Chapter Three: The relationship they shared as well as the virtues and merits of Sayyidina ‘Uthman Dhu al Nurayn radiya Llahu ‘anhu reported by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu

Chapter Two: The Aspect of Bay’ah
February 13, 2019
Chapter 3 Continued – The Status of ‘Uthman on the Tongues of the Senior Hashimis with reference to Shia books
February 13, 2019

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Chapter Three

In this chapter, the relationship they shared as well as the virtues and merits of Sayyidina ‘Uthman Dhu al Nurayn radiya Llahu ‘anhu reported by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Banu Hashim will be mentioned. At the end, some of the excellences of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu documented in Shia books regarded reliable by them will be listed.

Every virtue mentioned below deserves a separate heading. Furthermore, there is a need to ponder over the high regard Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had for Dhu al Nurayn radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the lofty position he deemed him stationed on. The faith and reliance they had on one another and the compassion and love they cherished will also be highlighted. All of the above are found in the upcoming narrations. Only a little of impartiality needs to be exercised. The facts appear as incidents. Kindly ponder over them.

Instead of listing conclusions after every virtue, all the deductions will be mentioned at the end which are very attractive, and contemplating over them will prove very beneficial.

 

1. ‘Uthman’s Sincere Assistance in ‘Ali’s Marriage

The details of Sayyidina ‘Ali’s marriage to Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma have been included in the Siddiqi section of this book. We wish to highlight here that all the monetary demands to buy things for the marriage and to make other necessary arrangements were met by Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He gifted Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu a sum of money which the latter gladly accepted. When news of this gift reached Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he favoured Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu with his prayers. This incident may be studied in both Sunni and Shia books. We will quote a few narrations here for brevity.

  1. Sharh Mawahib al Ladunniyyah

It appears in Sharh Mawahib al Ladunniyyah of al Zarqani that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advised Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to sell his armour to make necessary preparations for his marriage. The narration mentions:

 

فبعها (الدرع) فبعتها من عثمان بن عفان بأربعمائة و ثمانين درهما ثم أن عثمان رد الدرع إلى علي فجاء بالدرع و الدراهم إلى المصطفى صلى الله عليه و سلم فدعا لعثمان بدعوات

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commanded, “Sell the armour.”

Accordingly, ‘Ali sold it to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan for 480 dirhams. Thereafter ‘Uthman returned the armour back to ‘Ali who came to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with the armour and the dirhams. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicated abundantly for ‘Uthman.[1]

 

  1. Kashf al Ghummah fi Ma’rifat al A’immah and Bihar al Anwar

‘Ali ibn ‘Isa al Arbili, a Shia scholar of the seventh century, in Kashf al Ghummah as well as Majlisi in Bihar al Anwar report this incident in great detail in their works. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu to sell his armour.

 

قال علي فانطلقت و بعته بأربع مائة دراهم (سود هجرية) من عثمان بن عفان فلما قبضت الدراهم منه و قبض الدرع مني قال يا أبا الحسن ألست أولى بالدرع منك و أنت أولى بالدراهم مني فقلت بلى قال فإن الدرع هدية مني إليك فأخذت الدراهم و الدرع و أقبلت إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فطرحت الدرع و الدراهم بين يديه و أخبرته بما كان من أمر عثمان فدعا له بالخير

‘Ali continues:

So I went and sold it for 400 dirhams (black hijriyyah ones) to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan. After I took possession of the dirhams and he took possession of the armour, he said, “O Abu al Hassan! Am I not more worthy of the armour than you and are you not more worthy of the dirhams than me?”

I replied in the affirmative.

He re-joined, “The armour is a gift to you from me.”

So I took the dirhams and the armour and went straight to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. I placed them in front of him and informed him of ‘Uthman’s conduct. He prayed for goodness for him.[2]

 

2. ‘Uthman serves as a Witness to ‘Ali’s Marriage

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was invited along with other Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anha to be present at the nikah proceedings of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and a witness to the same. This incident is documented in books of both sects.

  1. Muhibb al Tabari documents this in al Riyad al Nadirah as well as Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba:

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed Sayyidina Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

اخرج ادع لي أبا بكر و عمر و عثمان و عبد الرحمن بن عوف و سعد بن أبي وقاص و طلحة و الزبير و بعدة من الأنصار قال فدعوتهم فلما احتمعوا عنده كلهم و أخذوا مجالسهم … ثم قال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم إن الله تعالى أمرني أن أزوج فاطمة من علي بن أبي طالب فاشهدوا أني قد زوجته

Go out and call for me Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Talhah, Zubair, and a group of Ansar.

Anas says, “Accordingly, I called them. When they all gathered by him and sat down, the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, ‘Surely, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala instructed me to marry Fatimah to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. Bear witness that I have married her to him.’”[3]

 

  1. The Shia scholars have also reported this incident in books they consider authentic. Few portions of relevant texts will be quoted below.

‘Ali ibn ‘Isa al Arbili says:

عن أنس قال كنت عند النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم … قال فانطلق فادع لي أبا بكر و عمر و عثمان و عليا و طلحة و الزبير و بعددهم من الأنصار قال فانطلقت فدعوتهم له فلما أن أخذوا مجالسهم قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ثم إني أشهدكم أني قد زوجت فاطمة من علي على أربع مائة مثقال فضة إلخ

Anas reports:

I was by the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He commanded me, “Go and call Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, Talhah, Zubair and a like number of Ansar.”

In compliance, I went and called them for him. When they took their seats, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced: “I make you witness that I have married Fatimah to ‘Ali for 400 mithqal of silver.”[4]

 

3. ‘Ali’s Testimony of ‘Uthman being a Mu’min, Salih, Muttaqi, and Muhsin

During his Caliphate, once a person questioned Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu as to what response he should give when people ask him his opinion of Amir al Mu’minin Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu told him:

 

أخبرهم أن قولي في عثمان أحسن القول إن عثمان كان من الذين آمَنُوْا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ ثُمَّ اتَّقَوْا وَّآمَنُوْا ثُمَّ اتَّقَوْا وَّأَحْسَنُوْا وَاللَّهُ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِيْنَ

Inform them that I have the best opinion of ‘Uthman. Indeed, ‘Uthman was from those who believe and do righteous deeds, and then fear Allah and believe, and then fear Allah and do good; and Allah loves the doers of good.[5][6]

 

Hafiz Ibn Kathir has mentioned another declaration of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu regarding Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu which highlights more of his amazing qualities. He writes:

و في رواية أنه قال كان عثمان رضي الله عنه خيرنا و أوصلنا للرحم و أشدنا حياء و أحسننا طهورا و أتقانا للرب عز و جل و في الإصابة قال علي كان عثمان أوصلنا للرحم إلخ

A report records that he said, “‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the best of us, maintained family ties the most, had the highest level of modesty, the neatest and tidiest of us, and feared Allah―the Mighty and Majestic―the most.”

It appears in al Isabah that ‘Ali declared, “‘Uthman maintained ties of kinship the best from us.”[7]

 

This declaration is supported by another report recorded by Abu al Qasim al Sahmi (d. 427 A.H.) in Tarikh Jurjan:

 

فقال له علي بأبي أنت و أمي يا رسول الله قد كنا عندك جماعة فما غطيتها و جاء عثمان فغطيتها فقال إني أستحيي ممن استحيت منه الملائكة

‘Ali said to him, “May my parents be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah. A group of us were by you but you did not cover your shin. But as soon as ‘Uthman came, you covered it?”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “I certainly show modesty to whom the angels show modesty.”[8]

 

4. ‘Uthman’s title Dhu al Nurayn in the light of ‘Ali’s statement coupled with other virtues

To prove this point, a few narrations are mentioned hereunder. One is from Nazal ibn Saburah which plenty ‘Ulama’ have recorded. The second is from Kathir ibn Murrah.

 

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First Narration

روى أبو الخيثمة في فضائل الصحابة من طريق الضحاك عن النزال بن سبرة قلنا لعلي حدثنا عن عثمان قال ذاك امرء يدعى في الملأ الأعلى ذا النورين

Abu al Khaythamah reports in Fada’il al Sahabah―from the chain of Dahhak―from Nazal ibn Saburah who reports:

We said to ‘Ali, “Tell us about ‘Uthman.”

He replied, “That is a man who is called Dhu al Nurayn in the High Assembly.”[9]

 

و أخرج أبو الخيثمة في فضائل الصحابة و ابن عساكر عن علي بن أبي طالب أنه سئل عن عثمان فقال ذاك امرأ يدعى في الملأ الأعلى ذا النورين كان ختن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم على ابنتيه

Abu al Khaythamah documents in Fada’il al Sahabah and Ibn ‘Asakir that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib was questioned about ‘Uthman to which he replied:

That is a gentleman who is called Dhu al Nurayn in the High Assembly. He was the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam through two of his daughters.[10]

 

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Second Narration

‘Ali Muttaqi al Hindi records it in Kanz al ‘Ummal with reference to Ibn ‘Asakir:

 

عن كثير بن مرة قال سئل علي بن أبي طالب عن عثمان قال نعم يسمى في السماء الرابعة ذا النورين و زوجه رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم واحدة بعد واحدة ثم قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من يشتري بيتا يزيده في المسجد غفر الله له فاشتراه عثمان فزاده في المسجد فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من يبتاع مربد بني فلان فيجعله صدقة للمسلمين غفر الله له فاشتراه عثمان فجعله صدقة على المسلمين فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من يجهز هذا الجيش يعني جيش العسرة غفر الله له فجهزهم عثمان حتى لم يفقدوا عقالا

Kathir ibn Murrah reports that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib was questioned about ‘Uthman and he replied:

Yes. He is called Dhu al Nurayn in the fourth heaven. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married two of his daughters to him, one after the other.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced, “Who will buy a house to extend the Masjid and secure Allah’s forgiveness?” ‘Uthman bought it and added it to the Masjid.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced, “Who will purchase the animal enclosure of a certain tribe and give it as charity for the Muslims and obtain Allah’s pardon?” ‘Uthman purchased it and gave it as charity to the Muslims.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced, “Who will equip this army, i.e. the army of difficulty and is guaranteed Allah’s forgiveness?” ‘Uthman equipped the army to such an extent that they were not short of a cord (used for hobbling the feet of a camel).”[11]

 

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A statement of the ‘Ulama’

‘Allamah al Suyuti has quoted a statement of the ‘Ulama’ while discussing the merits of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu which we would like to reproduce here. In the first chapter, a portion of it was quoted.

 

و قال العلماء و لا يعرف أحد تزوج بنتي نبي غيره و لذلك سمي ذا النورين فهو من السابقين الأولين و أول المهاجرين و أحد العشرة المشهود لهم بالجنة و أحد الستة الذين توفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و هو عنهم راض و أحد الصحابة الذين جمعوا القرآن إلخ

The ‘Ulama’ have stated: No one is known to have the privilege of marrying two daughters of a nabi besides him. Owing to this, he was titled Dhu al Nurayn. Coupled with this, he is from the al sabiqin al awwalin (first forerunners), the first to make hijrah, one of the ten who have been guaranteed Jannat, one of the six whom Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pleased with at his demise, and one of the Sahabah instrumental in compiling the Qur’an.[12]

 

5. The Status of ‘Uthman in the Ummah from the Tongue of ‘Ali

Once, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu delivered a sermon during his Caliphate wherein he dealt with this topic. Abu Bakr ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Dawood ibn Sulaiman ibn Ash’ath al Sijistani (d. 316 A.H.) quoted it in Kitab al Masahif via his sanad.

 

عن عبد خير قال خطب علي رضي الله عنه فقال أفضل الناس بعد النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أبو بكر و أفضلهم بعد أبي بكر عمر و لو شئت أن أسمي الثالث لسميته قال فوقع في نفسه من قوله أن اسمي الثالث لسميته فأتيت الحسين بن علي فقلت إن أمير المؤمنين خطب فقال إن أفضل الناس بعد النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أبو بكر و أفضلهم بعد أبي بكر عمر و لو شئت أن أسمي الثالث لسميته فوقع في نفسه فقال الحسين فقد وقع في نفسي كما وقع في نفسك فسألته فقلت يا أمير المؤمنين من الذي لو شئت أن تسميه لسميته قال المذبوح كما تذبح البقرة

‘Abd Khayr relates:

‘Ali delivered a sermon and declared, “The most superior of people after the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is Abu Bakr. And the best of them after Abu Bakr is ‘Umar. And if I wanted to name the third, I would have.”

I was preoccupied over his statement, “if I wanted to name the third, I would have.” So I approached Hussain ibn ‘Ali and said, “Amir al Mu’minin delivered a lecture and said, ‘The most superior of people after the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is Abu Bakr. And the best of them after Abu Bakr is ‘Umar. And if I wanted to name the third, I would have.’ I am perturbed by this.”

Hussain said, “I am also perturbed by this just as you are.”

So I asked him saying, “O Amir al Mu’minin, who is the one, if you wished you would have named him?”

He replied, “The one who was slaughtered like a cow (i.e. ‘Uthman).”[13]

 

This narration proves that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu considered Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu the third best of the entire ummah.

 

6. The Position of ‘Uthman’s Din in the Sight of ‘Ali

We now wish to mention the significance of Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s din in the heart of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma and how weighty he deemed the man.

Ibn ‘Abdul Barr quotes the following statement of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in al Isti’ab fi Asma’ al Ashab in the biography of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

قال علي رضي الله عنه من تبرا من دين عثمان فقد تبرأ من الإيمان

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu declared: “Whoever washes his hands from ‘Uthman’s religion, has washed his hands from iman.”[14]

 

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu has passed judgment that whoever considers Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu irreligious is himself irreligious. Whoever is exempt from Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is exempt from Islam.

 

7. ‘Ali’s Testimony of ‘Uthman being a Forerunner to Goodness, a Dweller of Jannat, and not Being Punished

The upcoming declarations of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu contain the above.

  1. Al Baladhuri reports through his chain in his famous book Ansab al Ashraf:

 

عن أبي سعيد أخي محمد بن زياد قال قال علي أنا والله على أثر الذي أتى به عثمان لقد سبقت له في الله سوابق لا يعذبه بعدها أبدا

Abu Sa’id, the brother of Muhammad ibn Ziyad reports that ‘Ali stated:

By Allah, I am treading the path ‘Uthman treaded. He has to his name plenty achievements in the din of Allah. Allah will never punish him after them.[15]

 

  1. ‘Ali Muttaqi al Hindi reports the following statement of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Kanz al ‘Ummal from a number of reliable ‘Ulama’:

 

عن أبي سعيد مولى قدامة بن مظعون قال قال علي و ذكر عثمان أما والله لقد سبقت له سوابق لا يعذبه الله بعدها أبدا

Abu Sa’id, the freed slave of Qudamah ibn Maz’un relates that ‘Ali stated while speaking about ‘Uthman:

By Allah, he has to his credit many accomplishments after which Allah will never punish him.[16]

 

  1. Al Baladhuri reports yet another narration:

عن يوسف بن سعيد مولى حاطب عن محمد بن حاطب و كان قدم البصرة مع علي أن عليا ذكر عثمان فقال و معه عود ينكت به إِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ سَبَقَتْ لَهُم مِّنَّا الْحُسْنىٰ أُولٰئِكَ عَنْهَا مُبْعَدُوْنَ أولئك عثمان و أصحاب عثمان

Yusuf ibn Sa’id, the freed slave of Hatib―from Muhammad ibn Hatib, who arrived in Basrah with ‘Ali:

‘Ali spoke about ‘Uthman and recited, while he had a stick in his hand which he was poking in the ground, “Indeed, those for whom the best [reward] has preceded from Us – they are from it (Jahannam) far removed.”[17] They are ‘Uthman and his companions.[18]

 

8. ‘Ali recites Qur’an during the Caliphate of ‘Uthman

Recitation of the Qur’an in optional prayer was always a practice in the era of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and would take place in congregation at times. This blessed practice was in particular held in Masjid al Nabawi during the month of Ramadan. During the ‘Uthmani Caliphate, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would at times lead the congregation which indicates to his harmonious relationship with the khalifah of the time. The muhaddithin have recorded such occurrences:

 

قتادة عن الحسن أمنا علي بن أبي طالب في زمن عثمان عشرين ليلة ثم احتبس فقال بعضهم قد تفرغ لنفسه ثم أمهم أبو حليمة معاذ القارئ فكان يقنت

Qatadah narrates―from Hassan:

‘Ali ibn Abi Talib led us in Salah al Tarawih during the era of ‘Uthman for 20 nights. Thereafter, he stopped coming. Some people said, “Probably, he is immersed in personal worship.” Thereafter, Abu Halimah Muaz the Qari’ led them and he would recite the qunut.

 

9. ‘Ali listens to ‘Uthman’s Recitation

Muhaddith ‘Abdul Razzaq has reported this incident in his al Musannaf:

 

عبد الرزاق عن ابن عيينة عن مسعر عن الحسن بن سعد عن أبيه قال أقبلت مع علي بن أبي طالب من ينبع قال فصام علي و كان علي راكبا و أفطرت لأني كنت ماشيا حتى قدمنا المدينة ليلا فمررنا بدار عثمان بن عفان فإذا هو يقرأ قال فوقف علي يستمع قرأته ثم قال علي إنه يقرأ و هو في سورة أو قال في سورة النحل قال أبو بكر (عبد الرزاق) أخبرت أن بين ينبع و بين المدينة أربعة أيام

‘Abdul Razzaq―from Ibn ‘Uyaynah―from Mis’ar­―from Hassan ibn Sa’d­―from his father who recalls:

I travelled with ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib from Yanbu’. ‘Ali was fasting and he was mounted and I was not fasting since I was walking. We entered Madinah at night and passed the house of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan who was reciting Qur’an. ‘Ali paused to listen to his recitation. ‘Ali commented, “He is reciting Surah al Nahl.”

Abu Bakr (‘Abdul Razzaq) says, “I was informed that Yanbu’ to Madinah is a four day journey.”[19]

 

Note:

The readers should be aware that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu owned a cultivated land in Yanbu’ which Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu allotted to him during his Caliphate. He would go there at times to oversee it. This was revealed in the Faruqi section at the end of chapter two.

 

10. ‘Uthman gifts ‘Ali a Conveyance

Hafiz Abu Nuaim Ahmed ibn ‘Abdullah al Asbahani (d. 430 A.H.) has recorded this incident in his magnum opus Akhbar Asbahan or Tarikh Asbahan in the biography of Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf al Makki al Jurjani. All the narrations of his book are backed with sanads. He writes:

 

عن أنس قال جاء علي رضي الله عنه إلى النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم و معه ناقة فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما هذه الناقة قال حملني عليها عثمان فقال النبي عليه السلام يا علي اتق الدنيا فإن من كثر نشبه كثر شغله و من كثر شغله اشتد حرصه و من اشتد حرصه كثر همه و نسي ربه فما ظنك يا علي بمن نسي ربه

Anas reports:

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu came to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with a camel.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked him, “Whose camel is this?”

“‘Uthman gave it to me to ride,” he replied.

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “O ‘Ali, be careful of the world! Whoever’s possessions increase becomes more occupied. And whoever is more occupied becomes greedier. And whoever’s greed intensifies, his worries increase and he forgets his Rabb. And what do you think of a person who has forgotten Allah, O ‘Ali?”[20]

 

11. ‘Uthman invites ‘Ali for a Meal

This incident is recorded in Sunan Abi Dawood:

 

و كان الحارث خليفة عثمان رضي الله تعالى عنه على الطائف فصنع لعثمان طعاما فيه من الحجل و اليعاقيب و لحم الوحش فبعث إلى علي رضي الله عنه فجاءه الرسول و هو يخبط لأباعر له فجاء و هو ينفض الخبط عن يده فقالوا له فقال أطعموه قوما حلالا فأنا حرم

Harith was ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu governor over Ta’if. He prepared some food for ‘Uthman which contained the meat of partridge, mountain quails, and game. ‘Uthman sent someone to invite ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to join him. The messenger came to ‘Ali who was dusting his hands from the leaves he just broke from the trees for his camels. The messenger invited him to come for the meal. He excused himself saying, “Feed it to people not in ihram. I am in ihram.”[21]

 

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The Declarations of the Hashimis in Favour of ‘Uthman

Above, mainly the statements of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in favour of Sayyidah ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu were quoted. Now, the statements of Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu children and nephews will be quoted which highlight the virtue, honour, and worth of Sayyidina ‘Uthman Dhu al Nurayn radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

 

12. The Statement of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas

Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Abi Bakr al Andalusi (d. 741 A.H.) has reported the narration of Ibn ‘Abbas in his book Kitab al Tamhid wa al Bayan fi Maqtal al Shahid ‘Uthman with reference to Kitab al Shari’ah which has also been documented by Muhibb al Tabari in al Riyad al Nadirah and Shah Waliullah in Izalat al Khafa’:

 

روى الآجري في كتاب الشريعة بإسناده عن ميمون بن مهران عن عبد الله بن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال قحط المطر (على عهد أبي بكر الصديق) فاجتمع الناس إلى أبي بكر فقالوا السماء لم تمطر و الأرض لم تنبت و الناس في شدة شديدة فقال أبو بكر الصديق انصرفوا و اصبروا فإنكم لا تمسون حتى يفرج الله الكريم عنكم فما لبثنا إلا قليلا أن جاء أجراء عثمان من الشام فجاءته مائة راحلة برا أو قال طعاما فاجتمع الناس إلى باب عثمان فقرعوا عليه الباب فخرج إليهم عثمان في ملأ من الناس فقال ما تشاؤن قالوا الزمان قد قحط السماء لم تمطر و الأرض لم تنبت و الناس في شدة شديدة وقد بلغنا أن عندك طعاما فبعناه حتى نوسع على فقراء المسلمين فقال عثمان حبا و كرامة ادخلوا فاشتروا فدخل التجارفإذا الطعام موضوع في دار عثمان فقال معشر التجار كم تربحوني على شرائي من الشام قالوا للعشرة اثنا عشر قال عثمان زادوني قالوا للعشرة أربعة عشر قال عثمان قد زادوني قالوا للعشرة خمسة عشر قال عثمان قد زادوني قال التجار يا أبا عمرو ما بقي في المدينة تجار غيرنا فمن الذي زادك قال زادني الله عز و جل بكل درهم عشرة أعندكم زيادة قالوا اللهم لا قال فإني أشهد الله أني قد جعلت هذا الطعام صدقة على فقراء المسلمين قال ابن عباس فرأيت من ليلتي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يعني في المنام و هو على برذون أبلق عليه حلة من نور و هو مستعجل فقلت يا رسول الله فقد اشتد شوقي إليك و إلى كلامك فأين تبادر فقال يا ابن عباس إن عثمان بن عفان قد تصدق بصدقة و إن الله عز و جل قد قبلها منه و زوجه بها عروسا في الجنة و قد دعينا إلى عرسه إلخ

Al Ajurri narrates in Kitab al Shari’ah with his isnad―from Maymun ibn Mahran―from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who reports:

There was a drought (during the era of Abu Bakr al Siddiq) so the people gathered by Abu Bakr and submitted, “No rain has fallen from the sky and the earth has not produced any plants. At the same time, people are suffering greatly.”

Abu Bakr al Siddiq said, “Go back and observe patience, for before evening, Allah the Generous will make an opening for you.”

Not after long, the employees of ‘Uthman arrived from Sham with 100 camels of wheat―or food. Subsequently, the traders gathered at ‘Uthman’s door and knocked the door. ‘Uthman came out to the group of them and enquired, “What do you want?”

They explained, “Drought has gripped the people. No rain has fallen from the sky and the earth has not produced any plants. At the same time, people are suffering greatly. We have received information that you have some food. So sell it to us so that we may enrich the needy Muslims.”

‘Uthman said, “By all means, enter with love and honour, and buy.”

The traders thus entered. The food was packed in ‘Uthman’s house. He asked, “Gathering of traders, how much profit will you give me on my merchandise from Sham?”

They said, “12 for every 10.”

‘Uthman said, “I can obtain more profit.”

The traders re-joined, “14 for every 10.”

‘Uthman said, “Indeed, they offered me more.”

They said, “15 for every 10.”

‘Uthman said, “Indeed, they offered me more.”

They submitted, “O Abu ‘Amr, there are no traders in Madinah besides us. So who offered you more?”

“Allah―The Mighty and Majestic―did,” he countered, “10 for every dirham. Do you have more to offer.”

They said, “No, by Allah.”

He announced, “I make Allah witness that I have given this food as charity to the needy Muslims.”

Ibn ‘Abbas continues, “I saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in my dream that night. He was speeding off on a piebald Turkish steed, wearing a garment of light. I submitted, ‘O Messenger of Allah, I am deeply enthusiastic to be in your company and converse with you. Where are you rushing to?’ He said, ‘O Ibn ‘Abbas! Surely, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan has given out charity and Allah the Mighty and Majestic has accepted it from him and married him to a damsel in Jannat and I have been invited to his wedding.’”[22]

 

13. The Statement of Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib

The senior ‘Ulama’ have cited a statement of Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu in favour of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu which we wish to present to the readers. This report is recorded by Hafiz Ibn Kathir with reference to Abu Ya’la in al Bidayah, al Haythami in Majma’ al Zawa’id, and Shah Waliullah in Izalat al Khafa’. The wording of Izalat al Khafa’ is reproduced hereunder. The conclusion and deductions of these statements will appear at the end of this discussion, Allah willing.

 

قال (رضيع الجارود) كنت بالكوفة فقام الحسن بن علي خطيبا فقال يا أيها الناس رأيت البارحة في منامي عجبا رأيت الرب تعالى فوق عرشه فجاء رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم حتى قام عند قائمة من قوائم العرش فجاء أبو بكر فوضع يده على منكب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ثم جاء عمر فوضع يده على منكب أبي بكر ثم جاء عثمان فكان بيده رأسه فقال رب سل عبادك فيم قتلوني قال فانبعث من السماء ميزابان من دم في الأرض قال فقيل لعلي ألا ترى ما يحدث به الحسن قال يحدث بما رأى

Radi’ al Jarud reports:

I was in Kufah when Hassan ibn ‘Ali stood up to deliver a sermon. He said, “O people! I saw something extraordinary in my dream last night. I saw Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala above His throne (as befits His Majesty). Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came and stood at one of the legs of the Throne. Then Abu Bakr came and placed his hand on Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam shoulder. He was followed by ‘Umar who placed his hand on Abu Bakr’s shoulder. Thereafter, ‘Uthman came with his head in his hand. He submitted, ‘O my Rabb! Ask Your bondsmen why they killed me.’ Just then, two gutters of blood flowed onto the earth from the sky. (It was said that this is ‘Uthman’s blood which will be demanded.)”

‘Ali was told, “Do you not see what Hassan is narrating?”

He countered, “He is only narrating what he saw.”[23]

 

A report with the same subject matter from Sayyidina Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu has been reported with great detail in Kitab al Tamhid wa al Bayan fi Maqtal al Shahid ‘Uthman together with other virtues of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The narration is reproduced below for those with passion. The author of Kitab al Tamhid is Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn Abi Bakr (d. 741 A.H.), one of the renowned scholars of Andalus.

 

و في رواية عن عبد العزيز بن الوليد بن سليمان بن أبي السائب قال سمعت أبي يذكر عن الحسن بن علي رضي الله عنه أنه سمع أعمى يذكر عثمان و يتناوله فقال الحسن ألعثمان يقولون لقد قتل رحمه الله و ما على الأرض أفضل منه و ما على الأرض من المسلمين أعظم حرمة منه … لو لم يكن إلا ما رأيت في منامي لكفاني فإني رأيت السماء انشقت فإذا أنا برسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و أبو بكر عن يمينه و عمر عن يساره و السماء تمطر دما فقلت ما هذا فقيل هذا دم عثمان قتل مظلوما

In another narration from ‘Abdul ‘Aziz ibn al Walid ibn Sulaiman ibn Abi al Sa’ib who reports:

I heard my father reporting about Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu that once he heard a blind man speaking ill of ‘Uthman so Hassan said, “Are they speaking about ‘Uthman? Indeed, he was killed, may Allah have mercy upon him, and there was none on the earth superior to him and no Muslim had greater honour than him. Had it only been for the dream I saw, it would have been sufficient. For surely I saw the sky splitting asunder. Suddenly, I was in front of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with Abu Bakr to his right and ‘Umar to his left. The sky was raining blood. So I enquired, “What is this?” “This is the blood of ‘Uthman who was killed unjustly,” came the reply.[24]

 

14. The Statement of Zayn al ‘Abidin ibn Hussain

This report of Zayn al ‘Abidin has been documented by Abu Nuaim al Asbahani in Hilyat al Awliya’ as well as the renowned Shia scholar ‘Ali ibn ‘Isa al Arbili (d. 687 A.H.) in Kashf al Ghummah. The text of Kashf al Ghummah is quoted below so that it brings greater satisfaction to the hearts of the Shia readers.

 

قدم عليه نفر من أهل العراق فقالوا في أبي بكر و عمر و عثمان رضي الله عنهم فلما فرغوا من كلامهم قال لهم ألا تخبروني أنتم الْمُهَاجِرِيْنَ الَّذِيْنَ أُخْرِجُوْا مِن دِيَارِهِمْ وَأَمْوَالِهِمْ يَبْتَغُوْنَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا وَيَنصُرُوْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ أُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُوْنَ قالوا لا قال فأنتم الَّذِيْنَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيْمَانَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ يُحِبُّوْنَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَا يَجِدُوْنَ فِي صُدُوْرِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِّمَّا أُوْتُوْا وَيُؤْثِرُوْنَ عَلىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ قالوا لا قال أما أنتم قد تبرأتم أن تكونوا من أحد هذين الفريقين و أنا أشهد أنكم لستم من الذين قال الله فيهم وَالَّذِيْنَ جَاءُوْا مِن بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُوْلُوْنَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِيْنَ سَبَقُوْنَا بِالْإِيْمَانِ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوْبِنَا غِلًّا لِّلَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا اخرجوا عني فعل الله بكم

A group of people from Iraq came to him and uttered some disparaging remarks about Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum. When they completed what they had to say, he said to them, “Are you from those described by the verse:

The Muhajirin who were expelled from their homes and their properties, seeking bounty from Allah and (His) approval and supporting Allah and His Messenger. Those are the truthful ones.[25]

The group from Iraq replied, “No!”

Zayn al ‘Abidin then asked, “Are you then from those described by the verse:

And (also for) those who were settled in the abode (i.e. Madinah) and adopted the faith before them. They love those who emigrated to them and find not any want in their breasts of what they (i.e. the Muhajirin) were given but give them preference over themselves, even though they are in privation.[26]

The group from Iraq replied, “No!”

Zayn al ‘Abidin then said, “As for you, you have absolved yourselves from being from these two groups, and I testify that you are not from those regarding whom Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:

And those who came after them, saying, “Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith and put not in our hearts (any) resentment toward those who have believed.”[27]

Zayn al ‘Abidin then yelled, “Get away from me! Allah will do with you what He wills!”[28]

 

15. The Statement of Jafar al Sadiq ibn Muhammad al Baqir

Ibn Sa’d has given a detailed biography of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his magnum opus Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d where he gives a description of his clothes as well. He relates from Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah regarding Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu ring:

 

عن جفعر بن محمد عن أبيه أن عثمان تختم في اليسار

Jafar ibn Muhammad―from his father:

‘Uthman would wear a ring on his left hand.[29]

 

We learn from here that the offspring of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the noble A’immah did not only think good of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Rather, they regarded his personality worthy of emulation in religious matters and cited his actions as proof for the same.

 

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Deductions and Points

Many aspects related to Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu have been gathered in chapter three. At the end, we present the summary of them for the benefit of the readers. All of these points are established in light of the statements of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and other Hashimis.

  • When Sayyidina ‘Ali married Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu favoured him with 400 dirhams as an act of goodwill and kindness which covered all the expenses of the marriage.
  • Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu is a perfect believer, Allah-conscious, righteous, magnanimous, modest, maintainer of family ties, pious and abstinent, and fearful of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.
  • He is honoured with the title Dhu al Nurayne. being the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam twice. He is unique in this nobility and prestige. No one from the progeny of Sayyidina Adam ‘alayh al Salam enjoys this distinction. Moreover, he generously assisted the Muslims constantly in arduous times.
  • He holds the third highest position in the ummah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam after Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Just as he is the third khalifah, he is the third most superior of the ummah. The rebels and oppressors wrongfully martyred him. Definitely, he is a martyr in the path of Allah.
  • He hastened to carry out good deeds and has many achievements to his credit. Owing to this, he will not be punished. He will be favoured with Jannat and remain far from Jahannam
  • Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma enjoyed a congruous relationship. The former led the salah in the Caliphate of the latter, they prepared conveyances for one another, and the latter invited the former for meals.
  • Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma confirms that Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu openheartedly assisted the Muslims especially the Muslims of Madinah in times of dire need and famine which was accepted in the court of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Upon this, he was blessed with amazing glad tidings which are signs of his success in the Hereafter.
  • Many aspects are established by Sayyidina Hassan ibn ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhuma Firstly, the Caliphate of Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq, Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq, and Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum were entirely correct in this sequence. There exists no form of usurpation, rebellion, or enmity in their successive Caliphates, nor is there any trace of forceful appropriation. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu holds the third loftiest position in the ummah. Both in Caliphate and virtue, this sequence is correct. The killing of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was unjust. He was martyred wrongfully and his killers will be taken to task. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not reject this statement of Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, but supported it instead. Therefore, the Hashimite’s statement is all the more weighty.
  • The following is manifest by Zayn al ‘Abidin’s incident: All the offspring of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu held positive feelings towards Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Just as they would not tolerate anyone speaking negatively of Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Sayyidina ‘Umar, they detested hearing nasty remarks about Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum and abhorred objections.
  • Those who dissociate themselves from the three khulafa’, the offspring of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu dissociate from them.
  • They expelled those who opposed and criticised the three khulafa’. This is a beautiful sign of the Hashimis reliance and faith on them and a practical demonstration of dissociating from their opposition.
  • Sayyidina Jafar al Sadiq’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu report makes it clear that Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu personality is worthy of being cited as proof for religious matters and his example is accepted and worthy of emulation.

 

NEXT⇒  Chapter 3 – The Status of ‘Uthman on the Tongues of the Senior Hashimis with reference to Shia books


[1] Sharh Zarqani, vol. 2 pg. 3, discussion on ‘Ali’s marriage to Fatimah, first print, 1325 edition, Egypt.

[2] Kashf al Ghummah fi Ma’rifat al A’immah, vol. 1 pg. 485, with Tarjamat al Manaqib Farisi, ‘Ali’s marriage to Fatimah, new print, Tehran; Bihar al Anwar, vol. 10 pg. 39, 40, chapter on Fatimah’s marriage to ‘Ali.

[3] Al Riyad al Nadirah, vol. 2 pg. 241, chapter on Fatimah’s marriage to ‘Ali; Dhakha’ir al ‘Uqba fi Manaqib Dhawi al Qurba, pg. 30, chapter on Fatimah’s marriage.

[4] Kashf al Ghummah, vol. 1 pg. 471, 472, with Tarjamat al Manaqib Farisi, chapter on Fatimah’s marriage, new print, Tehran; al Manaqib, pg. 242, 252, 253, chapter on Fatimah’s marriage, section 20, Haydariyyah publishers, Najaf Ashraf, Iraq, 1385 A.H./1965 edition; Bihar al Anwar, vol. 10 pg. 37, 38, chapter on Fatimah’s marriage, Iran print.

[5] Surah al Ma’idah: 93.

[6] Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 4 pg. 1011, line 7, chapter on Jamal, Pir Chanda, Sindh; Ansab al Ashraf, vol. 5 pg. 8, chapter on the matter of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, new print, Jerusalem; al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 104, book on recognising the Sahabah, chapter on ‘Uthman’s murder, first print, Dakkan; al Isti’ab with al Isabah, vol. 3 pg. 72, biography of ‘Uthman, Egypt print; Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 6 pg. 379, Hadith: 5879, with reference to Ibn Mardawayh and Ibn ‘Asakir, chapter on the virtues of Dhu al Nurayn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, first print.

[7] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 194, biography of ‘Uthman; al Isabah with al Isti’ab, vol. 2 pg. 455, biography of ‘Uthman.

[8] Tarikh Jurjan, pg. 327, Da’irat al Ma’arif print, Hyderabad, Dakkan.

[9] Al Isabah with al Isti’ab, vol. 2 pg. 455, biography of ‘Uthman.

[10] Tarikh al Khulafa’, pg. 105, biography of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, Mujtaba’i Publishers, Delhi.

[11] Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 6 pg. 379, Hadith: 5875, chapter on the virtues of Dhu al Nurayn ‘Uthman, first print, Dakkan.

[12] Tarikh al Khulafa’, pg. 105, Mujtaba’i print, Delhi.

[13] Al Masahif, pg. 35, 36, under the heading: the masahif that ‘Uthman wrote, Egypt print.

[14] Al Isti’ab with al Isabah, vol. 3 pg. 76.

[15] Ansab al Ashraf, vol. 5 pg. 9, Jerusalem print.

[16] Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 6 pg. 373, Hadith: 5807, with reference to Ibn Abi al Dunya, al Hakim in al Kuna, and Ibn ‘Asakir; Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 6 pg. 379, Hadith: 5878, with reference to Ibn ‘Asakir.

[17] Surah al Ambiya’: 101.

[18] Ansab al Ashraf, vol. 5 pg. 10, chapter on ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan’s matter, new Jerusalem print.

[19] Musannaf ‘Abdul Razzaq, vol. 2 pg. 570, Beirut print, from Majlis ‘Ilmi Karachi, Dabhel.

[20] Akhbar Asbahan, vol. 2 pg. 289.

[21] Sunan Abi Dawood, vol. 1 pg. 263, book on Hajj, chapter on the meat of game for a muhrim, Mujtaba’i print, Delhi.

[22] Kitab al Tamhid wa al Bayan, pg. 242, 243, Beirut print; al Riyad al Nadirah, vol. 2 pg. 145, 146, mention of his alms; Izalat al Khafa’, pg. 224, objective 2, ‘Uthman’s acts of kindness, old Bareli print.

[23] Izalat al Khafa’, vol. 1 pg. 107, Bareli print; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 194, 195, biography of Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 96, chapter on the demise of Sayyidina ‘Uthman.

[24] Kitab al Tamhid wa al Bayan fi Maqtal ‘Uthman, pg. 235, Beirut print.

[25] Surah al Hashr: 8.

[26] Surah al Hashr: 9.

[27] Surah al Hashr: 10.

[28] Kashf al Ghummah, vol. 2, p. 267, biography of Zayn al ‘Abidin, with Tarjamat al Manaqib Farisi, Tehran print; Hilyat al Awliya’, vol. 3 pg. 137, biography of Zayn al ‘Abidin, Egypt print.

[29] Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 3 pg. 40, the clothing of ‘Uthman, Leiden print.

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