Chapter 3 Continued – The Status of ‘Uthman on the Tongues of the Senior Hashimis with reference to Shia books

Chapter Three: The relationship they shared as well as the virtues and merits of Sayyidina ‘Uthman Dhu al Nurayn radiya Llahu ‘anhu reported by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu
February 13, 2019
Chapter Four: Various interactions between Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Hashimis, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in particular.
February 14, 2019

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The Status of ‘Uthman on the Tongues of the Senior Hashimis with reference to Shia books

The Shia scholars and mujtahidin have attested to the virtues and excellence of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in their books they consider reliable. Few samples from their books will be reproduced hereunder for the benefit of our esteemed readers. After studying these quotations and contemplating over them, the merit of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu will become manifest. Also one will realise the high regard the Hashimis had for Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the faith they pinned in him.

 

1. Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib’s Declaration

Ibn Babawayh al Qummi quotes a marfu’ narration from Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his Ma’ani al Akhbar in which he focuses on the status of the three khulafa’:

 

عن الحسن بن علي قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إن أبا بكر مني بمنزلة السمع و إن عمر مني بمنزلة البصر و إن عثمان مني بمنزلة الفؤاد إلخ

Hassan ibn ‘Ali reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared:

Certainly, Abu Bakr holds the position of hearing in relation to me; ‘Umar holds the position of seeing, and ‘Uthman holds the position of the heart.[1]

 

2. ‘Uthman’s Excellence on the Tongue of Jafar al Sadiq

According to the Shia, a few signs will appear in the period of Imam Mahdi’s emergence close to Qiyamah. One of these signs is that a voice will be heard from the sky (from the side of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala) at the beginning and end of the day:

 

قال الصادق ينادي مناد من السماء أول النهار ألا إن عليا صلوات الله عليه و شيعته هم الفائزون قال و ينادي مناد آخر النهار إلا إن عثمان و شيعته هو الفائزون

Al Sadiq stated, “(During the era of Imam Mahdi) a caller will announce from the sky at the beginning of the day: ‘Indeed, ‘Ali―may Allah’s salutations be upon him―and his partisans are successful.’ And a caller will announce at the end of the day, ‘Indeed, ‘Uthman and his partisans are successful.’”[2]

 

3. Another Statement of Imam Jafar al Sadiq

Al Kulayni al Razi has reported a lengthy narration from Imam Jafar al Sadiq in Furu’ al Kafi via a sanad in which he speaks about the great services rendered by Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu at the juncture of the reconciliation at Hudaybiyyah.

 

قال أبو عبد الله فأرسل إليه عثمان بن عفان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله فقال انطلق إلى قومك من المؤمنين فبشرهم بما وعدني ربي من فتح مكة فلما انطلق عثمان لقي أبان بن سعيد فتأخر عن السرج فتحمل عثمان بين يديه و دخل عثمان فأعلمهم و كانت المناوشة فجلس سهيل بن عمرو عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله و جلس عثمان في عسكر المشركين و بايع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله المسلمين و ضرب بإحدى يديه على الأخرى لعثمان و قال المسلمون طوبى لعثمان قد طاف بالبيت و سعى بين الصفا و المروة و أحل فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله  ما كان ليفعل فلما جاء عثمان قال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله أطفت بالبيت فقال ما كنت لأطوف بالبيت و رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله لم يطف

Abu ‘Abdullah reports:

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam summoned ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan and ordered, “Go to the believers among your people and convey to them glad tidings of the conquest of Makkah which my Rabb has promised me.”

When ‘Uthman left, he met Aban ibn Sa’id who moved back from the saddle and mounted ‘Uthman in front of him. ‘Uthman entered (Makkah) and conveyed to them (the glad tidings).

They (the disbelievers) were prepared for war. On one hand, Suhayl ibn ‘Amr sat by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and on the other hand, ‘Uthman sat in the midst of the army of polytheists. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took bay’ah from the Muslims and placed one hand on the other for ‘Uthman.

The Muslims commented, “How lucky is ‘Uthman! He has made tawaf of the House and ran between Safa and Marwah, and has come out of ihram.”

Hearing this, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “He would not do that.”

When ‘Uthman returned, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked him, “Did you make tawaf of the House?”

“It is not appropriate for me to make tawaf of the House when the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has not had the opportunity,” he replied.[3]

 

While discussing the events of Hudaybiyyah, Mulla Baqir Majlisi relates the above incident in Hayat al Qulub in the following words:

 

کلینی بسند حسن کا صحیح از حضرت صادق علیہ السلام روایت کردہ است چوں حضرت رسول بغزوہ حدیبیہ در ماہ ذیقعدہ بیرون رفت … پس حضرت رسول کریم بنزد عثمان فرستاد کہ برو بسوۓ قوم خود از مومناں و بشارت دہ ایشانرا بآنجہ وعدہ دادہ است مرا خدا از فتح مکہ چوں عثمان روانہ شد ابان بن سعید را در راہ دید پس ابا از زین برجست و در عقب زین نشست و اورا بر روۓ زین دار کرد پس عثمان داخل شد و رسالہ حضرت را رسانید و ایشاں مہیاۓ جنگ بودند پس سہیل نزد حضرت رسول نشست و عثمان نزد مشرکان و حضرت دراں وقت از مسلماناں بیعت رضوان گرفت و بروایت شیخ طبرسی چو مشرکاں عثمان را حبس کردند و خبر بحضرت رسید کہ اورا کشتند حضرت فرمود کہ ازیں جا حرکت نمی کنم تا بایشاں قتال کنم و مردم را بسوۓ بیعت دعوت نمائم و برخاست و پشت مبارک بدرخت داد تکیہ کرد و صحابہ بآنحضرت بیعت کردند کہ با مشرکاں جہاد کںد و نگریزند و بروایت کلینی حضرت یکدست خودرا بر دست دیگر زد و براۓ عثمان بیعت گرفت … بس مسلماناں گفتند کہ خوشاحال عثمان کہ طواف کعبہ کرد و سعی میان صفا و مروہ کرد و محل شد حضرت فرمود کہ بخواہد کرد چون عثمان آمد حضرت پرسید کہ طواف کردی گفت چوں تو طواف نہ کردہ بودی من نہ کردم

Abu ‘Abdullah reports:

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam summoned him (‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan) and said, “Proceed to the believers among your people and convey to them glad tidings of the conquest of Makkah which my Rabb has promised me. When ‘Uthman left, he met Aban ibn Sa’id who (out of honour of ‘Uthman) moved back from the saddle and allowed ‘Uthman to mount and sit in front of him. ‘Uthman entered (Makkah) and conveyed Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam message. They were ready for war.

Suhayl ibn ‘Amr sat by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam while ‘Uthman sat in the midst of the army of polytheists.

(Al Tabarsi adds: During this time, the Muslims heard that the polytheists had murdered ‘Uthman. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared, “We will not move from this place until we do not fight and take revenge.” He sat leaning against a tree and all the Sahabah gave bay’ah upon this.)

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took bay’ah from the Muslims. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam placed one of his hands on the other for ‘Uthman.

(After it was ascertained that ‘Uthman was not killed and is still alive) the Muslims commented, “How lucky is ‘Uthman! He has made tawaf of the House and ran between Safa and Marwah, and has come out of ihram.” Hearing this, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “He would not do that.”

When ‘Uthman returned, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked him, “Did you make tawaf of the House?”

“It is not appropriate for me to make tawaf of the House when the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has not had the opportunity.”[4]

 

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Noteworthy Points

  1. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam selecting Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and sending him to convey his message and glad tidings to the people of Makkah highlights his acceptance and honour.
  2. For negotiations and dialogues at the time of war, those individuals are chosen from both parties who are trusted by both parties. This shows that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had full conviction in the dependability, credibility, and accurate speech of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
  3. The lofty status of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is clearly evident from the bay’ah taken to avenge his death after receiving news of his assassination. This is known as Bay’at al Ridwan.
  4. Despite finding out of his well-being and safety, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam continued the Bay’at al Ridwan and included him in its rewards by declaring his one hand as the hand of ‘Uthman and taking bay’ah on his behalf. This privilege is enjoyed by no one besides him.
  5. Due to hindrances and obstacles, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was unable to perform tawaf and make sa’i between Safa and Marwah. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, without these stoppages in his way, chose not to carry out these acts. This is clear evidence of his perfect love and complete obedience to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

In short, Sayyidina Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah listed all these virtues and excellences of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, thus manifesting his love and loyalty and making it clear that the Banu Hashim have full confidence and faith in Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and harbour absolutely no aversion, hatred, or alienation from him.

 

4. The Statement of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas

Once, Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas went to Sayyidina Amir Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhum where other Quraysh dignitaries were present. Sayyidina Muawiyah asked Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhum few questions, inter alia, what his thoughts were about Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. In response to this, Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma listed his following qualities most eloquently:

 

قال (ابن عباس) رحم الله أبا عمرو كان والله أكرم الحفدة و أفضل البررة هجارا بالأسحار كثير الدموع عند ذكر النار نهاضا عند كل مكرمة سباقا إلى كل منحة حييا أبيا دنيا صاحب جيش العسرة ختن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم آله فأصتب الله على من يلعنه لعنة اللاعنين إلى يوم الدين

May Allah shower mercy upon Abu ‘Amr! By Allah, he was compassionate to his slaves and servants and the most superior of the righteous. Spending his early mornings in worship and shedding tears in abundance when remembering Hell. Active in every good work and a forerunner in every charitable deed. Full of modesty, rejecter of evil, loyal. Mobiliser of the army of difficulty. And finally, the beloved son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. May Allah continuously rain down upon the one who curses him the curse of all those who curse till the Day of Recompense.[5]

 

Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma listed 11 virtues of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. They are self-evident and need no commentary or elucidation. The readers should remember that it is documented in books the Shia regard reliable and authentic that Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas received his knowledge from Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who received it from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who in turn acquired it from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.

فقال ابن عباس علي علمني و كان علمه من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله و رسول الله علمه الله من فوق عرشه فعلم النبي صلى الله عليه و آله من الله و علم علي من النبي و علمي من علم علي

Ibn ‘Abbas stated:

‘Ali taught me and his knowledge was from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. And Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was taught by Allah from above His ‘Arsh. So the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam knowledge is from Allah and ‘Ali’s knowledge is from the Nabi and my knowledge is from ‘Ali.[6]

 

Friends! Realise that the above narration is part of the knowledge possessed by Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma in which he highlights the virtues and excellences of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in a marvellous manner.

 

Announcement

  1. If any of the Shia have misgivings about the historian al Mas’udi’s being Shia, he should take out some time to study the biography of ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn ‘Ali al Mas’udi in Tanqih al Maqal fi Ahwal al Rijal[7] of ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani and his heart and mind will be put to rest. We have made this humble request before. We mentioned it here just as a reminder.
  2. ‘Abbas al Qummi writes in Tuhfat al Ahbab while discussing ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn ‘Ali al Hudhali known as al Mas’udi:

 

ایں شیخ جلیل از اجلہ امامیہ است و بر بعضے از علماء اشتباہ شدہ و آنجناب را از علماء عامہ محسوب نمودہ اند

He is one of the renowned scholars of the Imamiyyah. Some scholars who were unaware of this reality counted him among the Sunni scholars.[8]

 

In conclusion, senior Shia scholars and historians have documented this report of Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who is among the senior ‘Ulama’ of the Banu Hashim and spent his entire life supporting and assisting Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

We have quoted his words from the books of the Shia. Hopefully, this quotation will prove sufficient to realise the position Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu holds in the sight of the Hashimis.

 

NEXT⇒  Chapter 4


[1] Ma’ani al Akhbar, pg. 110, Iran print, old print. It appears like this in Tafsir al Hassan al ‘Askari.

[2] Furu’ al Kafi, 3rd part, Kitab al Rawdah, pg. 146, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow; Kitab al Rawdah min al Kafi with Persian translation, vol. 2 pg. 209, signs of the appearance of the Imam Qa’im, new Tehran print.

[3] Furu’ al Kafi, vol. 3 pg. 151, 3rd part, Kitab al Rawdah, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow, happenings of the expedition of Hudaybiyyah; vol. 2 pg. 238, new Tehran print.

[4] Hayat al Qulub, vol. 2 pg. 489, 490, chapter 38, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow.

[5] Tarikh al Mas’udi, vol. 3 pg. 60, new Egypt print, 1930 edition; Nasikh al Tawarikh, vol. 5 pg. 144, old Tehran print.

[6] Kashf al Ghummah with Persian translation of al Manaqib, vol. 5 pg. 507, new Tehran print; al Amali, vol. 1 pg. 11, Najaf Ashraf print, Iraq.

[7] Tanqih al Maqal fi Ahwal al Rijal, vol. 2 pg. 283.

[8] Tuhfat al Ahbab, pg. 227.

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