Chapter One: Ties of Kinship and Marriage

Introduction
February 13, 2019
Chapter Two: The Aspect of Bay’ah
February 13, 2019

BACK⇒ Return to Table of contents

 

Chapter One

Ties of Kinship and Marriage

In social life, the strongest bond is accepted to be that of family. A family contracting a relationship with another family is understood as a strong expression of goodness and intermarriage between tribes is considered a sign of unity. Family rituals always remain among tribes, by virtue of which one tribe draws closer to another and is considered compatible to the other. These are natural laws of social life which every sensible and experienced man understands as correct. Keeping this in mind, some of the connections between the blessed families of Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan ibn Abi al ‘As ibn Umayyah and Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim radiya Llahu ‘anhuma will be mentioned below. It will be introduced by Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu statement recorded in Shia books like Nahj al Balaghah which he made addressing Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, in this statement, acknowledges the intermarriages between these two families and attests to their compatibility with each other, although there exists variation of ranks in reality. He states:

 

لم يمنعنا قديم عزنا و لا عادي طولنا على قومك أن خلطناكم بأنفسنا فنكحنا و أنكحنا فعل الأكفاء

Our ancient glory and age-old subjugation over your tribe did not prevent us from joining you with ourselves. We married into your tribe and got our daughters married to your boys, just as compatible tribes do.[1]

 

The famous Shia scholar Sayed ‘Ali Naqi titled Fayd al Islam translated this statement into Persian in the following words:

 

شرف کہن و بزرگی دیرین مارا با خویشاوندان تو منع نہ کرد از اینکہ شمارا باخود خلط نمودہ بیا میختیم و از شمازن گرفتیم و بشمازن وانیم چنانکہ اقران و ماںد آں انجام می دہند[2]

 

Ibn Abi al Hadid commentator of Nahj al Balaghah has mentioned 6 links between the Banu ‘Abd Shams and Banu Hashim after quoting this statement. Those who wish to see the details may refer to his book.

The family links and intermarriages shared by the families of Sayyidina ‘Uthman and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma found in historical reports will now be mentioned in sequence. It is hoped that the readers after studying the historical realities will not find difficulty in reaching sensible conclusions.

 

1. ‘Uthman’s Mother, Arwa bint Kurayz

Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu family tree goes as follows: Abu ‘Abdullah ‘Uthman Dhu al Nurayn ibn ‘Affan ibn Abi al ‘As ibn Umayyah ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manaf. His mother is Sayyidah Arwa bint Kurayz radiya Llahu ‘anha. Her mother’s (‘Uthman’s maternal grandmother) name is Umm Hakim al Bayda’ bint ‘Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn ‘Abd Manaf.

The texts of the genealogists and famous historians will now be presented.

  1. Ibn Sa’d mentions under Arwa:

أروى بنت كريز بن ربيعة بن حبيب بن عبد شمس بن عبد مناف بن قصي و أمها أم حكيم البيضاء بنت عبد المطلب بن هاشم بن عبد مناف بن قصي تزوجها عفان بن أبي العاص بن أمية فولدت له عثمان و آمنة ابني عفان … و أسلمت أروى بنت كريز و هاجرت إلى المدينة بعد ابنتها أم كلثوم بنت عقبة و بايعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و لم تزل بالمدينة حتى ماتت في خلافة عثمان بن عفان

Arwa bint Kurayz ibn Rabi’ah ibn Habib ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy. Her mother is Umm Hakim al Bayda’ bint ‘Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn ‘Abd Manaf ibn Qusayy. ‘Affan ibn Abi al ‘As ibn Umayyah married her and she gave birth to two of his children, ‘Uthman and Aminah. Arwa bint Kurayz embraced Islam and emigrated to Madinah after her daughter Umm Kulthum bint ‘Uqbah where she pledged allegiance to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She remained in Madinah until she passed away in the Caliphate of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.[3]

 

  1. Usd al Ghabah of Ibn Athir and al Mustadrak of al Hakim mention the lineage as follows:

أروى بنت كريز بن ربيعة بن حبيب بن عبد شمس وهو أم عثمان بن عفان رضي الله عنه و أمها أم حكيم و هي البيضاء بنت عبد المطلب عمة النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم ماتت في خلافة عثمان

Arwa bint Kurayz ibn Rabi’ah ibn Habib ibn ‘Abd Shams. She is the mother of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Her mother is Umm Hakim al Bayda’ bint ‘Abdul Muttalib, the paternal aunt of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She passed away during the Caliphate of ‘Uthman.[4]

 

The readers should be cognisant of the fact that Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu maternal grandmother Umm Hakim al Bayda’ bint ‘Abdul Muttalib, who is Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam paternal aunt is the twin of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam father ‘Abdullah. This elucidation appears in al Isti’ab[5]. The lovers of research may refer to it.

This is a historical fact, documented in books of history and genealogy. All scholars, whether they be Shi’i, Sunni, or anyone else, accept this. Ibn Abi al Hadid writes in the commentary of Nahj al Balaghah at many places that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would address Sayyidina ‘Uthman as Ibn khali (son of my maternal uncle). Those who read the book will be aware of this.

The Shia mujtahid and scholar of the 14th century, ‘Abbas Qummi has written about this in Muntaha al Amal in the following words:

 

و اما ام حکیم بنت عبد المطلب پس او زوجہء کریز بن ربیعہ بن عبد شمس بن عبد مناف بودہ

Umm Hakim ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib was the consort of Kurayz ibn Rabi’ah ibn Habib ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Abd Manaf.[6]

 

In short, both Shia and Sunni scholars accept this relationship between Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. The family links established between Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma as a result of this relationship will now be presented.

 

Back to top  
  • Umm Hakim al Bayda’ bint ‘Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim is Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam father’s twin and his paternal aunt as well as ‘Ali’s paternal aunt. She is ‘Uthman’s maternal grandmother and ‘Uthman is her grandson.
  • ‘Uthman is Safiyyah bint ‘Abdul Muttalib’s niece’s son. Safiyyah is the maternal aunt of ‘Uthman’s mother.
  • ‘Ali’s father, Abu Talib, is the maternal uncle of ‘Uthman’s mother. ‘Uthman’s mother, Arwa, is his niece.
  • ‘Ali and ‘Uthman’s mother were cousins. Similarly, Jafar al Tayyar and ‘Aqil are cousins of ‘Uthman’s mother.
  • ‘Uthman and the children of ‘Ali, Jafar, and ‘Aqil are cousins.
  • ‘Uthman’s mother is the niece of Sayed al Shuhada’ Hamzah and ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib.
  • Hamzah and ‘Abbas are the maternal uncles of Arwa, ‘Uthman’s mother.

In short, Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu mother is the grandchild of the Banu Hashim, i.e. the Banu Hashim are her maternal family. Due to this, Sayyidina ‘Uthman and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma are related. Other aspects which are worthy to mention will appear shortly. Hopefully you will be delighted to witness the realisation of but those of [blood] relationship are more entitled.[7]

 

2. The Marriage of Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to ‘Uthman

Two daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, viz. Sayyidah Ruqayyah and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum (whose mother is Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha) came into the marriage of Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu one after the other. Owing to this double link, the ummah remembered him with the title Dhu al Nurayn (The Possessor of the Two Lights).

‘Allamah Jalal al Din al Suyuti affirms in Tarikh al Khulafa’ and Ibn Hajar Makki concurs in al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah that besides Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, there is no human from the sons of Adam to enjoy the honour of marrying two daughters of a nabi.

 

قال العلماء و لا يعرف أحد تزوج بنتي نبي غيره و لذلك سمي ذا النورين

The ‘Ulama’ declare: No one is known to have married two daughters of a nabi besides him. Owing to this, he was named Dhu al Nurayn.[8]

 

The connection enjoyed by Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu with the family of the Banu Hashim due to these blessed unions is independent of a reference. The Dhu al Nurayn link is accepted by both sects. Nonetheless, a few references will be presented for the benefit of the masses.

  1. Ibn Sa’d writes in the biography of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

رقية بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و أمها خديجة بنت خويلد … كان تزوجها عتبة بن أبي لهب بن عبد المطلب قبل النبوة فلما بعث رسول الله و أنزل الله تبت يدا أبي لهب و تب فقال له أبو لهب … ففارقها و لم يكن دخل بها و أسلمت حين أسلمت أمها خديجة بنت خويلد و بايعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم هي و أخواتها حين بايعه النساء و تزوجها عثمان بن عفان و هاجرت معه إلى أرض الحبشة … قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إنهما لأول من هاجر إلى الله تبارك و تعالى بعد لوط … ولدت له بعد ذلك ابنا سماه عبد الله و كان عثمان يكنى به في الإسلام و بلغ ست سنين … فمات و لم تلد له شيئا بعد ذلك و مرضت و رسول الله يتجهز إلى بدر فخلف عليها رسول الله عثمان بن عفان فتوفيت و رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ببدر في شهر رمضان … و قدم زيد بن حارثة من بدر بشيرا فدخل المدينة حين سوى التراب على رقية بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و ضرب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لعثمان و سهمه و أجره لا خلاف بين أهل السير في ذلك

Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Her mother is Khadijah bint Khuwaylid. ‘Utbah ibn Abi Lahab ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib married her prior to Nubuwwah. When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was appointed a nabi and Allah revealed, May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined is he[9], Abu Lahab told him to divorce her. Accordingly, he divorced her prior to consummation of the marriage.

She embraced Islam when her mother Khadijah bint Khuwaylid embraced Islam and pledged allegiance to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with her sisters when the women pledged allegiance to him. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan married her and she immigrated with him to Abyssinia. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated, “Indeed, they were the first couple to emigrate towards Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala after Lut.” Thereafter, she bore a son for him and named him ‘Abdullah. ‘Uthman was given the agnomen Abu ‘Abdullah in Islam. The boy reached the age of six and passed away. She did not bear any other children for him thereafter.

She fell ill when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was preparing for Badr. So Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam left ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan behind (to look after her). She passed away while Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was at Badr during the month of Ramadan. Zaid ibn Harithah came from Badr to sound glad tidings of the victory and entered Madinah just as they had filled Ruqayyah’s grave with sand. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam apportioned a share of the booty to ‘Uthman and guaranteed him the reward. There exists no dispute among the historians in this matter.[10]

 

Back to top  

Corroboration from Shia Books

  1. The renowned Shia historian al Mas’udi (d. 345 A.H.) supports this union in his book al Tanbih wa al Ashraf. He writes:

 

و كان له من البنين تسعة عبد الله الأكبر توفي و له من العمر ست سنين أمه رقية بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم على ما قدمنا

‘Uthman had 9 sons, viz. ‘Abdullah al Akbar: he lived to the age of six. His mother is Ruqayyah, the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, as we mentioned previously.[11]

 

Back to top  

‘Uthman’s Inclusion in the Booty and Reward of the Battle of Badr

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam included Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu with the other mujahidin in the booty and rewards of the Battle of Badr. Details of this appear in the books of hadith and history. Study the following references for satisfaction:

  1. Usd al Ghabah, vol. 5 pg. 456, mention of Ruqayyah.
  2. Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 377, mention of ‘Uthman.
  3. Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 1 pg. 523, chapter on the merits of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan (Nur Muhammadi print, Delhi).

 

Back to top  

Corroboration from Shia Books

The leading Shia authorities have supported this. They concur that Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu could not participate in the epic battle due to tending to Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Despite this, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam apportioned for him a share from the booty of Badr and affirmed his partnership in the rewards as well. Al Mas’udi documents this in al Tanbih wa al Ashraf:

 

عثمان بن عفان تخلف عن بدر لمرض رقية بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فضرب له بسهمه فقال يا رسول الله و أجري قال و أجرك إلخ

‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan stayed behind from Badr due to Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sickness. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam apportioned for him his share. He submitted, “O Messenger of Allah, what about my reward?”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam affirmed, “And you receive your reward too.”[12]

 

Back to top  

Removal of a Misconception

Since Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu stayed in Madinah to nurse Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughter in compliance to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instruction, he did not in any way act contrary to any Islamic directive.

Similar was the case of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu who did not participate in the Battle of Tabuk in obedience to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam orders. The same thing happened here, i.e. he did not participate due to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam command. Coupled with this is that Allah’s honoured Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pleased with Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in this matter. Awarding him a share of the booty and affirming his inclusion in the reward is an explicit evidence of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam pleasure.

 

3. The Marriage of Umm Kulthum bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to ‘Uthman

It appears in Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d in the biography of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha:

Umm Kulthum is Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughter. Her honoured mother’s name is Khadijah al Kubra bint Khuwaylid. Prior to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Nubuwwah, she was married to ‘Utaybah ibn Abi Lahab ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim. However, she had not begun living with him yet. When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was appointed as a Nabi and the glorious Qur’an was revealed humiliating the kuffar, Abu Lahab and his wife, Umm Jamil, forced their son ‘Utaybah to divorce her.

She then remained with her father in Makkah. She embraced Islam when her mother embraced Islam and she pledged allegiance to him with her sisters when the women pledged allegiance. She then made hijrah to Madinah with Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam family.

When Ruqayyah (‘Uthman’s wife) passed away, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married Umm Kulthum to him. The nikah was contracted in Rabi’ al Awwal 3 A.H. and she began living with him in Jumada al Ukhra of the same year. She remained with ‘Uthman until her demise. She had no children with ‘Uthman. She passed away in Sha’ban 9 A.H.[13]

 

Back to top  

Some Added Virtues

It is explicitly mentioned in the books of history and hadith that Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was grief stricken at the loss of Sayyidah Ruqayyah radiya Llahu ‘anha. He passed his days in a realm of sorrow and mourning. Once, he voiced his grief to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who stated:

 

يا عثمان هذا جبريل عليه السلام يأمرني عن الله عز و جل أن أزوجك أختها أم كلثوم على مثل صداقها و على مثل عشرتها فزوجه إياها أخرجها الثلاثة (ابن مندة و أبو نعيم و اين عبد البر)

O ‘Uthman! Here is Jibril ‘alayh al Salam informing me that Allah has commanded me to give her sister Umm Kulthum to you in marriage. The same dowry stipulated for Ruqayyah will be binding for Umm Kulthum and she will be treated and looked after just as her.”[14]

 

A similar narration is quoted by al Bukhari in al Tarikh al Kabir which also appears in Kanz al ‘Ummal and Tarikh Baghdad:

 

عن ام عياش و كانت امة لرقية بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قالت قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ما زوجت ام كلثوم من عثمان الا بوحى من السماء

Umm ‘Ayyash, who was the slave girl of Ruqayyah bint Rasulillah radiya Llahu ‘anha, relates that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mentionedn “I got Umm Kulthum married to ‘Uthman in compliance with divine revelation.”[15]

 

When Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha passed away in 9 A.H. Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was devastated. It was in this period that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made a declaration highlighting the lofty virtue and honour Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu enjoys. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is responsible for transmitting this prophetic declaration to the ummah.

Muhaddith Ibn Mandah reported this with his sanad and Ibn Athir al Jazari reported it from him in Usd al Ghabah. Hafiz Ibn ‘Asakir reported it via his sanad from Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Thereafter, al Suyuti documented it in Tarikh al Khulafa’ in the biography of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Ibn Hajar Makki recorded it in al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah with reference to Ibn ‘Asakir.

There are a number of narrations of this kind in the books of hadith. However, we have sufficed on transmitting Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu report. It appears in Usd al Ghabah:

 

عقبة بن علقمة قال سمعت علي بن أبي طالب يقول سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول لو أن لي أربعين بنتا زوجت عثمان واحدة بعد واحدة حتى لا يبقى منهن واحدة

‘Uqbah ibn ‘Alqamah says―I heard ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib saying―I heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declaring:

Had I had 40 daughters, I would have married them to ‘Uthman one after the other, to the very last of them.[16]

 

Thirdly, when Sayyidah Umm Kulthum passed away, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself led the Salat al Janazah. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu descended into the grave together with Fadl ibn ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib and Usamah ibn Zaid ibn Harithah radiya Llahu ‘anhum to lay his sister-in-law to rest.

و توفيت في تسع من الهجرة و صلى عليها أبوها رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و نزل في حفرتها علي و الفضل و أسامة بن زيد

She passed away in 9 A.H. Her father Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam led her Salat al Janazah. ‘Ali, Fadl ibn ‘Abbas, and Usamah ibn Zaid descended into her grave.[17]

 

Back to top  

Corroboration from Shia Books

We have presented a couple of texts from our books to prove this union for the benefit of the unaware. Majority were already aware of this marriage. I feel it appropriate to prove this union from Shia books.

This marriage has been documented in their ancient and modern books and their scholars are well informed of it. However, as per their despicable habit, they label this blessed union with nasty labels and document it in a negative way.[18] They only wish to blemish the lofty image of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and paint him in a bad light. At the same time, the lofty station of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is discredited and Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu high status is tarnished, but they do not care of this. May Allah forbid! Our complaint is to Allah and guidance is from Him only.

Nonetheless, we only wish to display to the masses corroboration from their books. The correctness of the primary issue will be clear to those of understanding and insight and the truth will be manifest. Those given to impartiality readily accept the truth. And Allah guides to the truth. And the truth is more deserving to be followed.

The esteemed readers should be cognisant of the fact that former and latter books of the Shia have documented this marriage. Only a few references will be reproduced hereunder. The object is not to gather them all.

After presenting the snippets from the books with their translations, deductions and points obtained from them will then be listed, Allah willing.

 

Back to top  
  1. Al Mas’udi, the famous Shia scholar, lists the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his book Muruj al Dhahab:

 

كل أولاده صلى الله عليه و سلم من خديجة خلا إبراهيم ولد له صلى الله عليه و سلم القاسم و به كان يكنى و كان أكبر بنيه سنا و رقية و أم كلثوم و كانتا تحت عتبة و عتيبة ابني أبي لهب عمه فطلقاهما لخبر يطول ذكره فتزوجهما عثمان ابن عفان واحدة بعد واحدة إلخ

All the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam save Ibrahim are from Khadijah. Qasim was born to him with whose name he was designated an agnomen (i.e. Abu al Qasim). He was the eldest child. Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum were then born, who were married to ‘Utbah and ‘Utaybah―the sons of his uncle Abu Lahab. They divorced them due to a lengthy incident. Thereafter ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan married them one after the other.[19]

 

  1. Mulla Baqir Majlisi writes in Hayat al Qulub:

 

ابن بابویہ بسند معتبر آحضرت روایت کردہ است کہ از براۓ حضرت رسول متولد شد از خدیجہ قاسم و طاہر و نام طاہر عبد اللہ بود و ام کلثوم و رقیہ و زینب و فاطمہ و حضرت امیر المؤمنین فاطمہ را تزویج نمود و  تزویج نمود زینب را ابو العاص بن ربیع و او مردے بود از بنو امیہ و عثمان بن عفان ام کلثوم را تزویج نمود و پیش ازاں کہ نجانہ اور برود برحمت الہی واصل شد پس چوں بجنگ بدر رفتند حضرت رسول رقیہ را باو تزویج نمود

Ibn Babuwayh al Qummi relates with an authentic chain from Imam Jafar al Sadiq that these children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were born from Khadijah: Qasim, Tahir whose name was ‘Abdullah, Umm Kulthum, Ruqayyah, Zainab, and Fatimah. ‘Ali married Fatimah and Abu al ‘As―who was from the Banu Umayyah―married Zainab. ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan married Umm Kulthum. Before she could go to his house, she reached the mercy of Allah (i.e. she passed away). Thereafter, when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went to Badr, he married Ruqayyah to ‘Uthman.[20]

 

  1. ‘Abbas al Qummi writes in Muntaha al Amal while discussing the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

در قرب الاسناد از حضرت صادق علیہ السلام روایت شدہ است از براۓ رسول خدا صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم از خدیجہ متولد شدند طاہر و قاسم و فاطمہ و ام کلثوم و رقیہ و زینب و تزویج نمود فاطمہ را بحضرت امیر المؤمنین علیہ السلام و زینب را بابی العاص بن ربیع از بنی امیہ بود و ام کلثوم را بعثمان بن عفان پیش ازانکہ بخانہ عثمان برود رحمت الہی و اصل شد و بعد از و حضرت رقیۃ را با و تزویج نمود

In Qurb al Isnad, al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam reports that the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam born from Khadijah are Tahir, Qasim, Fatimah, Umm Kulthum, Ruqayyah and Zainab. Fatimah was married to ‘Ali; Zainab was married to Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ from the Banu Umayyah, and Umm Kulthum was married to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan. When she passed away, Ruqayyah was then married to him.[21]

 

The readers should be cognisant of the fact that there exists difference of opinion among the Shia scholars as to whether Sayyidah Ruqayyah or Sayyidah Umm Kulthum was married to Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhum first. However, there is no dispute among them that he did in fact marry both of them. This is an undisputed fact. These texts from Hayat al Qulub and Muntaha al Amal are in conformity to one opinion. Nevertheless, they support and corroborate the matter under discussion which is desired.

 

Back to top  

‘Ali’s Statement as Support

  1. The following statement of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is documented in the renowned Shia book, Nahj al Balaghah. When the rebels surrounded the house of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and tightened their grip, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu came to him and spoke to him. He expresses these words during his dialogue with Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

و الله ما أدري ما أقول لك ما أعرف شيئا تجهله و لا أدلك على أمر لا تعرفه ما سبقناك إلى شيء فنخبرك عنه و لا خلونا بشيء فنبلغكه و قد رأيت كما رأينا و سمعت كما سمعنا و صحبت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله كما صحبنا و ما ابن أبي قحافة و لا ابن الخطاب أولى بعمل الحق منك و أنت أقرب إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله و سلم وشيجة رحم منهما و نلت من صهره ما لم ينالا

By Allah, I do not know what to say to you. I do not know anything you are ignorant of, nor can I notify you of something you are unaware of. We have not surpassed you in anything that we may inform you of, nor are we the sole recipients of any information we may pass on to you. You have seen what we have seen, you heard what we heard, and you sat in Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam company just as we did. Neither is Ibn Abi Quhafah nor Ibn al Khattab more entitled to practicing on the truth than you. You have a closer family connection to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and you have secured a link though marriage to him which they have not.[22]

 

  1. Sayed ‘Ali Naqi Fayd al Islam writes in the Persian commentary of this text of Nahj al Balaghah:

 

تو از جہت خویشی برسول خدا صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ غز انہا نزدیک تری یعنی خویشاوندی عثمان از ابو بکر و عمر بہ پیغمبر اکرم نزدیک تر است و بدامادئ پغمبر مرتبہء یافتی کہ ابو بکر و عمر نیافتند

You have a closer family link to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam than them (i.e. ‘Uthman’s link to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is closer than Abu Bakr’s and ‘Umar’s) and you are the son in law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, a connection they have not secured.[23]

 

Back to top  

Beneficial Points

After mentioning the merit of Dhu al Nurayn, it is important to clarify few aspects.

  • After studying all the above quotations from Sunni and Shia sources, it becomes clearer than the sun in broad daylight that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had four biological daughters. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares in the 22nd Juz’ of the glorious Qur’an, towards the end of Surah al Ahzab, when sounding the command of hijab:

 

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ يُدْنِيْنَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلَابِيْبِهِنَّ

Prophet, tell your wives, your daughters, and the women of the believers to bring down over themselves [part] of their outer garments.[24]

 

Historical Islamic reports of the Sunni and Shia bear testimony to the fact that all of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam children, besides Ibrahim radiya Llahu ‘anhu, were from Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. The names of the blessed daughters are: Sayyidah Zainab, Sayyidah Ruqayyah, Sayyidah Umm Kulthum, and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. These four are biological true sisters.

In front of the testimony of the Book of Allah (which is the weightiest) and the attestation of all reliable Islamic historical reports, the claim―due to any corrupt motive or hidden malice―that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had only one biological daughter is totally false and is a grave slander against the pure lineage of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and is a denial of historical facts. May Allah guide everyone to the truth.

 

  • Secondly, it is imperative to clarify that some ill-informed people insist that these daughters were from the previous husbands of Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha or were her nieces, and were not the biological daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

This is a distortion and misrepresentation of facts. The reality is something else. It is in direct conflict to what the books of history, biography, and genealogy have asserted. The Muslims know very well that all four girls are the biological daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from the chaste Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

To claim that they are the daughters of her previous husband or her nieces has been debunked by Shia scholars and mujtahidin themselves. Accordingly, Mulla Baqir Majlisi―a mujtahid of the 11th century―refutes both these lies in his book Hayat al Qulub in the following words:

بر نفی ایں ہر دو قول روایات معتبرہ دلالت  می کند

Reliable and authentic narrations refute both these views.[25]

In conclusion, these false views that are being disseminated and are opposed to what is correct and accurate are not worthy of consideration or acceptance. It will be appropriate to mention for the benefit of those that are into research that just as Mulla Baqir Majlisi, ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani has written a detailed response to the misconception of these three girls being Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam step-daughters or Sayyidah Khadijah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha nieces while speaking about them in his book Tanqih al Maqal[26]. If only a pinch of impartiality is added, there will be no need for a further response.

 

  • The references of both the sects affirm that two lights of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, viz. Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum, were wedded to Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu one after the other and he was awarded the fortune of being the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Owing to this, the ummah awarded him the noble title Dhu al Nurayn (which no one else achieved). At the same time, he attained the honour of being the brother-in-law of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. By securing these honours, he is unique in his fortune.

 

  • It is worthy to note that Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu obtained this honour by the command of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, as confirmed by prophetic traditions, just as Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu secured the honour of being Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam son-in-law by divine permission. Both have been favoured with a link to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam family by divine leave. This is due to the fact that Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam tongue is under divine command. The glorious Qur’an announces:

وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَىٰ  إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَ

Nor does he speak from [his own] inclination. It is not but a revelation revealed.[27]

 

Back to top  

Fallacy

To blemish the image of Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, some have broadcasted a story of him torturing the first daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and breaking her ribs which led to her martyrdom. Thereafter, he treated the second daughter in a very nasty manner, beat her, and harmed her in horrifying ways which proved fatal. Due to this, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was extremely angry at Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Many of their books have documented these types of fallacies with great detail. Hayat al Qulub[28] of Mulla Baqir Majlisi bears testimony to this.

 

Back to top  

Removal of this Fallacy

It is appropriate to mention on the onset that the narrations of the martyrdom of these daughters rests upon one narrator, Yunus ibn Khabbab al Kufi. The masters of rijal have condemned this man using the following words:

Yunus ibn Khabbab al Kufi

  • An evil man.
  • He condemns ‘Uthman.
  • He verbally abused ‘Uthman.
  • He claims that ‘Uthman killed the two daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[29]

 

Ibn ‘Adi writes in al Kamil:

Yunus ibn Khabbab al Kufi

  • He had rafidi ideologies.
  • An evil man. He would swear ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.
  • A great liar and fabricator.
  • One of the fanatics in Tashayyu’.[30]

 

Secondly, if hypothetically these stories are true, then the following objections will be raised against Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Allah forbid!

  • Why did Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam give him a share of the booty of Badr and why did he include him in the reward?
  • When the first daughter suffered immensely at his hands, how could the second daughter be wedded to such a ruthless bully?
  • How were the following verses forgotten and discarded?

 

وَتَعَاوَنُوْا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوىٰ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوْا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيْدُ الْعِقَابِ

And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and aggression. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.[31]

 

وَلَا تَرْكَنُوْا إِلَى الَّذِيْنَ ظَلَمُوْا فَتَمَسَّكُمُ النَّارُ

And do not incline toward those who do wrong, lest you be touched by the Fire.[32]

 

وَاسْتَقِمْ كَمَا أُمِرْتَ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ

And remain on a right course as you are commanded and do not follow their inclinations[33]

 

If any ordinary man’s daughter is put through such oppression and tyranny which finally proves fatal, will he ever consider handing over another daughter’s hand in marriage to such a tyrant and continue living normally with him? This defies intellect and morality. No intelligent, sound, sensible man of dignity will do this. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is free from every blemish and ignominy. It is unfathomable for him to commit this.

Moreover, every honourable family and noble tribe honours and respects their sons-in-law. Therefore, whoever respects the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the brother-in-law of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu will deem all these accusations as false and worthless.

The statement of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu documented in Nahj al Balaghah which we quoted above clarifies many aspects, for example:

  • There existed no religious difference between Sayyidina ‘Uthman and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. They adhered to the same religion and remained unified on the same till their end.
  • Sayyidina ‘Ali considered Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma his equal in knowledge and intelligence.
  • He did not consider himself to enjoy precedence towards good actions over Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
  • Raising Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to his own pedestal in obtaining the honour of seeing Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and sitting in his company is a strong proof and weighty testimony for Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu perfect iman and righteous practices.
  • Sayyidina ‘Ali confirmed Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma being the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his own brother-in-law. Sayyidah Fatimah, Sayyidah Ruqayyah, and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhum are full sisters and the biological daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

In short, after Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu acknowledgement of this family connection, there remains no need for any reference or proof since the opposition believe firmly that the truth flows on the tongue of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

 

4. The Marriage of Umm Kulthum to ‘Uthman’s son, Aban

Sayyidina Jafar is Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhum full brother. His eldest son is Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu whose daughter is Umm Kulthum. Umm Kulthum was married to Aban ibn ‘Uthman.

Ibn Qutaybah al Dinawari (d. 276 A.H.) has mentioned this union twice in his book al Ma’arif; first in the biography of Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and second when discussing Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Have a look at his words which are quoted verbatim below.

He says while discussing Aban ibn ‘Uthman:

كانت عنده أم كلثوم بنت عبد الله بن جعفر إلخ

Umm Kulthum bint ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar was in his nikah.[34]

 

He mentions while discussing the children of ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

فأما أم كلثوم فكانت عند القاسم بن محمد بن جعفر بن أبي طالب … ثم تزوجها أبان بن عثمان بن عفان إلخ

Umm Kulthum was first married to Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib. Thereafter, Aban ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan married her.[35]

 

5. The Marriage of Sukaynah bint al Hussain to Zaid ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman

Sayyidina Hussain ibn ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu daughter, Sukaynah, was in the wedlock of Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu grandson, Zaid ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman.

The books of genealogy speak about this union in Sukaynah’s biography:

 

تزوجها مصعب بن الزبير بن العوام ابتكرها فولدت له فاطمة ثم قتل عنها فخلف عليها عبد الله بن عثمان بن عبد الله بن حكيم بن حزام … فولدت له عثمان الذي يقال له قرين و حكيما و ربيحة فهلك عنها فخلف عليها زيد بن عمرو بن عثمان بن عفان

First, Mus’ab ibn al Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam married her, and she bore Fatimah for him. He was then martyred. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Hakim ibn Hizam then married her. She gave birth to ‘Uthman―who is called Qarin, Hakim, and Rabihah. After he passed away, Zaid ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan married her.[36]

 

 و زيد بن عمرو بن عثمان بن عفان هذا هو الذي كانت عنده سكينة بنت حسين فهلك عنها فورثته

Zaid ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan is the one in whose wedlock Sukaynah bint Hussain was. He passed away before her so she inherited from him.[37]

 

6. The Marriage of Fatimah bint al Hussain to ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman

This union is recorded by Ibn Sa’d:

 

تزوجها (فاطمة) ابن عمها حسن بن حسن بن علي بن أبي طالب فولدت له عبد الله (المحض) و إبراهيم و حسنا و زينب ثم مات عنها فخلف عليها عبد الله بن عمرو بن عثمان بن عفان زوجها إياه ابنها عبد الله بن حسن بأمرها فولدت له القاسم و محمد و هو الديباج سمي بذلك لجماله و رقية بني عبد الله بن عمرو

Fatimah’s paternal cousin Hassan ibn Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib married her. She gave birth to his children ‘Abdullah (al Mahd), Ibrahim, Hassan, and Zainab. He then passed away. Subsequently, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan married her. Her son, ‘Abdullah ibn Hassan, gave her to him in marriage by her leave. She gave birth to his children, Qasim, Muhammad―who was titled al Dibaj (lit. silk) due to his handsomeness, and Ruqayyah.[38]

 

Remember that Fatimah bint al Hussain’s mother is Umm Ishaq bint Talhah ibn ‘Ubaidullah.

The Shia scholars have mentioned this union in the following places.

  1. Abu al Farj al Asbahani writes in the biography of Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan in his book Maqatil al Talibiyin:

 

و أمه فاطمة بنت الحسين كان عبد الله بن عمرو بن عثمان بن عفان تزوجها بعد وفات الحسن بن الحسن بن علي بن أبي طالب

His mother is Fatimah bint al Hussain. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan married her after the demise of (her first husband) Hassan ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib.[39]

 

  1. It appears in Nasikh al Tawarikh:

و بعد از حسن مثنی فاطمۃ بحبالہء نکاح عبد اللہ بن عمرو بن عثمان بن عفان در آمد

After Hassan al Muthanna, Fatimah came into the wedlock of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.[40]

 

Hopefully, this amount of references from the books of both sects will be considered sufficient.

 

7. The marriage of Umm al Qasim to Marwan ibn Aban

Umm al Qasim is the granddaughter of Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Marwan is the grandson of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Mus’ab al Zubairi has spoken about this marriage in Nasab Quraysh. Ibn Hazm and Abu Jafar al Baghdadi concurred.

 

كانت أم القاسم بنت الحسن بن الحسن عند مروان بن أبان بن عثمان بن عفان فولدت له محمد بن مروان ثم خلف عليها حسين بن عبد الله بن عبيد الله بن العباس بن عبد المطلب فتوفيت عنده و ليس لها منه ولد

Umm al Qasim bint al Hussain ibn al Hassan was in the marriage of Marwan ibn Aban ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan. She gave birth to his son Muhammad ibn Marwan. After his demise, Hussain ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Ubaidullah ibn al ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib married her. She passed away in his wedlock. He had no children from her.[41]

 

Back to top  

The Banu Umayyah and Banu Hashim enjoy many family links as documented in Islamic history. Some links were there before Islam while some were after Islam. Our goal is not to gather them all, however, we have mentioned but a few wherein Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu is directly related. All these marriages were contracted happily by the Banu Hashim and gladly accepted by Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu family. There exists neither force nor coercion in any. Besides Umm Hakim Bayda’ bint ‘Abdul Muttalib’s link, all the other relationships mentioned above were contracted after Islam.

Those with sound temperaments and impartial minds will now be able to determine using their intuition and answer the following questions:

  • Is Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu family a noble tribe?
  • Are they good people or wicked?
  • Is the tribe worthy of admiration and praise or deserving of hatred and disgrace?
  • Does Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu enjoy a family link to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu? Or is he totally alienated?
  • Did there exist enmity and dispute between Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma over the Caliphate and related issues? Or unity and harmony?

If, hypothetically, it is accepted that Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his family were wicked and deserving of hatred and humiliation and he was alienated from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and there existed enmity between them over the matter of Caliphate, then the questions that beg answers are: Why did Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu family and his offspring terminate all these family feuds and ancestry disputes? How did they totally forget about their forefather’s disagreements? And how did they tolerate marrying their daughters into such a family?

What we wish to point out is that the Hashimi, ‘Alawi, Hassani, and Hussaini families giving their daughters to the ‘Uthmani kinfolk pronounces emphatically that there existed absolutely no hostility, aversion, disputes, family feuds, or ancestral quarrels between their seniors. They all enjoyed mutual unity, compassion, and mercy.

However, cunning narrators—to dramatise the story—concocted different types of tales and broadcasted these fabrications to cause disunity and division among the Muslims, so that family feuds become apparent and eyes of aggression be directed towards these families.

We have presented a glimpse of the family links these tribes enjoyed for people of understanding and contemplation and encouraged them to ponder and reflect deeply. There will be no barrier now for the balanced to reach sound conclusions, Allah willing.

 

NEXT⇒  Chapter 2


[1] Nahj al Balaghah, vol. 2 pg. 32, from his letters to Muawiyah, one of the finest letters, Egypt print.

[2] Tarjamah wa Sharh Farisi Fayd al Islam, vol. 5 pg. 888.

[3] Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 8 pg. 166, discussion on Arwa, Leiden print; Tarikh Khalifah ibn Khayyat, vol. 1 pg. 131, Najaf Ashraf print, Iraq; Ansab al Ashraf, vol. 5 pg. 1, Baghdad print, discussion on Uthman ibn ‘Affan; Kitab al Muhabbar, pg. 407, Hyderabad Dakkan print.

[4] Al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 96, Dakkan print; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 5 pg. 191, chapter on women.

[5] Al Isti’ab, vol. 4, discussion on Umm Hakim bint ‘Abdul Muttalib.

[6] Muntaha al Amal, vol. 1, section 9, chapter on the condition of the relatives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

[7] Surah al Anfal: 75.

[8] Tarikh al Khulafa’, pg. 105, chapter on mention of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, Mujtaba’i print, Delhi; al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah, pg. 107, chapter 7, section 1; Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 6, pg. 371, virtues of Dhu al Nurayn ‘Uthman; Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 6 pg. 275, with reference to Ibn ‘Asakir.

[9] Surah Lahab: 1.

[10] Usd al Ghabah, vol. 5 pg. 456, discussion on Ruqayyah; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 377, discussion on ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan.

[11] Al Tanbih wa al Ashraf, pg. 255, mention of ‘Uthman’s Caliphate.

[12] Al Tanbih wa al Ashraf, pg. 205, under the second year, Cairo print, Egypt.

[13] Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 8 pg. 25, biography of Umm Kulthum bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Leiden print; al Isti’ab with al Isabah, vol. 4 pg. 463, 463, biography of Umm Kulthum, Egypt print; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 5, pg. 612, biography of Umm Kulthum, Tehran print.

[14] Usd al Ghabah, vol. 5 pg. 613, biography of Umm Kulthum bint al Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; al Mustadrak, vol. 4 pg. 49.

[15] Al Tarikh al Kabir, vol. 2 pg. 281 section 1, chapter concerning the soul; Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 6 pg. 148, 149, 150, the virtues of Dhu al Nurayn; Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 12 pg. 364, the virtue of Ibn Jafar ibn ‘Abdullah; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 83.

[16] Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 376, biography of ‘Uthman; Tarikh al Khulafa’, pg. 108, section on the ahadith in his virtue besides what has passed, Mujtaba’i print, Delhi; al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah, pg. 110, section on the merits of ‘Uthman, second edition, Egypt.

[17] Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 8 pg. 26, Leiden print; al Isti’ab, vol. 4 pg. 264, Egypt pint; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 5 pg. 612, Tehran print.

[18] Hayat al Qulub, vol. 2 pg. 718 – 723, section one, chapter 51, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow.

[19] Muruj al Dhahab, vol. 2 pg. 298, fifth edition, 1387 A.H./1967 print.

[20] Hayat al Qulub, vol. 2 pg. 718, chapter 51, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow.

[21] Muntaha al Amal, vol. 1 pg. 108, section 8, while mentioning the biographies of the children; Tanqih al Maqal fi ‘Ilm al Rijal, vol. 3 pg. 73, 74, from the section on women.

[22] Nahj al Balaghah, vol. 1 pg. 303, 322, Egypt print.

[23] Sharh Nahj al Balaghah Farisi, vol. 3 pg. 519, Tehran print.

[24] Surah al Ahzab: 59.

[25] Hayat al Qulub, vol. 2 pg. 719, chapter 51, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow.

[26] Tanqih al Maqal, vol. 3 pg., 73, 77, 78, 79, section 4, biographies of his wives.

[27] Surah al Najm: 3, 4.

[28] Hayat al Qulub, vol. 2, pg. 720 – 723, chapter 51.

[29] Yahya ibn Ma’in: al Tarikh, vol. 2 pg. 687, 688.

[30] Al Kamil, vol. 7 pg. 2629, 2630, 2631.

[31] Surah al Ma’idah: 2.

[32] Surah Hud: 113.

[33] Surah al Shura: 15.

[34] Al Ma’arif, pg. 86.

[35] Al Ma’arif, pg. 90, Egypt print.

[36] Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 8, pg. 346, Leiden print; Nasab Quraysh, vol. 2 pg. 59, Egypt print.

[37] Nasab Quraysh, vol. 4 pg. 120; al Ma’arif, pg. 94, 187, Egypt print; Jamharat Ansab al ‘Arab, vol. 1 pg. 86, latest edition.

[38] Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 8, pg. 347, 348, Leiden print; Nasab Quraysh, vol. 4 pg. 114; Kitab al Muhabbar, pg. 404, Hyderabad Dakkan print; Kitab al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 3 pg. 301, section 2, Hyderabad Dakkan print; al Ma’arif, pg. 93, Egypt print.

[39] Maqatil al Talibiyin, pg. 76, Iran print; al Tanbih wa al Ashraf, pg. 255, mention of the Caliphate of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan; Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, vol. 3 pg. 675; footnotes of ‘Umdat al Talib fi Ansab Al Abi Talib, second objective regarding the progeny of Hassan al Muthanna.

[40] Nasikh al Tawarikh, vol. 6 pg. 534, book 2, old print.

[41] Nasab Quraysh, pg. 53, section 2; Jamharat Ansab al ‘Arab, vol. 1 pg. 85; Kitab al Muhabbar, pg. 438.

Back to top