Nawadir al-Usul

Sahih Muslim
October 1, 2015
Sunan al-Darami
October 1, 2015

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Nawadir al Usul

 

The author of Nawadir al Usul is Hakim al Tirmidhi (d. 255/320A.H).

We wish to first clarify something for the readers, before presenting the narration with its isnad. Whilst searching for various asanid for Hadith al Thaqalayn, the book Yanabi’ al Mawaddah (by Sulaiman ibn Sheikh Ibrahim al Balkhi al Qunduzi) was made available to us. This book has been published by Maktabat al Irfan Beirut, Lebanon. What we wish to actually highlight is that all the narrations of Hakim al Tirmidhi which will be quoted have been taken from this book. This book was authored in compliance to Shia beliefs; hence all types of narrations have been included in it, with the purpose of strengthening this belief. The condition of this book is self-evident. Nevertheless, we will reproduce the narration with its isnad verbatim.

 

The First Narration

 

وفى نوادر الاصول حدثنا ابى قال حدثنا زيد بن الحسن قال حدثنا معروف بن خرّبوذ المكى عن ابى الطفيل عامر بن واثلة عن حثيفة بن اسيد الغفارى رضى الله عنه قال لما صدر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من حجة الوداع فقال يا ايها الناس انه قد انبانى اللطيف الخبير انه لم يعمر نبى الا مثل نصف عمر النبى الذى يليه من قبل وانى اظن انى يوشك ان ادعى فاجيب و انى فرطكم على الحوض و انى ائاكم حين تردون على عن الثقلين فانظروا كيف تخلفونى فيهما الثقل الاكبر كتاب الله عز و جل سبب طرفه بيد الله تعالى و طرف بايديكم فاستمسكوا به ولا تضلوا ولا تبدلوا والثقل الاصغر وعترتى اهل بيتى فانى قد نبانى اللطيف الخبير انهما لن يفترقا حتى يردا على الحوض

My father — Zaid ibn al HassanMaruf ibn Kharrabudh al Makki — Abu al Tufayl ‘Amir ibn Wathilah — that Hudhayfah ibn Usayd al Ghaffari radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam addressed us whilst returning from the farewell pilgrimage, “O people, indeed the Knower of the finest details and the one Who is aware of everything has informed me that every nabi was given half the lifespan of the nabi who preceded him. I expect that I will soon be invited and I will respond to the invitation. I will be waiting to receive you at the Pond (al Kawthar) and I will ask you, when you meet me at the pond, regarding the Thaqalayn; therefore, be careful of how you treat them after my departure. The greater Thiqal is the Book of Allah, the Exalted and the Glorified. The one end is in the possession of Allah and the other end is in your hands. Therefore, hold onto it. Do not go astray and do not change. The lesser Thiqal is my ‘itrah who are my Ahlul Bayt. Indeed the Knower of the finest details and the one who is aware of everything has informed me that the two of them will never separate until they meet me at the pond.[1]

 

The information regarding the narrators of this narration—from the books of the Ahlus Sunnah as well as the Shia—will be presented verbatim to the readers, therefore take heed, O people of intelligence!

Zaid ibn al Hassan as well as his teacher, Maruf ibn Kharrabudh al Makki appears in this chain. This narration is amongst their ‘generous contributions’.

 

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Zaid ibn al Hassan al Anmati according to the Ahlus Sunnah

1. Ibn Hajar states:

زيد بن الحسن القرشى ابو الحسن الكوفى صاحب الانماط ضعيف من الثامنة

Zaid ibn al Hassan al Qurashi, Abu al Hassan al Kufi from al Anmat: A da’if narrator who belongs to the eighth category.[2]

 

2. Al Dhahabi states:

زيد بن الحسن صاحب الانماط…قال ابو حاتم منكر الحديث

Zaid ibn al Hassan from al Anmat: Abu Hatim said, “He is Munkar al Hadith[3].”[4]

 

3. In Tahdhib al Tahdhib:

 

قال ابو حاتم كوفى قدم بغداد منكر الحديث روى له الترمذى حديثا واحدا…روى عن جعفر بن محمد بن غلى بن الحسين و معروف بن خربوذ المكى

Abu Hatim said, “He is a Kufi who came to Baghdad. His narrations are Munkar, al Tirmidhi narrated one narration from him… He narrates from Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn al Hussain and Ma’ruf ibn Kharrabudh al Makki.”[5]

 

The summary of the above quotations is that Zaid ibn al Hassan is well known by the title Sahib al Anmat and he is unreliable. He is counted amongst the eighth category of narrators.

 

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Zaid ibn al Hassan al Anmati according to the Shia

1. Rijal al Tafrishi states:

زيد بن الحسن الانماطى ق

Zaid ibn al Hassan al Anmati of the companions of al Sadiq.[6]

 

2. Muntaha al Maqal states:

زيد بن الحسن اسند عنه ق

Zaid ibn al Hassan al Anmati, narrations may be taken from him, of the companions of al Sadiq.[7]

 

3. It is also stated in Jami’ al Ruwat:

زيد بن الحسن اسند عنه ق

Zaid ibn al Hassan al Anmati, narrations may be taken from him, of the companions of al Sadiq.[8]

 

4. ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani says:

و ظاهر كونه اماميا…

It is apparent that he was an Imami (Shia).[9]

 

The summary of these four quotations is that this Zaid is classified as Musnad ‘anhu, which means that he is a valid source for Shia narrations. He has been counted amongst the companions of Imam Jafar al Sadiq. Al Mamaqani also adds that the fact that he subscribes to Shia beliefs is apparent. Such an individual, who is considered by our scholars as unreliable, occupies himself with spreading narrations which contradict the authentic ones, is considered a source of narrations by the Shia, and is even counted as one of the companions of the Imam (according to the Shia); how can his status be overlooked and his narrations blindly accepted?

We now present the ‘accolades’ of his teacher, Ma’ruf al Makki. It should be noted that the father of Ma’ruf, Kharrabudh, is sometimes referred to as Budh as well, in other words his name is sometimes abbreviated.

 

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Ma’ruf ibn Kharrabudh according to the Ahlus Sunnah

1. Ibn Hajar writes in Tahdhib:

 

معروف بن خربوذ المكى مولى ال عثمان روى عن ابى الطفيل عامر بن واثلة ….قال ابن خيثمة عن بن معين ضعيف

Ma’ruf ibn Kharrabudh al Makki, the freed slave of the family of ‘Uthman. He narrates from Abu al Tufayl ‘Amir ibn Wathilah… Ibn Khaythamah reports from Ibn Ma’in that he is da’if.[10]

 

2. In Taqrib, Ibn Hajar adds:

ربما وهم وكان اخباريا

He would commit errors at times and he was a historian.[11]

 

3. Al Dhahabi in Mizan al I’tidal:

معروف بن خربوذ المكى عن ابى الطفيل صدوق شيعى…ضعفه يحيى بن معين قال احمد لا ادرى كيف حديثه

Ma’ruf ibn Kharrabudh al Makki who narrates from Abu al Tufayl: Truthful, a Shia. Yahya ibn Ma’in has classified him unreliable and Ahmed said that is not aware of the condition of his narrations.[12]

 

4. Imam Razi reports in al Jarh wa al Ta’dil:

 

سئل يحيى بن معين عن معروف بن خربوذ المكى الذى روى عنه وكيع فقال ضعيف

Yahya ibn Ma’in was asked regarding Ma’ruf ibn Kharrabudh al Makki from who Waki’ narrated and he replied, “(He is) da’if.[13]

 

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Ma’ruf ibn Kharrabudh according to the Shia

1. Al Tafrishi states in his Rijal:

 

معروف بن خربوذ المكى القرشى الكوفى…قال الكشى ايضا فى موضع اخر انه ممن اجتمعت العصابة على تصديقهم من اصحاب ابى جعفر وابى عبدالله عليهما السلام وانقادوا لهم بالفقه فقالوا انه افقه الاولين

Ma’ruf ibn Kharrabudh al Makki al Qurashi al Kufi: Al Kashshi has stated at another place, “Indeed he is amongst those whom a large group have agreed upon regarding them to be the truthful ones from amongst the companions of Imam Abu Jafar (al Baqir) and Abu ‘Abdullah (al Sadiq). They have also surrendered to him in fiqh by saying, ‘Indeed he was the greatest of the former jurists.’”[14]

 

2. It is mentioned in Muntaha al Maqal:

وفى الوجيزة ثقة

Al Wajizah (stated that he is) reliable.[15]

3. Jami’ al Ruwat states:

 

معروف بن خربوذ… قال الكشى انه ممن اجتمعت العصابة على تصديقهم من اصحاب ابى جعفر وابى عبدالله عليهما السلام وانقادوا لهم بالفقه فقالوا انه افقه الاولين وفى الوجيزة والبلغة انه ثقة اجتمعت الجماعة على تصحيح ما يصح عنه

Ma’ruf ibn Kharrabudh: Al Kashshi has stated, “Indeed he is amongst those who are regarded—by a large group—to be the truthful ones of the companions of Imam Abu Jafar (al Baqir) and Abu ‘Abdullah (al Sadiq). They have also surrendered to him in fiqh, saying, ‘Indeed he was the greatest of the former jurists.”’ It is stated in al Wajizah wa al Bulghah, “He is a reliable narrator. A large group have agreed upon authenticating that which is established from him.”[16]

 

The author of Jami’ al Ruwat (Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al Ardabili) has stated that he narrates from Abu Tufayl who narrates from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. These narrations appear in the books Man La Yahduruhu al Faqih and Usul al Kafi.[17]

 

4. Sheikh ‘Abbas al Qummi has regarded him to be a reliable narrator. He writes in Tuhfat al Ahbab:

 

شیخ کشی روایات در مدح و قدح او  واردھ  کردھ لکن آں روایات ضعیف است و معروف بطول سجدھ معروف ست

Sheikh al Kashshi has reported narrations both praising and disparaging him but those (disparaging) narrations are da’if, and he is well-known for performing lengthy prostrations.[18]

 

In the book Mulakhas al Maqal fi Tahqiq Ahwal al Rijal (Category 1: The reliable narrators) his reliability has been declared in the following manner:

 

هو اقرب للصواب وفاقا للجماعة

He is more accurate (in his narrations), in accordance with the group.[19]

 

The summary of the above mentioned quotations is that Ma’ruf is considered a very reliable narrator by the Shia. He appears in their four authentic books and is regarded as a great worshipper and ascetic. He is also amongst their greatest jurists. Our position regarding him has been explained above. In accordance with the principles of the Ahlus Sunnah, the narrations of such individuals are not acceptable.

 

The Second Narration

This narration is from Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah and it is narrated without a isnad.

 

عن جابر بن عبدالله رضى الله عنه قال رئيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فى حجته يوم عرفة وهو على ناقته القصواء يخطب فسمعته يقول ايها الناس قد تركت فيكم ما ان اخذتم به لن تضلوا كتاب الله و عترتى اهل بيتى

Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah narrates, “I saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam during his hajj on the day of ‘Arafah whilst he was delivering a sermon on his camel al Qaswa’. I heard him saying, “I have left that which if you hold onto them you will never go astray; the Book of Allah and my ‘itrah who are my Ahlul Bayt.”[20]

 

Despite extensive research, we could not find a chain for this narration of Nawadir al Usul. However, the first narrator who happens to be a Sahabi is mentioned. The rest of the isnad, from the Sahabi until the author has been omitted. This narration has been narrated in exactly the same manner by Imam al Tirmidhi in his Jami’ al Tirmidhi. It is our opinion that this is the very same narration, regarding which (the narration of Tirmidhi) a complete discussion will soon follow. The readers are once again requested to be patient, and soon they will be put at ease.

Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz Muhaddith Dehlawi has penned an important piece of research in his book Bustan al Muhaddithin regarding the narrations and books written by the author of Nawadir al Usul. We deem it appropriate to quote the concluding words of his discussion for the benefit of the readers:

 

It should be known that the works of Hakim al Tirmidhi contain many unreliable and fabricated narrations. The reason behind this is quoted from him in Tabaqat al Sha’radi, wherein he says, “Neither have I reflected and pondered over anything before compiling it or writing it, nor did I ever desire that any of my compilations should be attributed to me. It was only when I would feel Qabd (a term employed by the Sufiyah referring to the condition of lethargy for completing important tasks) that I would note down whatever came to mind to relieve me of this condition.” Thus we learn that all his compilations were ‘rough drafts’ which were in need of editing. However this editing did not happen.[21]

 

After this observation of Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz, the degree of reliability of the narrations in Nawadir al Usul has become quite evident. This is more so when these narrations are being used to establish that which is considered to be a fundamental matter of Islamic doctrine. In this case more caution should be exercised and greater care should be taken when scrutinising the authenticity of the narrations.

 

Appendix to the Discussion on Nawadir al Usul

The isnad of the second narration in Nawadir al Usul, reported from Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah, which we had criticised for not containing a isnad, we coincidently stumbled across this narration again with its complete isnad in the third volume of the book Yanabi’ al Mawaddah. This brought extreme joy to us and thus we reproduce it below:

 

حدثنا نصر بن عبد الرحمان الوشاء قال حدثنا زيد بن الحسن الانماطى عن جعفر بن محمد عن ابيه عن جابر بن عبدالله رضى الله عنه قال رئيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فى حجته يوم عرفة وهو على ناقته القصواء يخطب فسمعته يقول ايها الناس قد تركت فيكم ما ان اخذتم به لن تضلوا كتاب الله و عترتى اهل بيتى

Nasr ibn ‘Abdul Rahman al Washa’ — Zaid ibn al Hassan al Anmati — Jafar ibn Muhammad — from his father (Muhammad) that Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah said:

I saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam during his hajj on the day of ‘Arafah whilst he was delivering a sermon on his camel al Qaswa’. I heard him saying, “O people! I have left two such things amongst you which if you hold onto them you will never go astray, the Book of Allah and my ‘itrah, who are my Ahlul Bayt.”[22]

 

Firstly, the readers should be aware that this entire chain is exactly the same as that which will be discussed under the narration of Tirmidhi. The authenticity of this narration has been jeopardised by the appearance of Zaid ibn al Hassan al Anmati in the isnad. We have already mentioned the details regarding him under the first narration of Nawadir al Usul. There is no need to repeat that.

Secondly, it is learnt from the explanation of Yanabi’ al Mawaddah that the book Nawadir al Usul—irrespective of its reliability—had all the asanid mentioned in it. However, the publishers of the book, in order to decrease the volume of the book, omitted all of the asanid. The author of Yanabi’ al Mawaddah managed to quote all the chains as he was (according to his claim) in possession of an original and handwritten copy of the book. Allah knows best regarding the reality of the situation.

 

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[1]Yanabi’ al Mawadah vol. 1 pg. 29

[2]Taqrib al Tahdhib pg. 172

[3]  One whose narrations are rejected.

[4]Mizan al I’tidal vol. 1 pg. 362

[5]Tahdhib al Tahdhib vol. 3 pg. 406

[6]Rijal al Tafrishi pg. 143

[7]Muntaha al Maqal pg. 208

[8]Jami’ al Ruwat vol. 1 pg. 341

[9]Tanqih al Maqal vol. 1 pg. 463

[10]Tahdhib vol. 1 pg. 231

[11]Taqrib pg. 501

[12]Mizan al I’tidal vol. 3 pg. 184

[13]Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil vol. 4 pg. 321

[14]Rijal al Tafrishi pg. 348-349

[15]Muntaha al Maqal pg. 378

[16]Jami’ al Ruwat vol. 2 pg. 247, Tanqih al Maqal vol.3 pg. 247

[17]Jami’ al Ruwat vol. 2 pg. 247

[18]Tuhfat al Ahbab pg. 369

[19]Mulakhas al Maqal pg. 109

[20]Nawadir al Usul pg. 68

[21]Bustan al Muhaddithin (Farsi) pg. 63

[22]Yanabi’i al Mawaddah vol. 3 pg. 19, Beirut

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