166.

[48] Ibn Qudamah al Maqdisi: Lam’at al I’tiqad: pg. 40.

[49] He is ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn al Hassan, Abu Mansur al Dimashqi. The Great Imam, the Sheikh of the Shawafi’. He was born in 550 A.H. He was an Imam, a worshipper, and pious. He taught in al Jarukhiyyah, then al Salahiyyah, and was the first to teach in al ‘Athrawiyyah. Kitab al Arba’in is authored by him. He died in 620 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 22 pg. 187; Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 175.

[50] Al Arba’in fi Manaqib Ummahat al Mu’minin Rahmat Allah ‘alayhinna Ajma’in, pg. 90.

[51] Usd al Ghabah, vol. 7 pg. 186.

[52] He is ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Salim, al Aamudi al Shafi’i. The Usuli and Mutakallim (Master in ‘aqidah). He was born in 551 A.H. He mastered the sciences of logic and ‘aqidah and rose to become the Sheikh of the Mutakallimin of his era. The King al Mu’azzam ibn al ‘Adil handed over to him the teaching of al ‘Aziziyyah. Al Ihkam fi Usul al Ahkam is his book. He died in 631 A.H. Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 8 pg. 306; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 22 pg. 364.

[53] Al Amudi: Abkar al Afkar fi Usul al Din, vol. 5 pg. 291.

[54] Tafsir al Qurtubi, vol. 12 pg. 212.

[55] Sharh Muslim, vol. 4 pg. 139.

[56] Al Nawawi: Tahdhib al Asma’ wa al Lughat, vol. 1 pg. 943.

[57] Sharh Muslim, vol. 15 pg. 153.

[58] Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah, vol. 4 pg. 309, 310.

[59] He is Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad, Abu al Fath al Misri al Shafi’i. The Imam, the ‘Allamah, the Hafiz, the Linguist. He was born in 671 A.H. He excelled in various sciences including hadith, fiqh, and history. He was an Athari in belief. He became the hadith teacher at Jami’ al Salih. Among his books is ‘Uyun al Athar. He passed away in 734 A.H. Dhayl Tadhkirat al Huffaz, pg. 9; Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 6 pg. 108.

[60] Ibn Sayed al Nas: ‘Uyun al Athar, vol. 2 pg. 368.

[61] Ibn Juzayy: al Tashil li ‘Ulum al Tanzil, vol. 2 pg. 62.

[62] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 142.

[63] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 143.

[64] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 140.

[65] Ibn al Qayyim: Jala’ al Afham, pg. 238.

[66] He is ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdul Kafi ibn ‘Ali, Abu al Hassan al Subki al Shafi’i. The Hafiz, ‘Allamah, Jurist, Muhaddith, Usuli. He was born in 683 A.H. He was a researcher to the finest detail. He served as judge in Sham and taught at the Hadith faculty in al Ashrafiyyah and elsewhere. Al Durr al Nazim is his book. He passed away in 756 A.H. Dhayl Tadhkirat al Huffaz, pg. 25; Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 6 pg. 179.

[67] Fatawa al Subki, vol. 2 pg. 276.

[68] He is ‘Abdullah ibn As’ad ibn ‘Ali, Abu Muhammad al Yafi’i al Shafi’i al Sufi al Ash’ari. The Jurist, the Sheikh of Hijaz. He was born in 698 A.H. Rawd al Rayyahin and Mir’at al Jinan are his books. He passed away in 728 A.H. Ibn Qadi Shuhbah: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 4 pg. 72; Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 6 pg. 210.

[69] Al Yafi’i: Mir’at al Jinan wa ‘Ibrat al Yaqzan, vol. 1 pg. 104, 105.

[70] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 2 pg. 431.

[71] He is ‘Umar ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Adil, Abu Hafs al No’mani al Dimashqi al Hanbali. The Mufassir. Al Lubab fi ‘Ulum al Kitab is written by him. He died after 770 A.H. Al A’lam, vol. 5 pg. 58; Mujam al Mu’allifin, vol. 7 pg. 300.

[72] Surah al Nur: 16.

[73] Abu Hafs Siraj al Din: al Lubab fi ‘Ulum al Kitab, vol. 7 pg. 111.

[74] He is ‘Abdur Rahim ibn al Hussain ibn ‘Abdur Rahman, Abu al Fadl al Misri al Shafi’i. The Authority, the Hafiz of Islam. He was born in 725 A.H. He practiced ijtihad, recited Qur’an, and listened to ahadith until he became the Hafiz of the era. He taught at al Madrasah al Kamiliyyah wa al Fadiliyyah. He wrote al Mughni ‘an Haml al Asfar and passed away in 806 A.H. Ibn Hajar: Inba’ al Ghamar, vol. 2 pg. 275; Dhayl Tadhkirat al Huffaz, pg. 5.

[75] Al ‘Iraqi: Tarh al Tathrib fi Sharh al Taqrib, vol. 1 pg. 147.

[76] Taqrib al Tahdhib, pg. 750.

[77] Taqrib al Tahdhib, pg. 750.

[78] ‘Umdat al Qari Sharh Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 13 pg. 133.

[79] He is Ibrahim ibn ‘Umar ibn Hassan, Abu al Hassan al Biqa’i al Shafi’i. The Muhaddith, Mufassir, Imam, ‘Allamah. He was born in 809 A.H. He excelled, was marked with distinction, debated, and critiqued even his Shuyukh. Among his works is al Munasabat al Qur’aniyyah and ‘Unwan al Zaman. He passed away in 885 A.H. Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 7 pg. 338; al Badr al Tali’, vol. 1 pg. 210.

[80] Al Biqa’i: Nazm al Durar fi Tanasub al Ayat wa al Suwar, vol. 13 pg. 276.

[81] Al Mulla al Qari: Mirqat al Mafatih Sharh Mishkat al Masabih, vol. 9 pg. 3994.

[82] He is Ahmed ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Abi al Khayr, Safiyy al Din al Khazraji. He was born in 900 A.H. Khulasat Tahdhib al Kamal fi Asma’ al Rijal is written by him. He passed away after the year 923 A.H. Al A’lam, vol. 1 pg. 160.

[83] Safiyy al Din al Khazraji: Khulasat Tahdhib al Kamal, pg. pg. 493.

[84] He is ‘Ali ibn Sultan Muhammad, Nur al Din al Mulla al Harawi al Qari al Hanafi. The Jurist. He was among the leaders of knowledge during his era. He is distinguished with research and examination. He has authored Sharh Mishkat al Masabih and al Asrar al Marfu’ah fi al Akhbar al Mawdu’ah. He passed away in 1014 A.H. Al A’lam, vol. 5 pg. 12; Mujam al Mu’allifin, vol. 7 pg. 100.

[85] Mirqat al Mafatih Sharh Mishkat al Masabih, vol. 9 pg. 3993.

[86] He is Ismail Haqqi ibn Mustafa, Abu al Fida’ al Istanabuli al Hanafi al Sufi al Khalwati. The Mufassir. He was born in 1063 A.H. He is educated in a number of sciences. He wrote Ruh al Bayan fi Tafsir al Qur’an and al Risalah al Khaliliyyah. He passed away in 1127 A.H. Al A’lam, vol. 1 pg. 313; Mujam al Mu’allifin, vol. 2 pg. 266.

[87] Ismail Haqqi: Ruh al Bayan, vol. 6 pg. 129.

[88] He is Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul Hadi, Abu al Hassan al Sindi al Hanafi. The Hafiz, Mufassir, Jurist. He was a Sheikh, proficient, a researcher in Syntax, meanings, and principles. He has written famous commentaries on the six canonical books [of hadith]. Majority feel that he passed away in 1138 A.H while others say before or after that. Al A’lam, vol. 6 pg. 253; Mujam al Mu’allifin, vol. 10 pg. 262.

[89] Hashiyat al Sindi ‘ala al Nasa’i, vol. 7 pg. 68.

[90] Hashiyat al Sindi ‘ala Sunan Ibn Majah, vol. 2 pg. 306.

[91] He is al Qadi Thana’ Allah al Hindi al Fani, Fata al Naqshbandi al Hanafi al ‘Uthmani al Mazhari. The Scholar and Muhaddith. He travelled to Delhi and remained in the company of Shah Wali Allah al Dihlawi studying hadith under him. He has written Tafsir al Mazhari and Ma La Budda minhu in the Hanafi Fiqh. He passed away in 1225 A.H. ‘Abdul Hayy al Hassani: al I’lam bi man fi Tarikh al Hind min al A’lam, vol. 7 pg. 942.

[92] Muhammad Thana’ Allah al Mazhari: Tafsir al Mazhari, vol. 6 pg. 473.

[93] He is Muhammad Siddiq Khan ibn Hassan ibn ‘Ali, Abu al Tayyib al Bukhari al Qanuji al Hindi. The Muhaddith, leader of the Bhopal Kingdom. He was born in 1248 A.H. He is from the mujaddidin (revivers). He settled in Bhopal, was appointed as cabinet minister, and acted as a deputy. He married the queen of the area. He has authored Abjad al ‘Ulum and passed away in 1307 A.H. Al A’lam, vol. 6 pg. 167; Ismail Basha: Hadyat al ‘Arifin, vol. 6 pg. 388.

[94] Al Qanuji: Fath al Bayan fi Maqasid al Qur’an, vol. 9 pg. 195.

[95] Taysir al Karim al Rahman fi Tafsir Kalam al Mannan, pg. 352.

[96] He is Sayed Qutb ibn Ibrahim. The Egyptian Islamic thinker. He was born in 1324 A.H. A Linguist, and deep thinker. He was imprisoned and executed in the reign of Jamal ‘Abdul Nasir. Ma’alim fi al Tariq and Fi Zilal al Qur’an are his works. He passed away in 1387 A.H. ‘Abdullah ‘Azzam: ‘Imlaq al Fikr al Islami; al A’lam, vol. 3 pg. 148.

[97] Sayed Qutb: Fi Zilal al Qur’an, vol. 4 pg. 2498.

[98] He is Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ashur, Abu ‘Abdullah al Tunisi. He was born in 1296 A.H. He was the head of the Maliki muftis in Tunisia and the Sheikh of Jami’ al Zaytunah. He was one of the members of al Mujma’in al ‘Arabiyyin in Damascus and Cairo. He authored al Tahrir wa al Tanwir. He passed away in 1393 A.H. Al A’lam, vol. 6 pg. 174; Hadyat al ‘Arifin, vol. 6 pg. 178.

[99] Ibn ‘Ashur: al Tahrir wa al Tanwir, vol. 18 pg. 183.

[100] He is Muhammad ibn Salih ibn Muhammad al ‘Uthaymin, Abu ‘Abdullah al Tamimi al Hanbali. The ‘Alim, Jurist, and Usuli. He was born in 1347 A.H. He was a Sheikh in tafsir, ‘aqidah, fiqh, and all Shar’i sciences, coupled with asceticism, humility, and piety. He was a member of the Foundation of Senior ‘Ulama’ of the Saudi Kingdom. He authored al Sharh al Mumti’ and al Qawl al Mufid ‘ala Kitab al Tawhid. He passed away in 1421 A.H. ‘Isam al Mirri: al Durr al Thamin fi Tarjamat Ibn ‘Uthaymin.

[101] Majmu’ Fatawa wa Rasa’il al ‘Uthaymin, vol. 4 pg. 308.

[102] Majmu’ Fatawa wa Rasa’il al ‘Uthaymin, vol. 8 pg. 614.

[103] Majmu’ Fatawa wa Rasa’il al ‘Uthaymin, vol. 8 pg. 613.

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