Chapter 1 – Introduction to Umm al Mu’minin Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha

Introduction
June 8, 2021
Chapter 2 – The Life of Umm al Mu’minin Aisha
June 8, 2021

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Chapter 1

Introduction to Umm al Mu’minin Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha

 

Name & Lineage

She is Umm al Mu’minin, the beloved of the friend of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, al Siddiqah bint al Siddiq, Aisha bint al Imam al Akbar (the greatest leader), the khalifah of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Abu Bakr al Siddiq[1] (‘Abdullah) ibn Abi Quhafah (‘Uthman) ibn ‘Amir ibn ‘Amr ibn Ka’b ibn Sa’d ibn Taym ibn Murrah ibn Ka’b ibn Lu’ayy ibn Fihr ibn Malik ibn Kinanah al Qurashiyyah al Taymiyyah al Makkiyyah then al Madaniyyah; the wife of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[2]

 

Agnomen

Umm ‘Abdullah: The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam awarded her this agnomen. This came after she requested an agnomen for herself upon which he selected for her an agnomen after her sister Sayyidah Asma’s[3] radiya Llahu ‘anha son, to please her:

 

عن عروة عن عائشة رضي الله عنها أنها قالت يا رسول الله كل صواحبي لهن كنى قال فاكتني بابنك عبد الله بن الزبير يعني ابن أختها فكانت تدعى بأم عبد الله حتى ماتت

‘Urwah[4] reports—from Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha that she said, “O Messenger of Allah, all of my friends have agnomens.”

He suggested, “Then adopt an agnomen after your son—i.e. you sister’s son—’Abdullah ibn al Zubair[5].”

She was henceforth called Umm ‘Abdullah until she passed on.[6]

 

A weak report suggests that she was given this agnomen after she had a miscarriage of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam child whom he named ‘Abdullah. This, however, is not established. The first opinion is correct.[7]

 

Titles

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha has a number of titles. The meanings of these various titles reveal her distinguished virtue and nobility. Their abundance emphasises this virtue. The most significant of these titles are:

 

  1. Umm al Mu’minin (Mother of the Believers)

This is her most common title. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala awarded her this title. He subhanahu wa ta ‘ala states—and He is the most truthful of all speakers:

النَّبِيُّ أَوْلىٰ بِالْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ

The Prophet is more worthy of the believers than themselves, and his wives are [in the position of] their mothers.[8]

 

This title indicating her grandeur is shared by the remaining wives of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. All of them are Ummahat al Mu’minin, Mothers of the Believers, may Allah be pleased with them.

 

  1. Habibat Rasulillah (The Beloved of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)

This is a title concluded from the Messenger’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam additional love towards her exclusively. The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was asked:

أي الناس أحب إليك قال عائشة فقلت من الرجال فقال أبوها قلت ثم من قال عمر بن الخطاب

Who is the most beloved person to you?

“Aisha,” he replied.

I asked, “From the men?”

“Her father,” was his reply.

“Then who,” I asked.

“‘Umar ibn al Khattab[9],” he said.[10]

 

Her exclusiveness of enjoying extra affection from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was known by the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Accordingly, when a drawer containing a jewel arrived from Iraq, Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu asked the Sahabah:

 

تدرون ما ثمنه قالوا لا ولم يدروا كيف يقسمونه فقال تأذنون أن أبعث به إلى عائشة لحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إياها فقالوا نعم فبعث به إليها

“Do you know its value?”

They replied in the negative and they were unsure as to how they would divide it.

‘Umar suggested, “Do you permit me to send it to Aisha, owing to the Messenger’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam extreme love for her?”

They replied in the affirmative after which he sent it to her.[11]

 

Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu apportioned 10 000 (silver coins) for the Ummahat al Mu’minin radiya Llahu ‘anhunna and supplemented Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha with another 2 000 submitting:

 

إنها حبيبة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

She is the beloved of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[12]

 

  1. Al Mubarra’ah (The Exonerated/The Innocent)

This is a title designated for her owing to verses of the Glorious Qur’an being revealed to affirm her innocence from the slander of the hypocrites. She is Aisha, the Acquitted from above the seven skies—may Allah be pleased with her and make her happy. When Masruq[13] would report from Umm al Mu’minin Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, he would state:

 

حدثتني الصديقة بنت الصديق حبيبة حبيب الله المبرأة

Al Siddiqah—daughter of al Siddiq, the Beloved of Allah’s beloved, the Innocent narrated to me.[14]

 

  1. Al Tayyibah (The Pure/The Chaste)

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has testified to her purity. Commenting on the slander incident, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares:

 

وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلطَّيِّبِيْنَ وَالطَّيِّبُوْنَ لِلطَّيِّبَاتِ أُولٰئِكَ مُبَرَّءُوْنَ مِمَّا يَقُوْلُوْنَ لَهُمْ مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيْمٌ

Pure women are for pure men and pure men are for pure women. The good are innocent of what has been said against them; they will have forgiveness and a generous provision.[15]

 

Sheikh ‘Abdur Rahman al Sa’di rahimahu Llah writes in the commentary of this verse:

 

فهذه كلمة عامة و حصر لا يخرج منه شيء من أعظم مفرداته أن الأنبياء خصوصا أولي العزم منهم خصوصا سيدهم محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم الذي هو أفضل الطيبين من الخلق على الإطلاق لا يناسبهم إلا كل طيب من النساء فالقدح في عائشة رضي الله عنها بهذا الأمر قدح في النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم و هو المقصود بهذا الإفك من قصد المنافقين فمجرد كونها زوجة للرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم يعلم أنها لا تكون إلا طيبة طاهرة من هذا الأمر القبيح فكيف وهي هي صديقة النساء و أفضلهن و أعلمهن و أطيبهن حبيبة رسول رب العالمين

This is a blanket statement and a confinement from which nothing escapes. From the greatest of His expressions is that only good women are appropriate for the Prophets—particularly the Ulu al ‘Azm among them and more specifically their leader, Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, who is the most superior of the good and noble men unrestrictedly. Therefore, slandering Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha of adultery is defamation of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who is the hypocrites’ ultimate object by this slander. Simply being the wife of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam affirms that she can only be pure and chaste from this despicable action. What must be the case when she is who she is! The Siddiqah of all women, the most superior of them, the most knowledgeable of them, the purest of them, and the beloved of the Messenger of the Lord of the Universe.[16]

 

It is reported that Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha stated:

 

وإني لابنة خليفته و صديقه ولقد نزل عذري من السماء ولقد خلقت طيبة و عند طيب ولقد وعدت مغفرة و رزقا كريما

I am certainly the daughter of his Khalifah and bosom friend. My innocence was revealed from the sky. I have been created pure and chaste and I am in the wedlock of a pure man. I have been promised forgiveness and a noble provision.[17]

 

Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas[18] radiya Llahu ‘anhuma entered her presence, when she was in her final illness, and told her:

 

كنت أحب نساء رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إليه ولم يكن يحب إلا طيبا

You were the most beloved wife to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and he would only love someone pure and faithful.[19]

 

  1. Al Siddiqah (The Truthful)

When Masruq rahimahu Llah would report from Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, he would state:

 

حدثتني الصديقة بنت الصديق حبيبة حبيب الله المبرأة

Al Siddiqah—daughter of al Siddiq, the Beloved of Allah’s beloved, the Innocent narrated to me.[20]

 

Al Hakim[21] states:

 

ذكر الصحابيات من أزواج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم و غيرهن رضي الله تعالى عنهن فأول من نبدأ بهن الصديقة بنت الصديق عائشة بنت أبي بكر رضي الله عنهما

List of the Female Companions—the wives of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and others radiya Llahu ‘anhunna. We begin with al Siddiqah bint al Siddiq, Aisha bint Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.[22]

 

Hafiz Ibn Hajar[23] asserts:

هي الصديقة بنت الصديق

She is al Siddiqah bint al Siddiq.[24]

 

  1. Al Humaira’

Al Humaira’ is the diminutive of hamra’ (red). Al Dhahabi[25] explains:

 

والحميراء في خطاب أهل الحجاز هي البيضاء بشقرة وهذا نادر فيهم

Al Humaira’ in the speech of the people of Hijaz is used to refer to fair complexion with redness which is very rare among them.[26]

 

Mention of this title appears in more than one hadith.[27] However, all these narrations have been criticised which has led Imam al Dhahabi to state:

وقد قيل إن كل حديث فيه يا حميراء لم يصح

It is said that every hadith which contains O Humaira’ is not authentic.[28]

 

Some scholars like Imam Ibn al Qayyim[29] have went a step further and stated that every hadith which contains mentions of al Humaira’ is fabricated. He states:

 

وكل حديث فيه يا حميراء أو ذكر الحميراء فهو كذب مختلق مثل يا حميراء لا تأكلي الطين فإنه يورث كذا وكذا و حديث خذوا شطر دينكم عن الحميراء

Every hadith which contains O Humaira’ or mention of Humaira’ is a fabricated lie. For example, “O Humaira’, do not eat sand for it develops this and that,” and the narration, “Learn half of your Din from Humaira’.”[30]

 

Nonetheless, Hafiz Ibn Hajar rahimahu Llah has related the following hadith in al Fath:

 

دخل الحبشة يلعبون فقال لي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يا حميراء أتحبين أن تنظري إليهم فقلت نعم

The Abyssinian boys entered playing. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to me, “O Humaira’, do you wish to see them?”

I replied in the affirmative.[31]

 

He then remarks:

إسناده صحيح و لم أر في حديث صحيح ذكر الحميراء إلا في هذا

Its isnad is sahih. I have not seen in any sahih hadith mention of Humaira’ besides this one.[32]

 

  1. Muwaffaqah (The Inspired/The Fortunate)

Among the titles given to Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha is Muwaffaqah. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam awarded her this title.

 

فعن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول من كان له فرطان من أمتي دخل الجنة فقالت عائشة بأبي فمن كان له فرط فقال من كان له فرط يا موفقة قالت فمن لم يكن له فرط من أمتك قال فأنا فرط أمتي لم يصابوا بمثلي

Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma reports: I heard the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying:

“The individual of my ummah who has two forerunners[33] will enter Jannat.”

Aisha asked, “May my father be sacrificed for you, what about one who has only one forerunner?”

“And the person who has only one forerunner, O Muwaffaqah (Inspired/Fortunate),” he said.

She enquired, “What about the individual of your ummah that has none?”

He answered, “Then I will be the forerunner of my ummah. They will never suffer for (the loss of) anyone similar to me.”[34]

 

All these titles combined indicate the excellence of Umm al Mu’minin radiya Llahu ‘anha as mentioned before. The titles given by the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam reveal his intense love and affection for her. In addition, the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would address her with an apocopation, O ‘A’ish. This is an Arabian habit with those they love.

 

فعن عائشة رضي الله عنها زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قالت قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يا عائش هذا جبريل يقرئك السلام قلت و عليه السلام و رحمة الله قالت وهو يرى ما لا نرى

Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, the wife of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, reports:

The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “O ‘A’ish! Here is Jibril conveying salam to you.”

“May salam and the mercy of Allah be upon him,” I said.

She remarks, “And he would see what we could not.”[35]

 

Hafiz Ibn Hajar states:

 

عويش خاطب بها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عائشة أم المؤمنين أورده الطبراني في العشرة من طريق مسلم بن يسار قال بلغني أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم دخل على عائشة فقال يا عويش

‘Uwaysh: The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam addressed Umm al Mu’minin Aisha with this word. Al Tabarani documented it in al ‘Asharah from the chain of Muslim ibn Yasar who says: It has reached me that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam entered the presence of Aisha and said, “O ‘Uwaysh.”[36]

 

The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would also address her with the words:

 

يا بنت الصديق و يا بنت أبي بكر

O daughter of al Siddiq and O daughter of Abu Bakr, etc.[37]

 

Some of the scholars have listed Khalilat Rasulillah (the intimate friend of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) as one of her titles considering the fact that intimate friendship is the highest stage of love. They cite as proof Sayyidina Hassan ibn Thabit’s[38] radiya Llahu ‘anhu couplet wherein he praised Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha:

نبي الهدى والمكرمات الفواضل

خليلة خير الناس دينا و منصبا

The intimate friend of the best of mankind in religion and dignity, the Prophet of guidance and outstanding noble characteristics.

 

However, this is a misspelling. The correct spelling, as recorded in his collection, is:

 

حليلة خير الناس

Wife of the best of mankind.[39]

 

It appears in Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ that Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha was mentioned in the presence of Sayyidina ‘Ali[40] radiya Llahu ‘anhu who remarked:

خليلة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

The intimate friend of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[41]

 

This is also a misspelling and the correct word is halilah (wife). It is known that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declared:

 

إني أبرأ إلى الله أن يكون لي منكم خليل

I clear myself before Allah from having an intimate friend from you (human beings).[42]

 

Family & Relatives

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1. Father

Her father is Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq (‘Abdullah) ibn Abi Quhafah (‘Uthman) ibn ‘Amir al Qurashi al Taymi. The first man to believe in the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the first of the Rightly Guided Khalifas, and the most superior Companion of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam unrestrictedly. In fact, he is the most superior individual after the Prophets and Messengers ‘alayh al Salam. He was born and lived in Makkah all his life. He grew up to become one of most prominent Arabs, a leader, and affluent individual of the Quraysh. He was well acquainted with the ancestry, account, and management of the various tribes. He was described as tolerant, compassionate, merciful, an eloquent orator, and a brave hero.

He sat in the close company of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, emigrated with him, and hid in the cave alongside him. Regarding this, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala speaks:

 

ثَانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِي الْغَارِ إِذْ يَقُوْلُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لَا تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَنَا

He was only one of two. While they both were in the cave, he reassured his companion, “Do not worry; Allah is certainly with us.”[43]

 

Numerous narrations are documented on the excellences of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. One of them is the Messenger of Allah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declaration:

لو كنت متخذا خليلا غير ربي لاتخذت أبا بكر ولكن أخوة الإسلام ومودته

Had I taken a bosom friend besides my Rabb, I would have taken Abu Bakr. The brotherhood and love of Islam exists, nevertheless.[44]

 

He was given the pledge of allegiance as khalifah after the demise of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. His Caliphate lasted for two years and three and a half months. He passed away in Madinah in the year 13 A.H at the age of 63.[45]

 

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2. Mother

She is Umm Ruman—it is said that her name is Zainab while other say Da’d—bint ‘Amir ibn ‘Uwaymir ibn ‘Abd Shams ibn ‘Attab ibn Udhaynah ibn Subay’ ibn Duhman ibn Harith ibn Ghanm ibn Malik ibn Kinanah.[46] Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu married her in the period of ignorance after the loss of her husband ‘Abdullah ibn al Harith al Azdi. Sayyidah Umm Ruman radiya Llahu ‘anha embraced Islam in Makkah and is from the early Muslim women. She pledged allegiance to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and immigrated to Madinah with the family of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the family of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[47]

From the above, we learn that her lineage meets with the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from her father’s side at the seventh forefather (Murrah ibn Ka’b[48]) and from her mother’s side at the eleventh or twelfth forefather.[49]

There exists difference of opinion on the year of her demise. The closest to accuracy is that she passed away after the eighth year of hijrah.[50]

 

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3. Siblings

  1. ‘Abdur Rahman: His mother is Umm Ruman.
  2. ‘Abdullah.
  3. Asma’: Her mother was Qatlah or Qutaylah bint ‘Abdul ‘Uzza. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu married her in the period of ignorance. There exists difference of opinion with regards to her Islam.
  4. Muhammad: His mother is Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umays[51] radiya Llahu ‘anha.
  5. Umm Kulthum: Her mother is Habibah bint Kharijah[52] radiya Llahu ‘anha. She was born after the demise of Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[53]
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4. Paternal Aunts

Umm ‘Amir, Quraybah, and Umm Farwah radiya Llahu ‘anhunna. All of them are Sahabiyyat.[54]

 

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5. Foster Fathers

The wife of Abu al Qu’ays[55] breastfed Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha.

 

فعن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت استأذن علي أفلح أخو أبي القعيس بعد ما أنزل الحجاب فقلت لا آذن له حتى أستأذن فيه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فإن أخاه أبا القعيس ليس هو أرضعني ولكن أرضعتني امرأة أبي القعيس فدخل علي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقلت له يا رسول الله إن أفلح أخا أبي القعيس استأذن فأبيت أن آذن له حتى أستأذنك فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم و ما منعك أن تأذني عمك قلت يا رسول الله إن الرجل ليس هو أرضعني ولكن أرضعتني امرأة أبي القعيس فقال ائذني له فإنه عمك تربت يمينك

Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha reports:

Aflah—the brother of Abu al Qu’ays—sought permission to enter my presence after the law of hijab had been revealed.

I said, “I will not allow him until I seek the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam permission in this regard since his brother Abu al Qu’ays did not breastfeed me. Rather, the wife of Abu al Qu’ays did.”

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam entered my presence and I asked, “O Messenger of Allah, Aflah—the brother of Abu al Qu’ays—sought permission to enter but I refused to allow him until I seek your permission.”

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam objected, “What prevented you from permitting your paternal uncle?”

I explained, “O Messenger of Allah, the man did not breastfeed me. Rather, it was the wife of Abu al Qu’ays who breastfed me.”

He said, “Allow him for he is your paternal uncle. Let your hand be besmeared with dust.[56][57]

 

Slaves

Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha had a number of male and female slaves whom she would treat with honour and display kindness towards. They are:

 

1. Barirah[58]

Her hadith which appears in Sahih al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim is well-known. The wording of al Bukhari[59] is:

 

أن عائشة أرادت أن تشتري بريرة فأبى مواليها إلا أن يشترطوا الولاء فذكرت ذلك للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال اشتريها و أعتقيها فإنما الولاء لمن أعتق و أتي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بلحم فقيل إن هذا ما تصدق به على بريرة فقال هو لها صدقة ولنا هدية

Aisha intended to purchase Barirah but her owners refused [to sell her] except that the right of wala’[60] will remain for them. Aisha brought this to the attention of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who instructed, “Purchase her and free her. Wala’ belongs only to the emancipator.”

Meat was brought to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and he was told, “This is what was given in charity to Barirah.”

He commented, “It is charity for her and a gift for us.”[61]

 

2. Sa’ibah

Nafi’, the freed slave of Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, reports:

 

عن سائبة مولاة لعائشة أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عن قتل الحيات التي في البيوت إلا ذي الطفيتين أو الأبتر فإنهما يخطفان البصر ويطرحان ما في بطون النساء

From Sa’ibah, the slave of Aisha:

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibited killing house snakes except Dhu al Tufyatayn[62] or al Abtar[63] since they snatch away eyesight and cause miscarriages.[64]

 

3. Murjanah

She is the mother of ‘Alqamah ibn Abi ‘Alqamah, one of the teachers of Malik[65].

 

يقول مالك أخبرنا علقمة بن أبي علقمة عن أمه مولاة عائشة زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أنها قالت كان النساء يبعثن إلى عائشة بالدرجة فيها الكرسف فيه الصفرة من الحيض فتقول لا تعجلن حتى ترين القصة البيضاء تريد بذلك الطهر من الحيض

Malik says—’Alqamah ibn Abi ‘Alqamah informed us—from his mother, the slave of Aisha, the wife of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

Women would send to Aisha little boxes[66] containing cotton rags[67] which were yellow from menstrual blood. She would say, “Do not be hasty until you see white discharge[68].” By that she meant purity from menses.[69]

 

4. Abu Yunus[70]

يروي القعقاع بن حكيم عن أبي يونس مولى عائشة أم المؤمنين أنه قال أمرتني عائشة أن أكتب لها مصحفا ثم قالت إذا بلغت هذه الآية فآذني حَافِظُوْا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطىٰ وَقُوْمُوْا لِلَّهِ قَانِتِيْنَ فلما بلغتها قالت وصلاة العصر سمعتها من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

Al Qa’qa’ ibn Hakim reports—from Abu Yunus, the slave of Aisha Umm al Mu’minin:

Aisha instructed me to write a mushaf for her. She then told me, “When you reach this verse, inform me: Observe the five obligatory prayersespecially the middle prayer —and stand in true devotion to Allah.[71] When I reached there, she instructed [me to write]: and the prayer of ‘Asr, commenting, “I heard it from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[72]

 

5. Dhakwan[73]

His agnomen is Abu ‘Amr. He is the one who would lead Umm al Mu’minin [in Salat al Tarawih] during Ramadan while reciting from the mushaf. In his Sahih, al Bukhari says:

باب إمامة العبد و المولى وكانت عائشة يؤمها عبدها ذكوان من المصحف

Chapter on the imamah of a slave and freed slave. Aisha’s slave Dhakwan would lead her in prayer from the mushaf.[74]

The following report of ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Mulaykah[75] is about him:

 

أنهم كانوا يأتون عائشة أم المؤمنين بأعلى الوادي هو وعبيد بن عمير والمسور بن مخرمة وناس كثير فيؤمهم أبو عمرو مولى عائشة رضي الله عنها وأبو عمرو غلامها حينئذ لم يعتق

He [‘Abdullah ibn Abi Mulaykah], ‘Ubaid ibn ‘Umair[76], Miswar ibn Makhramah and plenty of other people[77] would come to Aisha, Umm al Mu’minin, from the elevated area of the valley. Abu ‘Amr, the slave of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, would lead them in prayer. Abu ‘Amr was her slave at the time and had not yet been emancipated.[78]

 

6. Layla

It is reported that one of her slaves was a woman named Layla.

 

روى الحاكم بسنده عن المنهال بن عبيد الله عمن ذكره عن ليلى مولاة عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت دخل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لقضاء حاجته فدخلت فلم أر شيئا ووجدت ريح المسك فقلت يا رسول الله إني لم أر شيئا قال إن الأرض أمرت أن تكفيه منا معاشر الأنبياء

Al Hakim reports through his chain—from Minhal ibn Ubaidullah—from whom he mentioned—from Layla, the slave-girl of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha:

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam entered to relieve himself. I entered afterwards but did not see anything and instead found the scent of musk. I remarked, “O Messenger of Allah, I did not see anything.”

He explained, “Certainly, the earth has been commanded to cover it for us, the galaxy of Prophets.”[79]

 

NEXT⇒ Chapter 2 – The Life of Umm al Mu’minin Aisha


[1] He is ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Uthman ibn ‘Amir, Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu al Qurashi al Taymi. The khalifah of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his Companion during the hijrah. He is the first man to accept Islam and the most superior of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam promised him Jannat. He passed away in 13 A.H. (Abu Talib Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al Harbi: Fada’il Abi Bakr al Siddiq; Ibn ‘Abdul Barr: al Isti’ab, vol. 1 pg. 294)

[2] Ibn Sa’d: al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 58; Ibn al Athir: Usd al Ghabah, vol. 7 pg. 186; al Dhahabi: Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 135.

[3] She is the eminent Sahabiyyah, Asma’ bint Abi Bakr al Siddiq al Taymiyyah, mother of ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhum. She was addressed by the title: Dhat al Nitaqayn (the possessor of two girdles). She accepted Islam in the very early stages of Makkah. She passed away in 73 A.H or it has been said in 74 A.H. Al Isti’ab, vol. 2 pg. 74; Ibn Hajar: al Isabah, vol. 7 pg. 486.

[4] He is ‘Urwah ibn al Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam, Abu ‘Abdullah al Qurashi al Asadi. He is one of the seven Fuqaha’ of Madinah. He was born in the year 23 A.H and it is said thereafter. He was a scholar, a prolific narrator of ahadith, reliable, and trustworthy. He did not get involved in any of the fitnahs. He passed away in 93 A.H or it has been said after that. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 4 pg. 421; Ibn Hajar: Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 4 pg. 117.

[5] He is ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam radiya Llahu ‘anhum, Abu Bakr al Qurashi al Asadi. The Amir al Mu’minin. He is of the ‘Abdullahs and one of the brave Sahabah. He was the first child to be born in Islam to the Muhajirin in Madinah. He was given the pledge of allegiance as Khalifah and the inhabitants of Hijaz, Yemen, Iraq, and Khorasan united under his obedience. He passed away in 73 A.H. Al Isti’ab, vol. 1 pg. 237; al Isabah, vol. 4 pg. 89.

[6] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 4970; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 3028; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 260, Hadith: 26285; Sunan al Bayhaqi, vol. 9 pg. 310, Hadith: 19812. The isnad of the hadith has been labelled sahih by al Nawawi in al Majmu’, vol. 8 pg. 438; by Ibn al Mulqin in al Badr al Munir, vol. 9 pg. 343; by al ‘Iraqi in Takhrij al Ihya’, vol. 2 pg. 450; and by al Albani in Sahih Sunan Abi Dawood.

[7] Ibn al Qayyim: Jila’ al Afham, pg. 241; Fath al Bari, vol. 7 pg. 107; al Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 232.

[8] Surah al Ahzab: 6.

[9] He is ‘Umar ibn al Khattab ibn Nufayl, Abu Hafs al Qurashi al ‘Adawi. Al Faruq (the distinguisher between truth and falsehood), the second of the Rightly Guided Khalifas, and the most superior of the Companions of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam after Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhum. His Islam was a victory for the Muslims. He is from the early Muhajirin. He participated in all the battles and Allah favoured him with many conquests in Sham, Iraq, and Egypt. He is the first to be titled: Amir al Mu’minin. He passed away in 23 A.H. Al Isabah, vol. 4 pg. 588; al Suyuti: al Ghurar fi Fada’il ‘Umar.

[10] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3462; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2384.

[11] Ahmed: Fada’il al Sahabah, Hadith: 51, 1642; Musnad Ibn Rahawayh, vol. 2 pg. 19; al Hakim: al Mustadrak, vol. 4 pg. 9. Al Hakim comments, “It is sahih according to the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim—if the direct listening of Dhakwan Abu ‘Amr is confirmed—but they have not documented it. Al Dhahabi comments in Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 190, “There is irsal in it.”

[12] Al Muhamili: al Amali, Hadith: 242; al Khara’iti: I’tilal al Qulub, Hadith: 25; al Mustadrak, vol. 4 pg. 9. Al Hakim comments, “It is sahih according to the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim but they have not documented it due to the irsal of Mutarrif ibn Tarif.

[13] He is Masruq ibn al Ajda’ ibn Malik, Abu Aisha al Kufi. The Imam, the Leader, the Authority, the Worshipper, the Jurist. He participated in the Battle of al Qadisiyyah wherein his hand was paralysed and he was afflicted with a head injury. It is said that he witnessed Siffin but did not fight. Ziyad ibn al Salsalah appointed him as governor. He passed away in 62 A.H. or 63 A.H. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 4 pg. 66; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 5 pg. 416)

[14] Al Tabarani: al Mujam al Kabir, Hadith: 289, 290; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 26086.

[15] Surah al Nur: 26.

[16] Taysir al Karim al Rahman fi Tafsir Kalam al Mannan, pg. 352.

[17] Musnad Abi Ya’la, vol. 8 pg. 90, Hadith: 4626.

The entire narration reads:

لقد أعطيت تسعا ما أعطيتها امرأة إلا مريم بنت عمران لقد نزل جبريل بصورتي في راحته حتى أمر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يتزوجني ولقد تزوجني بكرا وما تزوج بكرا غيري ولقد قبض ورأسه لفي حجري ولقد قبرته في بيتي ولقد حفت الملائكة بيتي وإن كان الوحي لينزل عليه وهو في أهله فيتفرقون عنه و إن كان لينزل عليه وإني لمعه في لحافه وإني لابنة خليفته وصديقه ولقد نزل عذري من السماء ولقد خلقت طيبة وعند طيب ولقد وعدت مغفرة ورزقا كريما

I have indeed been favoured with nine specialities which no woman besides Maryam bint ‘Imran has been favoured with. Jibril descended with my image in his sleep and commanded the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to marry me. He married me a virgin and married no virgin besides me. His soul was taken while his head rest in my lap. He is buried in my house. The angels surrounded my home. Revelation would descend upon him while he was among his family members and they would disperse from him, whereas revelation would descend upon him while I am with him under one sheet. I am the daughter of his khalifah and bosom friend. My innocence was revealed from the sky. I have been created pure and I am in the wedlock of a pure man. I have been promised forgiveness and a noble provision.

Ibn Kathir comments in al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 2 pg. 56, “The origin of it appears in Sahih al Bukhari while its isnad meets the standards of Muslim.” Al Dhahabi declared its isnad jayyid in Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 141. Al Haythami says in Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 9 pg. 244, “Abu Ya’la narrated it. Portions of it appear in Sahih al Bukhari and other books. The isnad of Abu Ya’la contains narrators I am not aware of.”

[18] He is ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Abu al ‘Abbas al Qurashi al Hashimi. The eminent Sahabi, the Sage and Jurist of the Ummah, the Commentator of the Qur’an. He was born 3 years before the hijrah. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicated in his favour for Allah to bestow him with the understanding of Din and to teach him the interpretation of the Qur’an. He passed away in 68 A.H or 70 A.H. Al Isti’ab, vol. 1 pg. 284; al Isabah, vol. 4 pg. 141.

[19] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 1 pg. 276, Hadith: 2496; Musnad Abi Ya’la, vol. 5 pg. 57, Hadith: 2648; Sahih Ibn Hibban, vol. 16 pg. 41, Hadith: 7108; al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 10 pg. 321, Hadith: 10783. Ahmed Shakir labelled its isnad sahih in Tahqiq Musnad Ahmed, vol. 4 pg. 169. Al Albani labelled it sahih li ghayrihi in Sahih Mawarid al Zam’an, Hadith: 1893.

[20] Al Mujam al Kabir, Hadith: 289, 290; Musnad Ahmed, Hadith: 26086.

[21] He is Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad, Abu ‘Abdullah al Hakim al Naysaburi. The Imam, the Hafiz, the Sheikh of the muhaddithin. He was born in the year 321 A.H. He was from among the men of knowledge, isolation, and piety. It is said that he had leniency towards Shi’ism. He assumed the position of judge in Naysabur. Al Mustadrak and al Iklil are some of his books. He passed away in 405 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 17 pg. 162; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 11 pg. 355.

[22] Al Mustadrak, vol. 4 pg. 5.

[23] He is Ahmed ibn ‘Ali ibn Hajar, Abu al Fadl al ‘Asqalani al Shafi’i. The Sheikh of Islam and Amir al Mu’minin in hadith. He was born in 773 A.H. He is an authority and specialist in the science of analysing narrators and the subtle flaws of ahadith. He assumed position of chief justice of the Shafi’i judges in Egypt. Fath al Bari and Tahdhib al Tahdhib are some of his works. He passed away in 852 A.H. Al Sakhawi: al Jawahir wa al Durar; Ibn al ‘Imad: Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 7 pg. 269.

[24] Fath al Bari, vol. 7 pg. 107.

[25] He is Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn ‘Uthman, Abu ‘Abdullah al Dhahabi, Shams al Din. The Imam, the Hafiz. He was born in 673 A.H. He is the historian of Islam, the Muhaddith of the era, the Sheikh of the science of classifying narrators reliable or unreliable. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ and Mizan al I’tidal are among his books. He passed on in 748 A.H. Al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 9 pg. 100; Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 6 pg. 153.

[26] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 168.

[27] Ibid.

[28] Ibid.

[29] He is Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn Ayub, Abu ‘Abdullah al Dimashqi. The Hambali Jurist, the Mujtahid, the Mufassir, the Usuli. He was born in 691 A.H. He excelled in various sciences while at the same time adhering to worship and tahajjud. He was tested and harmed on a number of occasions. He is from the most distinguished students of Sheikh al Islam Ibn Taymiyyah. Zad al Ma’ad and I’lam al Muwaqqi’in are some of his books. He passed away in 751 A.H. Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 14 pg. 234; Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 6 pg. 167.

[30] Ibn al Qayyim: al Manar al Munif fi al Sahih wa al Da’if, pg. 60 – 61.

[31] Sunan al Nasa’i, vol. 5 pg. 307, Hadith: 8951; al Tahawi: Sharh Mushkil al Athar, vol. 1 pg. 268, Hadith: 292. The hadith of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. It has been classified sahih by Ibn al Qattan in Ahkam al Nazar, Hadith: 360; Ibn Hajar in Fath al Bari, vol. 2 pg. 515; al ‘Ayni in ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 6 pg. 391; and al Albani in al Silsilah al Sahihah, vol. 7 pg. 818.

[32] Fath al Bari, vol. 2 pg. 444. Al Mizzi rahimahu Llah says, “Every hadith which contains O Humaira’ is a fabrication besides the hadith documented by al Nasa’i.” Al Zarkashi: al Ijabah, pg. 58.

[33] Faratan: two children who pass away before reaching puberty. Farat and farit: one who goes ahead and surpasses. Al farat here refers to a child who passes away before the parent. He precedes and prepares for his parents hospitality and an apartment in Jannat just as the head of the caravan proceeds ahead to the way station and prepares for them what they need like water, grass (for the animals), etc. Al Mubarakfuri: Mir’at al Mafatih, vol. 5 pg. 476.

[34] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 1062; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 1 pg. 334, Hadith: 3098; Musnad Abi Ya’la, vol. 5 pg. 138, Hadith: 2752; al Mujam al Kabir, vol. 12 pg. 197, Hadith: 12880; Sunan al Bayhaqi, vol. 4 pg. 68, Hadith: 7398. Al Albani declared it da’if in Da’if al Jami’, Hadith: 5801 while Ahmed Shakir classified the isnad sahih in Tahqiq Musnad Ahmed, vol. 5 pg. 39.

[35] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 6201; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2447.

[36] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 253.

[37] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3175; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 3403; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 205, Hadith: 25746; al Bayhaqi: Shu’ab al Iman, vol. 1 pg. 477, Hadith: 762. The hadith of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. Ibn al ‘Arabi classified it sahih in ‘Aridat al Ahwadhi, vol. 6 pg. 258 and al Albani concurred in Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi.

[38] He is Hassan ibn Thabit ibn al Mundhir radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Abu ‘Abdur Rahman al Ansari al Najjari. One of the master poets and the personal poet of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He passed away in 54 A.H. Al Isti’ab, vol. 1 pg. 100; al Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 62.

[39] Diwan Hassan ibn Thabit, pg. 191.

[40] He is ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Abu al Hassan al Hashimi. The Amir al Mu’minin and the fourth rightly guided Khalifah. He was born ten years before nubuwwah. He is the paternal cousin of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the husband of his daughter, Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. He is from the first forerunners [to Islam] and one of the ten promised Jannat. He participated in all the battles besides Tabuk. He passed away in 40 A.H. Al Nasa’i: al Khasa’is fi Manaqib ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib; al Isabah, vol. 4 pg. 564.

[41] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 176. Al Dhahabi classified it hasan.

[42] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 532. The hadith of Jundub radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

[43] Surah al Tawbah: 40.

[44] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3654; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2382. The hadith of Abu Sa’id al Khudri radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

[45] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 169; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Kabir, vol. 5 pg. 1; al Isti’ab fi Ma’rifat al Ashab, vol. 4 pg. 1614.

[46] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 276; Tarikh al Tabari, vol. 3 pg. 426; al Isti’ab fi Ma’rifat al Ashab, vol. 4 pg. 1935; Usd al Ghabah, vol. 7 pg. 320.

[47] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 276; Ibn al Jawzi: al Muntazam fi Tarikh al Muluk wa al Umam, vol. 3 pg. 291.

[48] Ibn Qutaybah: al Ma’arif, vol. 1 pg. 167; al Suyuti: Tarikh al Khulafa’, pg. 26; Taqush: Tarikh al Khulafa’ al Rashidin, pg. 13.

[49] Al Nadwi: Sirat al Sayyidah Aisha, pg. 38.

[50] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 392.

[51] She is Asma’ bint ‘Umays, Umm ‘Abdullah al Khath’amiyyah radiya Llahu ‘anha. She is the sister of Maimunah radiya Llahu ‘anha, the wife of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She emigrated to Abyssinia and then to Madinah. She was married to Jafar, then Abu Bakr, and then ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum whom she survived. Al Isti’ab, vol. 2 pg. 75; al Isabah, vol. 7 pg. 491.

[52] She is Habibah bint Kharijah ibn Zaid al Khazrajiyyah radiya Llahu ‘anha. She is the wife of Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Isaf ibn ‘Utbah ibn ‘Amr married her after the demise of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. She embraced Islam and pledged allegiance. Al Isti’ab, vol. 2 pg. 83; al Isabah, vol. 7 pg. 575.

[53] ‘Abdul Hamid Tahmaz: al Sayyidah Aisha Umm al Mu’minin wa ‘Alimat Nisa’ al ‘Alamin, pg. 16, 17.

[54] Ibid.

[55] Al Isabah, vol. 8 pg. 287, 425, 448.

[56] Taribat yaminuk: Tariba al rajul is said when a person becomes needy i.e., he is attached to the earth. Regardless of the literal meaning, the Arabs do not intend a curse when uttering it. Ibn al Athir: al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 1 pg. 184.

[57] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4796; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1445.

[58] She is Barirah radiya Llahu ‘anha, the freed slave of Sayyidah Aisha bint Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. A hadith concerning her is reported containing the ruling that wala’ [the right to inherit] belongs to the emancipator. She was freed while in wedlock. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave her the choice [to remain married or to separate] and this became a continuous practice. Al Isti’ab, vol. 2 pg. 79; al Isabah, vol. 7 pg. 535.

[59] He is Muhammad ibn Ismail ibn Ibrahim, Abu ‘Abdullah al Bukhari. The Imam, the Hafiz, the Muhaddith, the authority, and the leader of the muhaddithin of his era. He was born in 194 A.H. Al Jami’ al Sahih—the most authentic book after the Book of Allah; al Tarikh al Kabir and other books which are unbeatable are authored by him. He passed away in 256 A.H. Al Dhahabi: Juz’ fihi Tarjumat al Bukhari; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 5 pg. 33.

[60] Wala’: estate of a deceased freed slave who has no family members or relatives as heirs in which case the emancipator inherits the estate. (Translator)

[61] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 456; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1504.

[62] Dhu al Tufyatayn: A snake which has two black stripes on its back. Tanwir al Hawalik, vol. 1 pg. 247.

[63] Al Abtar: A blue species [of snake] with a mutilated tail. It does not look at a pregnant woman except causing her miscarriage. Tanwir al Hawalik, vol. 1 pg. 247.

[64] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2233. The hadith of Abu Lubabah al Ansari radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Ibn ‘Abdul Barr comments:

Majority of the students of Nafi’ and the well-versed among them narrate it from Nafi’—from Sa’ibah—from Aisha with a joint isnad. Al Tamhid, vol. 16 pg. 131.

[65] He is Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik, Abu ‘Abdullah al Asbahi al Madani. The Jurist, the Sheikh of Islam, the authority of mankind, the Imam of the abode of emigration, and one of the four imams. He was born in 93 A.H. and passed away in 179 A.H. Al Muwatta’ is his magnificent book. Al Suyuti: Tazyin al Mamalik bi Manaqib al Imam Malik; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 8 pg. 48.

[66] Al Dirajah (with a kasrah on the dal and a fathah on the ra’, the plural of durj): like a little basket in which a woman places her light possessions and perfume. It is said that the word is read as al durjah (with a dammah): the feminine of durj and the plural of which is al duraj. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 2 pg. 111.

[67] Al Kursuf: cotton. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 4 pg. 163.

[68] Al Qassah: The piece of cotton or rag which the menstruating woman inserts. Al bayda’: which has no trace of yellowness. It is said that al qassah appears as a white thread which is discharged after the termination of all blood. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 4 pg. 71.

[69] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 2 pg. 80, Hadith: 189; Sunan al Bayhaqi, vol. 1 pg. 335, Hadith: 1650. Al Bukhari quoted it without an isnad with words denoting determination before Hadith: 320. Al Nawawi classified it sahih in al Khulasah, vol. 1 pg. 233 and al Albani concurred in Irwa’ al Ghalil, Hadith: 198.

[70] He is Abu Yunus al Madani, the slave of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. He reports from her and he is reliable. Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 6 pg. 495.

[71] Surah al Baqarah: 238.

[72] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 629.

[73] He is Dhakwan, Abu ‘Amr al Madani, the slave of Aisha Umm al Mu’minin radiya Llahu ‘anha. He was one of the most eloquent Qurra’. He would lead her in the month of Ramadan from the mushaf. He was killed during the nights of Harrah in 63 A.H. Ibn Hibban: al Thiqat, vol. 4 pg. 222; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 2 pg. 130.

[74] Al Bukhari documents it without an isnad. Hafiz Ibn Hajar attaches an isnad to it in Taghliq al Ta’liq, vol. 2 pg. 290, commenting, “It is an authentic narration.”

[75] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Ubaidullah ibn Abi Mulaykah, Abu Bakr al Makki. The Imam, the authority, the Hafiz, and the Sheikh of the Haram. He was born during the khalifah of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu or before it. He was a Scholar, a Mufti, and a prolific and reliable narrator of hadith. He assumed the position of Judge and Mu’adhin for Ibn al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. He passed away in 117 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 5 pg. 88; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 3 pg. 199.

[76] He is ‘Ubaid ibn ‘Umair ibn Qatadah, Abu ‘Asim al Makki. The storyteller of the people of Makkah. He was born during the lifetime of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He was a Scholar and Orator; valuable, reliable, and one of the senior Tabi’in. Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma would sit by him for benefit. He passed away in 68 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 4 pg. 156; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 4 pg. 48.

[77] They would come to her to ask questions and seek her verdicts.

[78] Al Shafi’i: al Musnad, Hadith: 224; Musannaf ‘Abdur Razzaq, vol. 2 pg. 393; Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 2 pg. 218; Sunan al Bayhaqi, vol. 3 pg. 88, Hadith: 5325. Al Nawawi remarks in al Khulasah, vol. 2 pg. 693, “The isnad is either sahih or hasan.”

[79] Al Mustadrak, vol. 4 pg. 81. Al Wadi’i comments, “It is munqati’. We did not find the biography of Minhal ibn Ubaidullah.” Al Mustadrak, vol. 4 pg. 166.

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