Mustadrak al-Hakim

The Isnad of the Famous Mufassir al-Tha`labi
October 1, 2015
Ma`ajim al-Tabarani
October 1, 2015

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Mustadrak al Hakim

 

The author is Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah al Hakim al Nishapuri (d. 405 A.H).

 

The First Narration

 

حدثنا ا بو بكر محمد بن الحسين بن مصلح الفقيه بالرى ثنا محمد بن ايوب ثنا يحيى بن المغيرة السعدى ثنا جرير بن عبدالحميد عن الحسن بن عبدالله النخعى عن مسلم بن صبيح عن زيد بن ارقم قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم انى تارك فيكم الثقلين كتاب الله عز و جل حبل ممدود من السماء الى الارض وعترتى اهل بيتى وان اللطيف الخبير اخبرنى انهما لن يتفرقا حتى يردا عللى الحوض

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al Hussain ibn Muslih al Faqih narrated to us at al Rayy —Muhammad ibn Ayub — Yahya ibn al Mughirah al Sa’di — Jarir ibn Abdul Hamid —al Hassan ibn ‘Abdullah al Nakha’i — Muslim ibn Sabih — from Zaid ibn Arqam that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

I am leaving amongst you al Thaqalayn, the Book of Allah—the Most Exalted and Glorious—which is a rope that has been extended from the sky to the earth; and my Ahlul Bayt. The Knower of the finest details and the one who is well aware of everything has informed me that they will never separate until they meet me at the pond.

 

The hadith of Thaqalayn appears three times in the Mustadrak of al Hakim. In order to lengthen their list of references, our ‘friends’ have claimed that this narration appears four times in Mustadrak. This is untrue and against honesty. We will first deal with the three narrations that are a reality. Thereafter we will discuss the ‘fourth’ narration, Allah willing. This narration contains two narrators due to which the entire narration becomes questionable. The first narrator is Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al Hussain ibn Muslih al Faqih and the second narrator is Jarir ibn ‘Abdul Hamid. A comprehensive discussion regarding each one will now be presented.

 

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Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al Hussain

Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn al Hussain ibn Muslih al Faqih al Rayy, after an extensive search this individual could not be found in any of the well-known books of the Ahlus Sunnah. Thereafter a search was carried out in the books of the Shia, but also to no avail. The scholars are aware of the fact that over and above the usual books regarding the biographies of narrators, there are specific books to identify narrators through their agnomens (the likes of Kitab al Kuna of al Dulabi and Kitab al Kuna of al Bukhari). However none of these books  mention this narrator’s name under his agnomen (Abu Bakr). Allah Ta’ala knows best what kind of a narrator he was, but his details are unknown to us.

 

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Jarir ibn ‘Abdul Hamid according to the Ahlus Sunnah

The second narrator whose name raises doubts regarding the narration is the teacher of Yahya ibn al Mughirah al Sa’di and the student of Hassan ibn ‘Abdullah al Nakha’i. His name is Jarir ibn ‘Abdul Hamid al Qurz al Dabbi al Razi.

 

1. Ibn Hajar says about him:

…قال قتيبة حدثنا جرير الحافظ المقدم لكنى سمعته يشتم معاوية علانية

Qutaybah said, “Jarir al Muqaddam, the hafiz narrated to us, but I heard him cursing Muawiyah openly.”[1]

 

2. In Qanun al Mawdu’at it is clearly stated:

…و اجمعوا على نفيه ورمى بالتشيع

There is consensus upon his rejection and he was said to be a Shia.[2]

 

3. In the introduction of Fath al Bari:

و نسبه قتيبة الى التشيع المفرط

Qutaybah regarded him to be an extremist Shia.[3]

 

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Jarir ibn ‘Abdul Hamid al Dabbi al Razi according to the Shia

1. Al Ardabili clarifies:

جرير بن عبد الحميد الضبى الكوفى نزل الرى (ق)(مح)

Jarir ibn ‘Abdul Hamid al Dabbi al Kufi-he took up residence at Rayy, of the companions of al Sadiq. Muhammad Mirza Istarabadi included him in his book on Shia narrators.[4]

 

2. ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani said:

…اقول مقتضى عد الشيخ الرجل فى طى رجال الشيعة دون قدح فى مذهبه كونه اماميا

I say the mere fact that Sheikh (al Tusi) has counted him amongst the list of Shia narrators without criticising his beliefs demands that he was an Imami.[5]

 

There is still scope for further discussion regarding this narration; however, we regard that which was mentioned to be sufficient at this juncture. The narration of an unknown individual can never be regarded as authentic. Allah alone knows how al Hakim al Nishapuri accepted this to be an authentic isnad. Further, there are Shia narrators, who’s Shi’ism reached the extremes, whereby they would curse the Sahabah. This alone is sufficient to disregard the narration.

 

The Second Narration

 

حدثنا ابو السين محمد  بن احمد بن تميم تلحنظلى ببغداد ثنا ابو قلابة عبد الملك بن محمد الرقاشى ثنا يحيى بن حماد و حدثنى ابو بكر محمد بن احمد بن بابويه و ابو بكر احمد بن جعفر البزار قالا حدثنا عبد الله بن احمد بن حنبل حدثنى ابى ثنا يحيى بن حماد و حدثنا ابو نصر احمد بن سهيل الفقيه ببخارى ثنا صالح بن محمد الحافظ البغدادلى ثنا خلف بن سالم المخرمى ثنا يحيى بن حماد ثنا ابو عوانة عن سليمان الاعمش قال حدثنا حبيب بن ابى ثابت عن  ابى الطفيل عن زيد بن ارقم رضى الله عنه قال لما رجع النبى صلى الله عليه و سلم من حجة الوداع و نزل غدير خم امر بدوحات فقممن فقال كانى قد دعىت فاجبت انى قد تركت فيكم الثقلين احدهما اكبر من الاخر كتاب الله وعترتى فانظروا كيف تخلفونى فيهما فانهما لن يتفرقا حتى يردا على الحوض….ثم قال ان الله عز و جل مولاى وانا مولى كل مؤمن ثم اخذ بيد على رضى الله عنه فقال من كنت مولاه فهذا وليه اللهم وال من والاه وعاد من عاداه

Abu al Hussain Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Tamim al Hanzali — Abu Qalabah Abdul Malik ibn Muhammad al Raqashi — Yahya ibn Hammad — Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Babuwayh and Abu Bakr Ahmed ibn Jafar al Bazzar — ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed ibn Hambal —(his father) Ahmed ibn Hambal — Yahya ibn Hammad — Abu Nasr Ahmed ibn Sahl al Faqih — Salih ibn Muhammad al Hafiz al Baghdadi — Khalaf ibn Salim al Makhrami — Yahya ibn Hammad — Abu ‘Awanah — Sulaiman al A’mash — Habib ibn Abi Thabit — Abu al Tufayl — that Zaid ibn Arqam narrated:

Whilst returning from Hajjat al Wada’, Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam disembarked at a pond called Khum. He ordered that the trees of the area should be trimmed. Thereafter he addressed the people saying, “I will soon be invited to my eternal abode and I will accept the invitation. I am leaving amongst you al Thaqalayn, one is of greater weight than the other. They are the Book of Allah and my ‘itrah. Be careful of how you treat them in my absence. They will not separate until they meet me at the pond.”

Thereafter he said, “Allah is my Master, and I am the friend of every Muslim.” Then he took hold of the hand of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and said, “Whoever takes me as a friend, ‘Ali is also his friend. O Allah, befriend him who befriends him and take as your enemy those who have enmity towards him.”[6]

 

The isnad of this narration of al Hakim is quite lengthy due to a few Tahwil[7]. Paying attention to the isnad reveals to us that there are two narrators in it who render the isnad unauthentic. They are ‘Abdul Malik al Raqashi and Khalaf ibn Salim al Makhrami. There are others as well whose appearance brings to question the authenticity of the isnad. However we are sufficing on these two for now.

 

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‘Abdul Malik al Raqashi

1. It is stated in Tahdhib and Tarikh Baghdad:

 

ابو قلابة قلابة عبد الملك بن محمد بن عبدالله الرقاشى الضرير…قال الدارقطنى صدوق كثير الخطاء فى الاسانيد والمتون…كان يحدث من حفظه فكثرت الاوهام فيه

Abu Qalabah ‘Abdul Malik ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah al Raqashi al Darir: Daraqutni said, “He was truthful but he would commit many errors in the asanid as well as the texts… he would narrate from his memory, thus the abundance of mistakes.”[8]

 

2. Mizan al I’tidal states:

عبد الملك بن عبدالله الرقاشى…كثير الوهم لا يحتج به

‘Abdul Malik ibn ‘Abdullah al Raqashi: He would commit many errors; his narrations cannot be used as evidence.[9]

 

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Khalaf ibn Salim al Makhrami

1. In Taqrib al Tahdhib it is stated:

خلف بن سالم المخرمى ابو محمد المبى …عابوا عليه التشيع

Khalaf ibn Salim al Makhrami Abu Muhammad al Mulabbi: He was criticised for being a Shia.[10]

 

2. It is mentioned further in Tahdhib:

 

ٌقال الاجرى و كان ابو داود لا يحدث عن خلف….قال عبدالخالق بن منصولر انه كان يحدث بمساوى الصحابة قال قد كان يجمعها

Al Ajurri said, “Abu Dawood would not narrate from Khalaf.” ‘Abdul Khaliq ibn Mansur said, “He would narrate disparagement of the Sahabah, and he would collect them (such narrations).”[11]

 

3. In Tarikh Baghdad it is stated:

…ونقموا عليه بتبغيته هذاه الاحاديث

He was condemned for constantly seeking these narrations (which  disparage the Sahabah).[12]

 

Does it make any sense to the people of intelligence to accept the narrations of one who commits many errors and blunders, his narrations are not worthy of being used as evidence and he gathers such narrations by means of which he may portray the Sahabah negatively?

 

The Third Narration

 

حدثنا ابو بكر بن اسحاق ودعلج بن احمد السجزى قالا انبانا محمد بن ايوب ثنا الازرق بن على ثنا حسان بن ابراهيم الكرمانى ثنا محمد بن سلمة بن كهيل عن ابيه عن ابى الطفيل بن واثلة انه سمع زيد بن ارقم رضى الله عنه يقول نزل رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بين مكة والمدينة عند شجرات خمس دوحات عظام فكنس الناس ما تحت الشجرات ثم راح رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم عشيه فصللى ثم قام خطيبا فحمد الله و اثنى عليه وذكر ووعظ فقال ما شاء الله ان يقول ثم قال ايها الناس انى تارك فيكم امرين لن تضلوا ان اتبعتموهما وهما كتاب الله و اهل بيتى عترتى ثم قال اتعلمون انى اولى بالمؤمنين من انفسهم ثلاث مرات قالوا نعم فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من كنت مولاه فعلى مولاه

Abu Bakr ibn Ishaq and Da’laj ibn Ahmed al Sajzi — Muhammad ibn Ayub — al Azraq ibn ‘Ali — Hassan ibn Ibrahim al Kirmani — Muhammad ibn Salamah ibn Kuhayl – (his father) Salamah ibn Kuhayl — Abu al Tufayl ibn Wathilah — that Zaid ibn Arqam radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam disembarked between Makkah and Madinah at a place which had five trees with large branches. The people then trimmed the leaves. Thereafter Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam rested until evening. He then woke and performed salah and thereafter stood to address the people. He praised Allah abundantly, reminded the people (about the hereafter) and he advised them. Thereafter he said that which Allah willed that he should say. Then he said, “O people, I am leaving amongst you two such matters that you will never be misguided as long as you follow them, they are the Book of Allah and my Ahlul Bayt, my ‘itrah.” After a while he asked three times, “Do you know that I have more right over the Mu’minin than their own selves?” The people replied, “Yes.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then said, “Whoever takes me as his mawla then ‘Ali is his mawla.”[13]

 

This narration of Mustadrak al Hakim contains a few narrators who are not to be taken as proof. Due to our intention of keeping the book brief, we will only concentrate on one individual, i.e. Muhammad ibn Salamah ibn Kuhayl. Presenting his accolades will be sufficient to reveal the status of the hadith.

 

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Muhammad ibn Salamah al Hadrami according the Ahlus Sunnah

1. Ibn Sa’d states:

محمد بن سلمة بن كهيل الحضرمي …كان ضعيفا

Muhammad ibn Salamah ibn Kuhayl al Hadrami: He was da’if.[14]

 

2. Al Dhahabi mentions:

ذاهب واهي الحديث

His narrations are of a very low quality, they were irregular.

 

3. Ibn Hajar writes in Lisan al Mizan:

 

قال الجوزجانى  ذاهب الحديث…قال ابن سعد كان ضعيفا كذا  قال ابن الشاهين فى الضعفاء…قال وكان يعد من متشعى الكوفة

Al Juzajani said, “‘His narrations are of a very low quality.” Ibn Sa’d said, “He was da’if.” Ibn Shahin has mentioned him in al Dua’fa (compilation of da’if narrators) He said, “He (Muhammad ibn Salamah) was counted amongst the Shia of Kufah.”

 

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Muhammad ibn Salamah ibn Kuhayl according the Shia

1. It is stated in both Muntaha al Maqal and Jami’ al Ruwat:

 

محمد بن سلمة بن كهيل الحضرمى اسند عنه (ق)

Muhammad ibn Salamah ibn Kuhayl al Hadrami: Narrations are taken from him, the companion of Imam al Sadiq.[15]

 

2. ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani states in Tanqih al Maqal:

 

محمد بن سلمة بن كهيل…عده الشيخ فى رجاله من اصحاب صادق عليه السلام وحاله كسابقه (كونه اماميا)

Muhammad ibn Salamah ibn Kuhayl: Sheikh al Tusi listed him amongst his narrators and considered him to be a companion of al Sadiq rahimahu Llah. His condition is the same as the narrator before him, i.e. he is a Shia.[16]

 

The presence of these narrators in the above hadith is sufficient to render it non-worthy of acceptance. There is no need for further discussion.

Note:- ‘Allamah al Dhahabi criticised this narration in his abridged version of Mustadrak in the following manner:

Al Bukhari and Muslim both abstained from reporting this hadith on account of Muhammad ibn Salamah ibn Kuhayl. Abu Ishaq al Sa’di al Juzajani considered him unreliable and a baseless narrator.[17]

 

The Fourth Narration

 

اخبرنى محمد بن على الشيبانى بالكوفة ثنا احمد بن حازم الغفارى ثنا ابو نعيم ثنا كامل ابو العلاء قال سمعت حبيب بن ابى ثابت يخبر عن يحيى بن جعدة عن زيد بن ارقم رضى الله عنه قال خرجنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم حتى انتهينا الى غدير خم فامر بدوح فكسح فى يوم ما اتى علينا يوم كان اشد حرا منه فحمدالله و اثنى عليه وقال يا ايها الناس انه لم يبعث نبى قط الا عاش نصف ما عاش الذى كان قبله وانى اوشك ان ادعى فاجيب وانى تارك فيكم ما لن تضلوا بعده كتاب الله عز و جل ثم قام فاخذ بيد على رضى الله عنه فقال  يا ايها الناس من اولى بكم من انفسكم فقالوا الله و رسوله اعلم…من كنت مولاه فعلى مولاه

Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al Shaybani — Ahmed ibn Hazim al Ghifara — Abu Nuaim —Kamil Abu al ‘Ala’ — Habib ibn Abi Thabit — Yahya ibn Ja’dah — from Zaid ibn Arqam:

We went with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam until we reached Ghadir Khum. He ordered that the leaves should be trimmed, and thus they were trimmed on a day that we experienced heat that was never experienced before. He praised Allah abundantly and then said, “O people! Every nabi lives half the lifespan of the nabi that preceded him. Soon I will be called and I will answer the call. I am leaving amongst you that regarding which you will never be misguided after, the Book of Allah, the Most Exalted and Majestic. He then stood up and held the hand of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and asked, “O people! Who is more rightful over you than yourselves?” They replied, “Allah and his Rasul know best!”… “Whoever takes me as a mawla, then ‘Ali is his mawla.”[18]

 

Our friends also use this narration to prove their view regarding Thaqalayn. In the book Irshad Rasul al Thaqalayn it is counted along with other narrations. Therefore, we will put forward one or two brief points regarding it.

  1. If this narration is accepted to be authentic, then the word Thaqalayn or Khalifatayn has not been mentioned here, which is required to substantiate the Shia argument. Since this is the case, (there is no mention of Thaqalayn or Khalifatayn) it is inappropriate to add ‘Thaqalayn’ from our own side. The text of the Hadith is quite clear, I am leaving with you such a thing that you will not go astray as long as you have it. What is it? Nothing other than the Qur’an. Thereafter, there were some who had unwarranted suspicions regarding ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu or they had misunderstood certain aspects of his trip to Yemen. Therefore, in order to dispel these thoughts and suspicions, the hand of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was held up whilst these words were said, “Whoever takes me as a mawla (friend or guardian), then ‘Ali is his mawla.” This was done so that all those who had some misgivings regarding ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu could now be at ease that he is innocent and their ill-feelings could be replaced by love. There is no mention of the Caliphate. The claim that this is an explicit text proving immediate successorship is quite ridiculous and far-fetched.
  2. If the idea was to mention al Thaqalayn, then why should we not accept that they were the Book of Allah and the Sunnah? After completing this subject, Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went on to explain another important matter by saying, “O People!…” the words “then he stood up,” indicate very strongly towards what we are saying. The word ‘ثم’ (then) intrinsically contains the indication that one matter has terminated and the second one has begun. Thus the word ‘ثم’ proves to us that the discussion prior to this word was different to the discussion that was to ensue.

 

An Additional Note Regarding the Discussion of Mustadrak

We wish to add the criticism that Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz Muhaddith Dehlawi quoted from Allamah al Dhahabi in his book Bustan al Muhaddithin. This criticism explains the general position of the narrations of Mustadrak. Hafiz al Dhahabi states:

Many ahadith of Mustadrak do not meet the requirements of authenticity. In fact, some of the narrations therein are fabricated, due to which the book loses its credibility.[19]

 

He writes further:

Approximately one quarter of this book contains fabricated and baseless ahadith. I have highlighted these ahadith in my abridged version.

 

NEXT⇒ The Isnad of the Famous Mufassir al-Tha`labi


[1]Tahdhib vol. 2 pg. 77

[2]Qanun al Mawdu’at pg. 246

[3]Muqaddimah Fath al Bari vol. 2 pg. 121

[4]Jami’ al Ruwat vol. 1 pg. 147.

[5]Tanqih al Maqal vol. 1 pg. 210

[6]Mustadrak Hakim vol. 3 pg. 109-Chapter on the virtues of Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

[7]  Tahwil is when a narrator begins a second isnad whilst mentioning the first one due to them having a common source further up in the isnad.

[8]Tahdhib vol. 6 pg. 420-421, Tarikh Baghdad vol. 10 pg. 425

[9]Mizan al I’tidal vol. 2 pg. 153

[10]Taqrib al Tahdhib pg, 162.

[11]Tahdhib vol. 3 pg. 153

[12]Tarikh Baghdad vol. 6 pg. 328

[13]Mustadrak al Hakim vol. 3 pg. 109-110

[14]Tabaqat ibn Sa’d vol. 2 pg. 264

[15]Muntaha al Maqal pg. 345, Jami’ al Ruwat vol. 2 pg. 119.

[16]Tanqih al Maqal vol. 3 pg. 121.

[17]Talkhis al Mustadrak vol. 3 pg. 110

[18]Mustadrak al Hakim vol. 3 pg. 533

[19]Bustan al Muhaddithin pg. 43, the discussion regarding Sahih Muslim. Persian edition.

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