We wish to include five themes in this section, just as was done in section one.
We present here historical reports from books of hadith and history which bear witness to the friendly relationship Sayyidina ‘Umar and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma enjoyed.
It is an undeniable fact that for a relationship to be established between two people by one handing over his daughter and the other accepting her in his wedlock, this is based on mutual reliance and confidence. After this link is established, their brotherly connection is strengthened considerably.
Following this social and natural principle, Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab al Faruq proposed to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma for his daughter Umm Kulthum and the latter responded positively and optimistically and contracted the nikah. This was done under no coercion or duress.
Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu was extremely elated at this and expressed his boundless joy by quoting the sweet words which he heard directly from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, “All ties of kinship and connection will be severed on the Day of Qiyamah besides my ties of kinship and connection (which will prove beneficial).” Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu said that it was his cherished hope to have a connection to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam family.
This matter has been documented in books of hadith and history by the muhaddithin and historians. Firstly, we will present some snippets for the benefits of the readers followed by the unequivocal statements of the masters of genealogy and biography which openly record the details of this marriage.
It appears in al Sunan of Sa’id ibn Mansur al Khurasani al Makki (d. 227 A.H):
عن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه إن عمر بن الخطاب خطب إلي علي بن أبي طالب ابنته أم كلثوم فقال علي إنما حبست بناتي على بني جعفر فقال انكحنيها فوالله ما على الأرض رجل أرصد من حسن عشرتها ما أرصدت فقال علي قد أنكحتكها فجاء عمر إلي مجلس المهاجرين بين القبر و المنبر و كان المهاجرون بجلسون ثم و علي و عبد الرحمن بن عوف و الزبير و عثمان و طلحة و سعد فإذا كان العشي يأتي عمر الأمر من الآفاق و يقضي فيه جاءهم و أخبرهم ذلك و استشارهم كلهم فقال رفئوني قالوا بم يا أمير المؤمنين قال بابنة علي بن أبي طالب ثم أنشأ يحدثهم أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال كل نسب و سبب منقطع يوم القيامة إلا نسبي و سببي كنت صحبته فأحببت أن يكون هذا لي أيضا
From Jafar ibn Muhammad―from his father:
‘Umar ibn al Khattab proposed to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib for his daughter Umm Kulthum. ‘Ali said, “Indeed I kept my daughters only for Jafar’s sons.”
‘Umar submitted, “Please marry her to me for by Allah, there is no man on earth that has prepared the way I am prepared to live happily with her.”
‘Ali then said, “I have given her to you in marriage.”
‘Umar then came to the gathering of Muhajirin between the grave and the pulpit. The Muhajirin would sit there including ‘Ali, ‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Zubair, ‘Uthman, Talhah, and Sa’d. In the evening, affairs from the different lands would come to him and he would make decisions about them. He would come to them and inform them about the affairs seeking their counsel.
So he came to them and said, “Congratulate me.”
“For what, O Amir al Mu’minin,” they enquired.
“On marrying ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib’s daughter,” he explained.
He then began relating to them that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared, “All ties of kinship and connection (relationship through marriage) will be severed on the Day of Qiyamah besides my ties of kinship and connection (which will prove beneficial).”
He continued, “I was his Companion and desired to have this link to him as well.”
Al Hakim al Naysaburi(d. 405 A.H.) relates in al Mustadrak:
عن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه عن علي بن الحسين أن عمر بن الخطاب خطب إلى علي أم كلثوم فقال أنكحنيها فقال علي إني أرصدها لابن أخي عبد الله بن جعفر فقال عمر أنكحنيها فوالله ما من الناس أحد يرصد من أمرها ما أرصده فأنكحه علي فأتى عمر المهاجرين فقال ألا تهنئوني فقال بمن يا أمير المؤمنين فقال بأم كلثوم بنت علي و ابنة فاطمة بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول كل نسب و سبب ينقطع يوم القيامة إلا ما كان من سببي و نسبي فأحببت أن يكون بيني و بين رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم نسب و سبب هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد و لم يخرجاه
From Jafar ibn Muhammad―from his father―from ‘Ali ibn al Hussain:
‘Umar ibn al Khattab proposed to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib for Umm Kulthum saying, “Give her in marriage to me.”
‘Ali said, “I have kept her for my nephew ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar.”
‘Umar submitted, “Please marry her to me for by Allah, there is no man on earth that has prepared the way I am prepared to marry her.”
As a result, ‘Ali got her married to him. ‘Umar then came to the Muhajirin and said, “Why do you not congratulate me.”
“With who, O Amir al Mu’minin,” they enquired.
“With Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali, the daughter of Fatimah bint Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. I certainly heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, ‘All ties of kinship and connection will be cut on the Day of Qiyamah besides my ties of kinship and connection.’ Thus, I desired to have a connection to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
This is a hadith with a sahih isnad, but they (al Bukhari and Muslim) have not recorded it.
‘Allamah ‘Ali Muttaqi Hindi reports Umm Kulthum’s nikah in Kanz al ‘Ummal in the following manner:
عن أبي جعفر إن عمر بن الخطاب خطب إلى علي بن أبي طالب ابنته أم كلثوم فقال علي إنما حبست بناتي على بني جعفر فقال عمر أنكحنيها يا علي فوالله ما علي ظهر الأرض رجل يرصد من حسن صحابتها ما أرصد فقال علي قد فعلت فجاء عمر إلى مجلس المهاجرين بين القبر و المنبر و كانوا يجلسون علي و عثمان و الزبير و طلحة و عبد الرحمن بن عوف فإذا كان الشيء يأتي عمر بن الخطاب من الآفاق جاءهم فأخبرهم بذلك فاستشارهم فيه فجاء عمر فقال زفوني و قالوا بمن يا أمير المؤمنين قال بابنة علي بن أبي طالب ثم أنشأ يخبرهم فقال إن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال كل سبب و نسب منقطع يوم القيامة إلا سببي و نسبي و كنت قد صحبته فأحببت أن يكون هذا أيضا
On the authority of Abu Jafar:
‘Umar ibn al Khattab proposed to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib for his daughter Umm Kulthum. ‘Ali said, “I kept my daughters only for Jafar’s sons.”
‘Umar submitted, “Kindly marry her to me for by Allah, there is no man on earth that has prepared the way I am prepared to look after her.”
‘Ali then said, “I have done so.”
‘Umar then came to the gathering of Muhajirin between the grave and the pulpit. ‘Ali, ‘Uthman, Zubair, Talhah, and ‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Awf would sit there. When any matter would come to ‘Umar ibn al Khattab from the various parts of the world, he would come to them and inform them about the affairs seeking their counsel.
So ‘Umar came to them and said, “Applaud me.”
“With who, O Amir al Mu’minin,” they enquired.
“With ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib’s daughter,” he explained.
He then began relating to them that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared, “All ties of kinship and connection will be severed on the Day of Qiyamah besides my ties of kinship and connection.”
He continued, “I was his Companion and desired to have this link to him as well.”
The hadith that Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports on this occasion has been quoted from Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu by the Shia scholars. Study Kitab al Khisal by Ibn Babawayh al Qummi (d. 381 A.H.), pg. 183, under the heading: Amir al Mu’minin’s citation of proof on the day of Shura, old print, Iran 1302 A.H.
It was deemed appropriate to select a few narrations from the vast piles of narrations to prove this fact. These are the narrations of Imam Muhammad al Baqir and Imam Zayn al ‘Abidin.
We can deduce from the above narrations after examining them that there always existed unity and sincerity between all these men, and they never harboured animosity for each other. Whenever any important matter came, they discussed it thoroughly and deliberated. This is a clear indication of their unity.
Secondly, the nikah of Umm Kulthum―who was born from Sayyidah Fatimah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha womb―was joyfully contracted by Sayyidina ‘Ali to Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. The latter understood this as a great fortune and wholeheartedly consented. This is a strong evidence for their congenial relationship and a glaring sign for Allah’s statement, “Merciful among themselves.” In the face of such absolute and distinct proofs, to deny them and to visualise enmity and hatred between them is a far cry from the truth and is synonymous to discarding the Qur’an, hadith, and history.
Some reports attributed to Muhammad al Baqir contain a story of Umm Kulthum going to Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu house. The person who wishes to blemish the image of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu levels another accusation on him (and at the same time taints the image of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his infallible daughter). He does not consider this but chooses to express his concealed hatred and rancour by disseminating it utilising nasty words.
A few points of clarification are presented regarding this:
Firstly, it is an accepted principle among the muhaddithin that after scrutinising one incident through the lenses of many narrations, the reality of the original incident is learnt. The addition or subtraction to the original incident is also realised in this way.
Following this, it has become apparent after adopting this style that there has been idraj (addition) from the narrators in this narration. The hint for this is obvious from Ibn Sa’d’s report in al Tabaqat wherein he discuss Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali. One may refer to the source, for only the main segment of it will be reproduced here. The original incident becomes visible through this narration. Ibn Sa’d says:
فأمر بها علي فصنعت ثم أمر ببرد فطواه و قال انطلقي بهذا إلى أمير المؤمنين فقولي أرسلني أبي يقرأك السلام و يقول إن رضيت البرد فأمسكه و إن سخطه فرده فلما أتت عمر قال بارك فيك و في أبيك قد رضينا قال فرجعت إلى أبيها فقالت ما نشر البرد و لا نظر إلا إلي فزوجها إياه فولدت له غلاما يقال له زيد
‘Ali ordered that she be beautified, and this was carried out. He called for a garment and folded it. he then said, “Go with this to Amir al Mu’minin and tell him that your father has sent you and he conveys salam and says that if you are happy with the garment then keep it, otherwise return it.”
When she came to ‘Umar, he said, “May Allah bless you and your father. We are happy.”
So she returned to her father and said, “He did not open the garment and did not look at anything besides me.”
So ‘Ali got her married to him and she gave birth to his son named Zaid.
From this narration we learn what actually transpired, nothing more. The foul additions and obscenity found in some narrations are additions from the narrators.
Secondly, the narrations containing obscenity are munqati’ as far as isnad is concerning and shadh as far as the text is concerned. These narrations are attributed to Muhammad al Baqir rahimahu Llah and the narration we quoted above which contains the actual happening is also attributed to him and it does not contain any obscenity. So it is imperative to apply the ruling which the senior ‘ulama’ have formulated for such situations.
Ibn Hajar al Makki al Haytami has made mention of this rule in his book Kitab al Zawajir ‘an Iqtiraf al Kaba’ir and ‘Allamah Ibn ‘Abidin al Shami has done the same in Radd al Muhtar (footnotes of Durr al Mukhtar). The rule is:
و إذ اختلف كلام الإمام فيؤخذ بما يوافق الأدلة الظاهرة و يعرض عما خالفها
When there is contradiction in the speech of the Imam, then that which is in harmony to evident proofs will be taken and that which contradicts them will be discarded.
Thirdly, the ‘Ulama’ of the principles of hadith have laid down the blanket principle for consolidation when two narrations are inconsistent. They determine that the narration that is in agreement with logic and custom will be accepted and the one contrary to the same will be rejected. The upcoming text has been inserted by ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Iraq al Kinani (d. 963 A.H.) in the book Tanzih al Shari’ah al Marfu’ah in the list of signs of a baseless narration:
و منها قرينة في المروي كمخالفته لمقتضى العقل بحيث لا يقبل التأويل و يلتحق به ما يدفعه الحس و المشاهدة أو العادة و كمنافاته لدلالة الكتاب القطعية أو السنة المتواترة أو الإجماع القطعي
From among them is a sign in the narration like its contradiction to logic in a way that it cannot be interpreted, and common sense and reality or the norm denies it, or it being inconsistent with the categorical Qur’an, mutawatir Sunnah, or emphatic consensus.
Fourthly, it is mentioned that the narrations attributed to Imam al Baqir which contain the obscene language, Shia mujtahidin have proven through reports they regard as reliable and authentic that adulteration has taken place in these narrations. Statements he did not make were attributed to him and fabricated in his name. It appears in Rijal al Kashi and al Mamaqani:
عن الصادق عليه السلام إن لكل رجل منا رجل يكذب عليه و عنه إن المغيرة بن سعيد دس في كتب أصحاب أبي أحاديث لم يحدث بها أبي فاتقوا الله و لا تقبلوا علينا ما خالف قول ربنا و سنة نبينا
Al Sadiq states: “For every man among us is a man who fabricates in his name.”
It is reported from him, “Mughirah ibn Sa’id inserted numerous narrations in the books of my father’s students which my father did not say. So fear Allah and do not accept in our name anything that contradicts our Rabb’s Speech or our Nabi’s Sunnah.”
A man of sound intellect and understanding and free from prejudice can ponder and think as to how a private matter got publicised? Either one of two. Either Umm Kulthum divulged it or ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu publicised it. Both these possibilities are out of the arena of understanding, logic, and norm. Due to its conflict to intellect and custom, it is baseless and unacceptable.
كم من قصة اخترعوها و كم من وقاحة نسبوها إليه و إنه بريء منها و القرآن يشهد بدينهم و ديانتهم و صلاحهم و وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ التَّقْوىٰ وَكَانُوْا أَحَقَّ بِهَا وَأَهْلَهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيْمًا
How many stories they have concocted and how many insolence they attributed to him whereas he is totally innocent from the same. The Qur’an testifies to their religiousness, integrity, and righteousness: And He imposed upon them the word of righteousness, and they were more deserving of it and worthy of it. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing.
Fifthly, if we hypothetically agree to the correctness of this incident, then someone can object:
ایں گناہیست کہ در شہر شما نیز کںد
This sin is also prevalent in your city.
The observance of such an action by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu has been documented by your scholars in your books. The celebrated scholar of the Shia world ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar al Himyari transmits via his sanad in his book Qurb al Isnad:
عن جعفر عن أبيه عليه السلام عن علي عليه السلام إنه كان إذا أراد أن يبتاع الجارية يكشف عن ساقها فينظر إليها
From Jafar―from his father―regarding ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu that when he intended to buy a slave-girl, he would expose her shin and look at it.
Now you have the leisure to formulate an explanation you like. According to us, neither of the two are correct. These are vain attempts to blemish the clean slates of their taqwa and self-discipline. May Allah allow us to practice on the saying:
خذ ما صفا و دع ما كدر
Take what is pure and discard the polluted.
The learned will be well acquainted with the fact that genealogy is a separate branch of the science of history, and books on genealogy have been authored by masters of the field. They have listed therein the lineages of families, family trees, and other related aspects. They also describe the link one family has to another.
It is also an accepted fact that books on genealogy are not based on religious beliefs or tendencies. They are written considering the historical events and circumstances of various nations. Therefore, if all the famous genealogists mention an incident or establish a family link, then it proves the actuality of the event or link in that era. They are not fairy tales or fictitious fables.
We therefore would like to present the incident of Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali’s marriage from the books of the genealogists and quote relevant texts from their books without comments or remarks so that the general and elite realise the actuality and correctness of this marriage, leaving no scope for any reservations. We will now exhibit this issue from the books of genealogy in a distinctive sequence. It will be quoted from 5 books of the science of genealogy.
Abu ‘Abdullah al Mus’ab ibn ‘Abdullah al Zubairi (d. 236 A.H.) writes in Nasab Quraysh while listing the children of Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
و زينب ابنة علي الكبرى ولدت لعبد الله بن جعفر بن أبي طالب و أم كلثوم الكبرى ولدت لعمر بن الخطاب و أمهم فاطمة بنت النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم
Zainab bint ‘Ali al Kubra who bore children for ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib. Umm Kulthum al Kubra who bore children for ‘Umar ibn al Khattab. Their mother is Fatimah bint al Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
This marriage is documented in Kitab al Muhabbar of Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Habib ibn Umayyah ibn ‘Amr al Hashimi al Baghdadi (d. 245 A.H.) while recording the sons-in-law of Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
و عمر بن الخطاب رحمه الله كانت عنده أم كلثوم بنت علي ثم خلف عليها عون ثم محمد ثم عبد الله بنو جعفر بن أبي طالب
‘Umar ibn al Khattab rahimahu Llah: Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali was married to him and then (after his demise) to ‘Awn, then to Muhammad, and finally to ‘Abdullah―the sons of Jafar ibn Abi Talib.
He writes in the list of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu son-in-laws:
إبراهيم بن نعيم النحام العدوي كانت عنده رقية بنت عمر و أمها أم كلثوم بنت علي
Ibrahim ibn Nuaim al Nahham al ‘Adawi: Ruqayyah bint ‘Umar was married to him. Her mother is Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali.
Abu Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Muslim ibn Qutaybah al Dinawari (d. 276 A.H.) while listing the daughters of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu writes:
و أما أم كلثوم الكبرى و هي بنت فاطمة فكانت عند عمر بن الخطاب ولدت له ولدا قد ذكرناهم
Umm Kulthum the eldest: She is the daughter of Fatimah and was the consort of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab and bore children for him whom we have previously listed.
He writes while recording Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu children:
فاطمة و زيدا و أمهما أم كلثوم بنت علي بن أبي طالب من فاطمة بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم
Fatimah and Zaid and their mother is Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib from Fatimah bint Rasulillah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
Ibn Qutaybah also clarified that this Fatimah bint ‘Umar was also called Ruqayyah bint ‘Umar. Remember this point.
Ahmed ibn Yahya al Baladhuri (d. 277/279 A.H.) writes:
و إبراهيم بن نعيم النحام بن عبد الله العدوي … كانت عنده رقية بنت عمر أخت حفصة لأبيها و أمها أم كلثوم بنت علي
Ibrahim ibn Nuaim al Nahham ibn ‘Abdullah al ‘Adawi: Ruqayyah bint ‘Umar, Hafsah’s paternal half-sister. Her mother was Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali.
Abu Muhammad ‘Ali ibn Ahmed ibn Sa’id ibn Hazm al Undulusi (d. 456 A.H.) records under ‘Ali’s children:
و تزوج أم كلثوم بنت علي المرتضى بنت بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم عمر بن الخطاب فولدت له زيدا لم يعقب و رقية ثم خلف عليها بعد عمر رضي الله عنه عون بن جعفر بن أبي طالب ثم خلف عليها بعده محمد بن جعفر بن أبي طالب ثم خلف عليها بعده عبد الله بن جعفر بن أبي طالب بعد طلاقه لأختها زينب
Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali al Murtada, the granddaughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, married ‘Umar ibn al Khattab and gave birth to his son Zaid―who had no issue―and Ruqayyah. After ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, ‘Awn ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib married her, followed by Muhammad ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib, and finally ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib after divorcing her sister Zainab.
 Al Sunan, vol. 3 pg. 130, section one, chapter on looking at a woman when desiring to marry her, Majlis ‘Ilmi publication, Karachi and Dabhel.
 Al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 142, chapter on ‘Ali’s virtues.
 Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 7 pg. 98, Hadith: 825, with reference to Ibn Sa’d, and Ibn Rahawayh briefly, old print; Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 173, virtues of the Ahlul Bayt.
 Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 8 pg. 340, discussion on Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali, Leiden print, Europe.
 Interrupted chain of transmission.
 A weak narration which contradicts an authentic narration.
 Kitab al Zawajir ‘an Iqtiraf al Kaba’ir, pg. 28, the first major sin, chapter one on the internal major sins; Radd al Muhtar, vol. 3 pg. 447, chapter on the murtad.
 Tanzih al Shari’ah al Marfu’ah, pg. 6, Egypt print.
 Rijal al Kashi, pg. 146, Mumbai print, pg. 195, new Tehran print, discussion on Mughirah; Tanqih al Maqal, pg. 174, third stance from the introduction.
 Surah al Fath: 26.
 Qurb al Isnad, pg. 49, the narrations of Hussain ibn ‘Alawan, Tehran print.
 Nasab Quraysh, pg. 41, children of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Egypt print.
 Kitab al Muhabbar, pg. 56, under ‘Ali’s son in laws, Dakkan print; Kitab al Muhabbar, pg. 437, Hyderabad print, Dakkan.
 Kitab al Muhabbar, pg. 54, 101, Hyderabad print, Dakkan.
 Al Ma’arif, pg. 92, ‘Ali’s daughters, Egypt print.
 Al Ma’arif, pg. 79 – 80, ‘Umar ibn al Khattab’s children, Egypt print.
 Ansab al Ashraf, vol. 1 pg. 428, Egypt print, 1959 edition; Ibn Hibban: Kitab al Thiqat, vol. 2 pg. 144, Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughters.
 Jamharat Ansab al ‘Arab, pg. 37 – 38, ‘Ali’s children, Egypt print, new edition.