Chapter 3: Section 2 – Theme Two

Section Two: Issues concerning the Marriage of ‘Umar to Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali – Theme One
February 7, 2019
Chapter 3: Section 2 – Theme 2: Necessary Clarifications
February 7, 2019

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Theme Two

In the first theme, the issue of Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali al Murtada’s marriage was proven from the books of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah and the statements of the noble Imams. However, only a few quotations were presented. Otherwise, there is a number of references which are backed by reliable sanads to prove this point, inter alia, Sahih al Bukhari, book on jihad, chapter on women carrying waterskins to the people during battle. Thereafter, the writings of the genealogists were presented to prove this relationship so that the strong historical backing of this matter may be realised.

Now we wish to list some significant points in the second theme which will increase the knowledge of the readers and strengthen their conviction in this matter.

The marriage of Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab to Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib’s daughter Umm Kulthum―daughter of Fatimah al Zahra radiya Llahu ‘anhum―will be presented from Shia books deemed reliable by them. In this manner, the Shia readers may be assured of the authenticity of this matter just as the Ahlus Sunnah were assured of the same in the first theme.

In the eyes of the Shia, four books are regarded the most reliable, authentic, and genuine over all other books. These books are referred to as the four canonical books.

  1. Al Kafi by Muhammad ibn Ya’qub al Kulayni al Razi (d. 329 A.H.)
  2. Man La Yahduruhu al Faqih by Sheikh al Saduq Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Babawayh al Qummi (d. 381 A.H.)
  3. Al Istibsar by Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Hassan al Tusi, Sheikh al Ta’ifah, (d. 460 A.H.)
  4. Tahdhib al Ahkam by the above author.

In three of the above four, besides Man La Yahduruhu al Faqih, the nikah of Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali has been documented coupled with the statements―supported by isnads―of the infallible Imams. Firstly, we would like to present this topic from their canonical works in detail, followed by quoting the statements of their reliable scholars and mujtahidin of every era. The readers should not take the abundance of references as distasteful. This manner has been adopted to authenticate this matter.

 

Report One: First Narration of al Kafi

 

عن هشام بن سالم عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال لما خطب إليه قال له أمير المؤمنين إنها صبية قال فلقي العباس فقال له ألي بأس فقال و ما ذاك قال خطبت إلى ابن أخيك فردني أما والله لأعودن زمزم و لا أدع لكم مكرمة إلا هدمتها و لأقيمن عليه شاهدين بأنه سرق و لأقطعن يمينه فأتاه العباس فأخبره و سأله أن يجعل الأمر إليه فجعله إليه

From Hisham ibn Salim―from Abu ‘Abdullah rahimahu Llah who reports:

When ‘Umar proposed to him (for Umm Kulthum), Amir al Mu’minin told him, “She is still a child.”

Then ‘Umar met ‘Abbas and said, “Is there anything wrong with me?”

‘Abbas asked, “What is the matter?”

He explained, “I proposed to your nephew (for his daughter) but he refused. Behold! By Allah, I will take back (the honour of providing) zam zam (to the hujjaj) and will destroy every honour of yours. I will definitely make two witnesses testify that he stole and cut off his right hand.”

Hearing this, ‘Abbas rushed to ‘Ali and informed him of the gravity of the situation. He asked him to hand over the matter to him and ‘Ali consented.[1]

 

Report Two: Second Narration of al Kafi

 

حماد عن زرارة عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام في تزويج أم كلثوم فقال إن ذلك …

Same as above.[2]

 

Report Three: Third Narration of al Kafi

 

عن عبد الله بن سنان و معاوية بن عمار عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال سألته عن المرأة المتوفى عنها زوجها تعتد في بيتها أو حيث شاءت قال بل حيث شاءت إن عليا صلوات الله عليه لما توفي عمر أتى أم كلثوم فانطلق بها إلى بيته

‘Abdullah ibn Sinan and Muawiyah ibn ‘Ammar report―from Abu ‘Abdullah:

I asked him about a woman whose husband has passed away, whether she should pass her ‘iddah in her home, or wherever she wants.

He answered, “Rather, wherever she wishes. Surely, when ‘Umar passed away ‘Ali―may Allah’s salutations be upon him―came to Umm Kulthum and took her back to his home (to pass her ‘iddah).”[3]

 

Report Four: Fourth Narration of al Kafi

 

عن سليمان بن خالد قال سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن امرأة توفي عنها زوجها أين تعتد في بيت زوجها أو حيث شاءت قال بل حيث شاءت ثم قال إن عليا صلوات الله عليه لما مات عمر أتى أم كلثوم فأخذ بيدها فانطلق بها إلى بيته

Sulaiman ibn Khalid says:

I asked Abu ‘Abdullah rahimahu Llah about a woman who loses her husband, where should she pass her ‘iddah, in her husband’s home or where she wills?

He answered, “Where she wills.”

He continued, “Indeed when ‘Umar passed away, ‘Ali―may Allah’s salutations be upon him―came to Umm Kulthum, took her hand, and walked with her to his home.”[4]

 

Report Five: First Narration of al Istibsar

 

عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال سألته عن المرأة المتوفى عنها زوجها تعتد في بيتها أو حيث شاءت قال بل حيث شاءت إن عليا عليه السلام لما توفي عمر أتى أم كلثوم فانطلق بها إلى بيته

I asked Abu ‘Abdullah about a woman who survives her husband, should she pass her ‘iddah in her husband’s home or where she wants.

He replied, “Wherever she wants. When ‘Umar passed away, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu came to Umm Kulthum and took her home.”[5]

 

Report Six: Second Narration of al Istibsar

 

عن سليمان بن خالد قال سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن امرأة توفي عنها زوجها اين تعتد في بيت زوجها أو حيث شاءت قال بل حيث شاءت ثم قال إن عليا عليه السلام لما مات عمر أتى أم كلثوم فأخذ بيدها فانطلق بها إلى بيته

Sulaiman ibn Khalid reports:

I asked Abu ‘Abdullah about a woman who survives her husband, should she pass her ‘iddah in her husband’s home or where she wants.

He replied, “Wherever she wants. When ‘Umar passed away, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu came to Umm Kulthum and took her home.”[6]

 

Report Seven: First Narration of Tahdhib al Ahkam

 

عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال سألته عن المرأة المتوفى عنها زوجها تعتد في بيتها أو حيث شاءت قال بل حيث شاءت إن عليا لما توفي عمر أتى أم كلثوم فانطلق بها إلى بيته

I asked Abu ‘Abdullah about a woman whose husband has passed away, should she pass her ‘iddah in her husband’s home or where she wants.

He replied, “Wherever she wants. When ‘Umar passed away, ‘Ali came to Umm Kulthum and took her home.”[7]

 

Report Eight: Second Narration of Tahdhib al Ahkam

 

سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن امرأة توفي عنها زوجها أين تعتد في بيت زوجها أو حيث شاءت قال بل حيث شاءت ثم قال إن عليا لما توفي عمر أتى أم كلثوم فأخذ بيدها فانطلق بها إلى بيته

I asked Abu ‘Abdullah rahimahu Llah about a woman whose husband has passed away, should she pass her ‘iddah in her husband’s home or where she desires.

He replied, “Wherever she desires. When ‘Umar passed away, ‘Ali came to Umm Kulthum, held her hand, and took her home.”[8]

 

Report Nine: Third Narration of Tahdhib al Ahkam

 

عن جعفر عن أبيه قال ماتت أم كلثوم بنت علي و ابنها زيد بن عمر بن الخطاب في ساعة واحد لا يدرى أيهما هلك قبل فلم يورث أحدهما من الآخر و صلي عليهما جميعا

From Jafar―from his father who explained:

Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali and her son Zaid ibn ‘Umar ibn al Khattab passed away at the same time. It was not known who died first. So neither of them inherited from the other and their Salat al Janazah was performed at the same time.[9]

 

These 9 reports from three of the four canonical works establish that:

  1. Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali was married to ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
  2. ‘Ali appointed ‘Abbas as the representative to contract this nikah.
  3. Umm Kulthum gave birth to ‘Umar’s children.
  4. When ‘Umar passed on, ‘Ali took his beloved daughter Umm Kulthum to his home to pass her ‘iddah.
  5. The day Umm Kulthum passed away, on that very day her son Zaid ibn ‘Umar ibn al Khattab passed away and both mother’s and son’s Salat al Janazah was performed at once.

 

Now we will prove this fact from books regarded as reliable and authentic by the Shia from other Shia scholars and mujtahidin. Shia scholars of each era have verified this marriage. However, they have coupled it with the interpretation of it occurring under coercion and duress.

The famous scholar and mujtahid of the fourth century, Sayed Murtada ‘Alam al Huda’s (d. 406 A.H.) writings will be presented. According to the Shia scholars, ‘Alam al Huda holds a position between the mutaqaddimin (early) and muta’akhirin (later) scholars. Have a look at his statements:

 

Report Ten

Sayed Murtada ‘Alam al Huda wrote in Kitab al Shafi (which was authored to answer al Mughni of Qadi ‘Abdul Jabbar):

 

فأما تزويجه بنته فلم يكن ذلك عن اختيار و الخلاف فيه مشهور فإن الرواية وردت بأن عمر بن الخطاب خطبها إلى أمير المؤمنين فدافعه و ماطله فاستدعى عمر العباس فقال مالي أبي بأس فقال ما حملك على هذا الكلام فقال خطبت إلى ابن أخيك فمنعني … فقال العباس رد أمرها إلي ففعل فزوجه العباس إياها إلخ

Regarding marrying off his daughter, this did not happen with his consent. The debate here is common. The narration appears that ‘Umar ibn al Khattab proposed for her to Amir al Mu’minin but he postponed it and put him off. So ‘Umar approached ‘Abbas and said, “What is with me? Is there anything wrong with me?”

‘Abbas asked, “What makes you speak this?”

He explained, “I proposed to your nephew but he rejected me.” …

‘Abbas said, “Hand over her matter to me.” And he consented. So ‘Abbas got her married to him (‘Umar).[10]

 

Report Eleven

Sayed Murtada ‘Alam al Huda presents Umm Kulthum’s nikah with the following words in Tanzih al Ambiya:

 

فأما إنكاحه عليه السلام فقد ذكرنا في كتابنا الشافي الجواب عن هذا الباب مشروحا و بينا أنه عليه السلام ما أجاب عمر إلى إنكاح بنته عليها السلام إلا بعد توعد و تهدد و مراجعة و منازعة

With regards to marrying his daughter off, we have previously mentioned in our book al Shafi the detailed answer to this issue and elucidated that he did not consent to ‘Umar marrying his daughter except after threatening, intimidating, quarrelling, and disputing.[11]

 

Report Twelve

Ibn Abi al Hadid relates an incident in his commentary on Nahj al Balaghah under the text:

 

نعم الطيب المسك خفيف محمله عطو ريحه

What a wonderful perfume is musk. It’s light in weight and pleasant in fragrance.

 

Wherein Sayyidina ‘Ali’s daughter being in the wedlock of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma is vividly evident. Have a look at the incident:

 

وجه عمر إلى ملك الروم بريدا فاشترت أم كلثوم امرأة عمر طيبا بدنانير و جعلته في قارورتين و أهدتهما إلى امرأة ملك الروم فرجع البريد إليها و معه ملأ القارورتين جواهر فدخل عليهما عمر و قد صبت الجواهر في حجرها فقال من أين لك هذا فأخبرته فقبض عليه و قال هذا للمسلمين قالت كيف و هو عوض هديتي قال بيني و بينك أبوك فقال علي عليه السلام لك منه بقيمة دينارك و الباقي للمسلمين جملة لإن بريد المسلمين حمله

‘Umar sent an envoy to the Roman King. Meanwhile, Umm Kulthum his wife, purchased perfume for few gold coins and placed it in two long necked bottles and sent them as a gift for the wife of the Roman king. The envoy returned to her with two bottles filled with pearls. ‘Umar entered upon them after she had poured the pearls in her lap. He asked, “Where did you get this from?”

She informed him of the incident.

‘Umar grabbed it and said, “This belongs to the Muslims.”

“How?” she asked, “It is in lieu of my gift.”

He said, “Your father will decide this matter between us.”

‘Ali rahimahu Llah said, “You will receive pearls equal to the value of money you spent, and the rest is for the Muslims, since their envoy brought it.”[12]

 

 

Deductions of this narration

  • Firstly, it is established that Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali was married to Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
  • Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was pleased with this union.
  • He would visit his daughter often at Sayyidina ‘Umar’s house.
  • Sayyidina ‘Ali was included in the home affairs of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.

This report is a glaring evidence of the pure dealings and amiable relationship they shared.

 

Report Thirteen

The distinguished muhaqqiq of the Shia al Hilli (d. 676 A.H.) prepared a manuscript on the Jafari Fiqh named Sharai’ al Islam. He writes in the book of marriage of this manuscript about the issues related to the nikah contract:

 

و يجوز نكاح الحرة العبد و العربية العجمي و الهاشمية غير الهاشمي

The marriage of a free woman to a slave man, an Arab woman to a non-Arab man, and a Hashimi woman to a non-Hashimi man is permissible.[13]

 

One of the senior Shia, Sheikh Zayn al Din Ahmed al ‘Amili, referred to as the second martyr wrote a commentary regarded very reliable of Sharai’ al Islam, named Masalik al Afham in 964 A.H. Under the above text, he elucidates explicitly on the nikah of Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali. This is an accepted and unanimous ruling of the Jafari fiqh. It is not disputed. The text of the commentary with its translation will be presented to the readers. After reading both the text and commentary, one will realise the accurateness of the issue at hand. There will remain no need for any mujtahid’s interpretation or explanation.

Shahid al Thani writes as evidence of al Hilli’s above assertion:

 

و زوج النبي ابنته عثمان و زوج ابنته زينب بأبي العاص بن الربيع و ليسا من بني هاشم و كذلك زوج علي ابنته أم كلثوم من عمر و تزوج عبد الله بن عمرو بن عثمان فاطمة بنت الحسين و تزوج مصعب بن الزبير أختها سكينة و كلهم من غير بني هاشم

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married his daughter to ‘Uthman and his daughter Zainab to Abu al ‘As ibn al Rabi’ whereas they were not from the Banu Hashim. Similarly, ‘Ali got his daughter Umm Kulthum married to ‘Umar. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman married Fatimah bint al Hussain and Mus’ab ibn al Zubair married her sister Sukaynah―whereas all of them are not from the Banu Hashim.[14]

 

These are five unions which were mentioned as proof for the fiqhi mas’alah, one of them being Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali’s marriage. There remains no scope for any sensible person to reject the actuality of this union. And there is no treatment for doggedness.

May Allah allow the Muslims to live with unity and guide their hearts. Amin.

 

Report Fourteen

Qadi Nur Allah Shustari, a renowned Shia mujtahid, al Shahid al Thalith (d. 1019 A.H), has written on the issue of Umm Kulthum’s nikah in many of his books. Have a look at his statements.

a. He writes in Majalis al Muminin under the discussion on ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

چوں عمر بن الخطاب جہت ترویج خلافت فاسدۂ خود داعیۂ تزویج ام کلثوم دختر حضرب امیر نمود و آں حضرت جہت اقامت حچ مکررا اظہار ابا و امتناع نمود آخر عمر عباس را نزد خود طلبید و سوگند خوردہ گفت اگر علی را بدامادئ من راضی نمی سازی آنچہ در دفع او ممکن باشد خواہم کرد … چوں مبالغۂ عباس درآں باب از حد گذشت آنحضرت ازروۓ اکراہ ساکت شد ند تا آنکہ عباس از پیش خود ارتکاب تزویج او نمود

‘Umar ibn al Khattab wished to promote his corrupt khilafah by marrying ‘Ali’s daughter Umm Kulthum, and ‘Ali rejected over and over again due to the presence of proofs. Finally, ‘Umar ibn al Khattab called ‘Abbas and swore on oath, “If you do not make ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib pleased with me as his son-in-law, then I will exhaust all my efforts to counterattack.” When ‘Abbas’s persistence in this matter crossed the limits, Sayyidina ‘Ali kept silent out of force until ‘Abbas contracted this marriage on his own.[15]

 

b. He writes in the biography of Muhammad ibn Jafar al Tayyar:

 

محمد بن جعفر طیار بعد از فوت عمر بن الخطاب بشرت مصاہرت حضرت امیر المؤمنین مشرف گشتہ ام کلثوم را کہ با عدم کفأت از روۓ اکراہ در جبالۂ عمر بود تزویج نمود

Muhammad ibn Jafar al Tayyar married Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali after the death of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab. Due to non-compatibility, Umm Kulthum was forcefully married to ‘Umar ibn al Khattab.[16]

 

c. He then writes about the same topic in the biography of Miqdad ibn al Aswad radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

اگر نبی دختر بعثمان داد ولی دختر بعمر فرستاد

If the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married his daughter to ‘Uthman, then Wali (i.e. ‘Ali) sent his daughter to ‘Umar.[17]

 

Qadi Nur Allah Shustari discussed the marriage of Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali in greater detail in his book Masaib al Nawasib. He accepted the nikah itself but presented a number of justifications for it. He writes there:

 

تزویج ام کلثوم با عمر در مقام ضرورت و ناچاری از راہ رخصت است

Umm Kulthum’s nikah to ‘Umar was under coercion and duress and is a concession under these circumstances.[18]

 

Report Fifteen

The Shia mujtahid of the eleventh century, Mulla al Baqir Majlisi, has mentioned the issue under discussion in his books. Accordingly, he brings a lengthy discussion on the topic in Mirat al ‘Uqul, the commentary of al Kafi and answers the rejecters of this marriage. At the end, he acknowledges the veracity of this nikah saying:

و الأصل في الجواب أن ذلك وقع على سبيل التقية و الاضطرار

The primary answer is that this happened under Taqiyyah and force.[19]

 

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Removing a Misconception

The readers must now have realised that although the Shia scholars and mujtahidin are acknowledging the nikah, they are validating it under the pretext of force and coercion.

  • As if the Lion of Allah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was compelled to allow this marriage.
  • In fact, in some of their narrations it appears that she was forcibly taken from Haydar Karrar (Allah forbid).
  • Death threats were sounded, and he was constrained to consent to the marriage.
  • The owner of the Dhu al Fiqar was helpless.
  • And Majlisi says that this union was formed on the basis of Taqiyyah.

 

Back to top  

Answer

We respectfully say that the picture they are painting of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is not the temperament or nature of the Conqueror of Khaybar, Sayyidina ‘Ali al Murtada radiya Llahu ‘anhu, because:

  • This is in polarity with his bravery
  • In contrast to self-respect
  • Is a dark blemish to family dignity
  • Is a challenge of imani possessiveness and family honour
  • Contradicts the family narrations of the Banu Hashim

Finally, the elders would say:

 

ہر چہ بر خود مپسندی بر دیگراں مپند

What we will not tolerate for our daughters, how can we tolerate that for the hero of Badr and Uhud, the Conqueror of Khaybar, the overpowering Lion of Allah, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu? Allah forbid!

 

كَبُرَتْ كَلِمَةً تَخْرُجُ مِنْ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ إِنْ‌‌‌‌ْ يَقُوْ‌‌لُوْ‌نَ إِلَّا كَذِبًا

Grave is the word that comes out of their mouths; they speak not except a lie.[20]

 

For Allah’s sake, think logically!

 

Report Sixteen

The Shia historian of the thirteenth century Mirza ‘Abbas ‘Ali Qilli Khan (who was the Prime Minister of the Iranian King) dedicates a chapter on the marriage of Umm Kulthum to ‘Umar ibn al Khattab in his book Tarikh Taraz Mazhab Muzaffari. He writes therein:

 

جناب ام کلثوم کبرى دختر فاطمۃ الزہرا در سراۓ عمر بن الخطاب بود و ازوے فرزند بیاورد چنانکہ مذکور گشت و چوں عمر مقتول شد محمد بن جعفر بن ابی طالب اورا در حبالۂ نکاح در آورد

Fatimah al Zahra’s daughter Umm Kulthum was in ‘Umar’s house. She bore a son for him as was mentioned previously. After ‘Umar was killed, Muhammad ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib married her.[21]

 

Report Seventeen

Sheikh ‘Abbas al Qummi, the celebrated Shia scholar and mujtahid of the fourteenth century records in his work Muntaha al Amal:

 

و ام کلثوم حکایت تزویج او با عمر بن الخطاب در کتب مسطورست و بعد از وضجیع عو بن جعفر و از پس او موجہ محمد بن جعفر گشت

The union of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab and Umm Kulthum is recorded in the books. Thereafter, she came into the wedlock of ‘Awn ibn Jafar, and then in the wedlock of his brother Muhammad ibn Jafar.

 

NEXT⇒ Necessary Clarifications


[1] Furu’ min al Kafi, vol. 2 pg. 141, book on marriage, chapter on Umm Kulthum’s marriage, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow; al Himyari: al Jafariyyat wa al As’athiyyat ma’ Qurb al Isnad, pg. 109, Tehran print.

[2] Furu’ min al Kafi, vol. 2 pg. 141, book on marriage, chapter on Umm Kulthum’s marriage, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow.

[3] Furu’ min al Kafi, vol. 2 pg. 311, chapter on a widow, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow.

[4] Furu’ min al Kafi, vol. 2 pg. 311, chapter on a widow with whom the marriage has been consummated, where should she pass her ‘iddah and what is compulsory upon her, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow.

[5] Al Istibsar, part 3, pg. 185, chapters on ‘iddah, Jafariyyah print, Nukhas print, Lucknow, old edition.

[6] Ibid, pg. 186.

[7] Tahdhib al Ahkam, pg. 238, book on divorce, chapter on the ‘iddah of women, old Iran print, 1316 A.H. print.

[8] Ibid.

[9] Tahdhib al Ahkam, last volume, pg. 380, book on inheritance, chapter on the inheritance of those who drown or are crushed at the same time, old Iran print.

[10] Al Shafi, pg. 1116, with Talkhis al Shafi, old Iran print, 1301 A.H. edition.

[11] Tanzih al Ambiya’, pg. 138 – 141, Iran print.

[12] Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, vol. 4 pg. 575 – 576, Beirut print, 1375/1956 edition.

[13] Shara’i’ al Islam.

[14] Masalik al Afham, vol. 1, book on marriage, chapter on issues related to the contract, Iran print, 1273 edition.

[15] Majalis al Mu’minin, pg. 76, biography of ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib, old Iran print.

[16] Majalis al Mu’minin, pg. 82, biography of Muhammad ibn Jafar, old Iran print.

[17] Majalis al Mu’minin, pg. 85, biography of Miqdad ibn al Aswad, old Iran print.

[18] Aqa Mirza Muhammad ‘Ali Mudarris Rashti Chahar Dahi Najafi: Tarjamah Masa’ib al Nawasib Farisi, pg. 165 – 170, Tehran print, 1369 edition.

[19] Mir’at al ‘Uqul, vol. 3 pg. 448 – 449, chapter on Umm Kulthum’s marriage, old Iran print.

[20] Surah al Kahf: 5.

[21] Tarikh Taraz Mazhab Muzaffari, chapter on the marriage of Umm Kulthum to ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Iran print.

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