‘Ali, Fatimah, and their sons

 ‘Ali is the first to believe in me and will be the first to shake my hand on the Day of Qiyamah … He is the chief of the believers.
March 5, 2019
 ‘Umar ibn al Khattab will be the lamp of the inhabitants of Jannat
March 5, 2019

BACK⇒ Return to Table of contents

 ‘Ali, Fatimah, and their sons

 

When he was questioned about who are the individuals who Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala commanded to love in the verse:

 

قُلْ لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبىٰ

I do not ask you for this message any payment [but] only good will through kinship.[1]

He replied, “‘Ali, Fatimah, and their sons.”

 

The isnad of this hadith is saqit (wholly unreliable) as determined by Hafiz Ibn Hajar.[2]

Ibn Kathir said, “This isnad is da’if. A muttaham (criticised) narrator appears in the isnad who is unknown and it is reported from a radical shia, Hussain al Ashqar.”

It is laughable that the Rawafid interpret love as obedience and acceptance of Imamah.

Question: Is the mustathna[3] muttasil (included) in the mustathna minhu[4] or munfasil (separate)? If it is muttasil, then it means that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sought from them a reward for his relatives for inviting them towards Islam.

The views of the Rawafid are not accepted when dealing with tafsir of verses. Especially when they have interpreted al ba’udah (mosquito), al bahr (ocean), and al qamar (moon) as ‘Ali, al zujajah (glass) as Hussain, and al misbah (lamp) as Hassan.

This verse is Makki. At that time, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had not yet been married to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, nor did he have any children.

The correct meaning of the verse:

 

روى البخاري عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما أنه سئل عن هذه الآية فقال سعيد بن جبير قربى آل محمد فقال ابن عباس عجلت إن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم لم يكن بطن من قريش إلا كان له فيهم قرابة فقال إلا أن تصلوا ما بيني و بينكم من القرابة

Al Bukhari reports that Ibn ‘Abbas was questioned about this verse, so Sa’id ibn Jubayr replied, “The relatives of Muhammad’s family.”

Ibn ‘Abbas corrected him saying, “You have acted in haste. Indeed, Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was not a tribe from the Quraysh. Yes, he enjoyed family relations with them so he said, ‘except that you maintain the family ties between me and you.’”[5]

 

This hadith has a sahih isnad in comparison to which the da’if narrations are worthless.

Ibn al Jawzi has reported many opinions in the commentary of this verse and then favoured this sahih statement attributed to Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma in Sahih al Bukhari.[6]

Ibn Kathir announces:

 

The correct manner is to interpret this verse as the Imam interpreted it, the authority of this ummah, and the commentator of the Qur’an, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas as al Bukhari quoted from him.”

 

Al Tabari highlights that the reason for favouring interpreting the verse as “except love for me owing to my family ties with you,” is due to the presence of fi (in) in the verse. Had the meaning been, “love for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s relatives,” then the fi would not have appeared and the verse would have read:

إِلَّا مَوَدَّةَ الْقُرْبىٰ

Except love for the relatives. [7]

 

They claim that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was asked about the verse, “Who are the individuals who Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala commanded to love?” to which he replied, “‘Ali, Fatimah, and their sons.”

The isnad of this hadith is saqit (wholly unreliable) as determined by Hafiz Ibn Hajar.[8]

Ibn Kathir said, “This isnad is da’if. A muttaham (criticised) narrator appears in the isnad who is unknown and it is reported from a radical shia, Hussain al Ashqar.”

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala did not state:

إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ لِذَوِي الْقُرْبىٰ

Except love for the relatives.

 

Rather He subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declared:

إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبىٰ

[But] love through kinship.[9]

 

Do you not see in the Qur’an that when Allah intended the relatives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, He said:

 

وَاعْلَمُوْا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُمْ مِّنْ شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُوْلِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبىٰ

And know that anything you obtain of war booty – then indeed, for Allah is one fifth of it and for the Messenger and for [his] near relatives.[10]

 

It is not grammatically correct to say:

الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي ذَوِي الْقُرْبىٰ

 

Rather:

الْمَوَدَّةَ لِذَوِي الْقُرْبىٰ

 

Hence, the meaning cannot be such when Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declared:

 

قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبىٰ

I do not ask you for this message any payment [but] only good will through kinship.[11]

 

This is further strengthened by the fact that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not seek any reward at all. His reward is the responsibility of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala alone.

The Muslims are duty-bound to befriend the Ahlul Bayt, due to other proofs and not this verse. Our love and friendship with the Ahlul Bayt is not part of the reward of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in any way whatsoever.

 

Is the verse Makki or Madani?

Hafiz Ibn Hajar highlighted that the address is specifically to the Quraysh.[12]

From all the opinions, al Tabari has deemed authentic the view of one who says:

I do not ask you for this message any payment, O Quraysh, but that you love me due to my family relationship with you and you maintain the ties of kinship between me and you.”[13]

It is common knowledge that this verse is Makki by consensus.[14]

Hafiz Ibn Hajar has emphatically declared this. He also labelled what has been reported from Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma that the reason for revealtion of this verse took place in Madinah as da’if. In addition, it contradicts the sahih hadith reported from him.[15]

Ibn Kathir has considered the revelation of this verse in Madinah as fanciful, and emphasised that it is Makki.[16]

Ibn al Jawzi has attributed it being Makki to the majority of the mufassirin. He then explained that it has been reported (with words denoting weakness) from Ibn ‘Abbas that the entire surah is Makki except four verses of it, one being this verse.[17]

What favours that it was revealed in Makkah is the entire context as well as the narration of al Bukhari from Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu married Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha only after the Battle of Badr. Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu was born in the second year after hijrah. So how could the verse command love for someone not yet created? Did Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala address the Quraysh by telling them to love someone He did not yet create?

If it does not denote Imamah due to the presence of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, then what does it denote?

If the goal is a bequest to look after them, honour them, and fear Allah in their regard, then when did we ever have difference of opinion regarding this unanimous aspect?

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pure from addressing the ummah with indications which will lead to their deviation and disagreement. So why was a clear emphatic word not spoken which is free from ambiguity and can stand as proof?

Since when does the word al mawaddah (love) refer to obedience?

 

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُمْ مِّنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا لِّتَسْكُنُوْا إِلَيْهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ مَّوَدَّةً وَرَحْمَةً

And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you may find tranquillity in them; and He placed between you affection and mercy.[18]

 

Does the verse refer to obedience and Imamah?

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا لَا تَتَّخِذُوْا عَدُوِّيْ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُوْنَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُوْا بِمَا جَاءَكُمْ مِّنَ الْحَقِّ يُخْرِجُوْنَ الرَّسُوْلَ وَإِيَّاكُمْ أَنْ تُؤْمِنُوْا بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ خَرَجْتُمْ جِهَادًا فِيْ سَبِيلِيْ وَابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِيْ تُسِرُّوْنَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ بِمَا أَخْفَيْتُمْ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُمْ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْهُ مِنْكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيْلِ

O you who have believed, do not take My enemies and your enemies as allies, extending to them affection while they have disbelieved in what came to you of the truth, having driven out the Prophet and yourselves [only] because you believe in Allah, your Lord. If you have come out for jihad in My cause and seeking means to My approval, [take them not as friends]. You confide to them affection, but I am most knowing of what you have concealed and what you have declared. And whoever does it among you has certainly strayed from the soundness of the way.[19]

 

Does this verse mean that they accepted the enemy of Allah as Imams and secretly obeyed them? Had mawaddah here referred to obedience and Imamah, the quality of belief would not have remained. This proves that mawaddah is a level lower than obedience and allegiance.

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala further states:

عَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَجْعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِيْنَ عَادَيْتُمْ مِّنْهُمْ مَّوَدَّةً وَاللَّهُ قَدِيْرٌ وَاللَّهُ غَفُوْرٌ رَّحِيْمٌ

Perhaps Allah will put, between you and those to whom you have been enemies among them, affection. And Allah is competent, and Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.[20]

 

Is this a promise from Allah that Allah will convert those whom the Muslims have enmity for to Imams who are obeyed?

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:

 

لَتَجِدَنَّ أَشَدَّ النَّاسِ عَدَاوَةً لِّلَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا الْيَهُوْدَ وَالَّذِيْنَ أَشْرَكُوْا وَلَتَجِدَنَّ أَقْرَبَهُمْ مَّوَدَّةً لِّلَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوا الَّذِيْنَ قَالُوْا إِنَّا نَصَارىٰ ذٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنْهُمْ قِسِّيْسِيْنَ وَرُهْبَانًا وَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُوْنَ

You will surely find the most intense of the people in animosity toward the believers [to be] the Jews and those who associate others with Allah; and you will find the nearest of them in affection to the believers those who say, “We are Christians.” That is because among them are priests and monks and because they are not arrogant.[21]

 

Does nearest of them in affection mean nearest of them in obedience, wilayah, and Imamah?

Did Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam tell the kuffar, “I do not want any reward from you except one i.e. to obey my relatives viz. ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain and take them as Imams after me?” Why did he not ask them to obey him?

Ibn Taymiyyah explains:

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declared:

قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبىٰ

I do not ask you for this message any payment [but] only good will through kinship.[22]

Allah did not say:

الْمَوَدَّةَ لِلْقُرْبىٰ

Or

الْمَوَدَّةَ لِذَوِي الْقُرْبىٰ

Had he intended love for the relatives, he would have said:

الْمَوَدَّةَ لِذَوِي الْقُرْبىٰ

Just as He―the Sublime―declared:

وَاعْلَمُوْا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُمْ مِّنْ شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُوْلِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبىٰ

And know that anything you obtain of war booty – then indeed, for Allah is one fifth of it and for the Messenger and for [his] near relatives.[23]

At all places in the Qur’an when commanding the rights of the relatives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam or the relatives of general humans, the word dhawi al qurba has been used not fi al qurba. When the masdar (root word) has been used here instead of the noun, it indicates that He did not intend the relatives.[24]

 

When this verse is categorical on Imamah, then why do the Shia not demand that Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha be an Imam? And why do they not demand that all four, viz. ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain, be Imams during Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’s lifetime?

The correct meaning of the verse is that they should maintain family ties with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The teachings of Islam demand that ties of kinship should not be severed even from a kafir.

The meaning of the verse according to the Rawafid is what al Kulayni has reported in al Kafi from Ismail ibn ‘Abdul Khaliq who reports:

 

سمعت أبا عبد الله يقول لأبي جعفر الأحول و أنا أسمع أتيت البصرة فقال نعم قال كيف رأيت مسارعة الناس إلى هذا الأمر و دخولهم فيه قال والله إنهم لقليل و لقد فعلوا و إن ذلك لقليل فقال عليك بالأحداث فإنهم أسرع إلى كل خير ثم قال ما يقول أهل البصرة في هذه الآية قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبىٰ قلت جعلت فداك إنهم يقولون إنها لأقارب رسول الله فقال كذبوا إنما نزلت فينا خاصة في أهل البيت في علي و فاطمة و الحسن و الحسين أصحاب الكساء

I heard Abu ‘Abdullah saying to Abu Jafar al Ahwal while I was overhearing, “Did you go to Basrah?”

“Yes,” he replied.

He asked, “How was the people’s response to this matter and their entry into the same?”

He replied, “By Allah, they are very few in number. Some have responded positively but these are but a handful.”

Abu ‘Abdullah said, “You should approach the new generation since they are quicker towards every good.”

He then said, “Why do the people of Basrah say about this verse:

I said, “May I be sacrificed for you. They assert that it is the relatives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

Abu ‘Abdullah retorted, “They have lied. It was revealed especially regarding us the Ahlul Bayt, regarding ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain―the people of the shawl.”[25]

 

Another narration has the words:

هم الأئمة

They are the Imams.[26]

 

Next⇒  ‘Umar ibn al Khattab will be the lamp of the inhabitants of Jannat


[1] Surah al Shura: 23.

[2] Fath al Bari vol.8 pg. 564.

[3] What has been excluded.

[4] From what the exclusion is made.

[5] Sahih al Bukhari Hadith: 4818.

[6] Zad al Masir vol. 7 pg. 285.

[7] Tafsir al Tabari vol. 11 pg. 145.

[8] Fath al Bari vol.8 pg. 564.

[9] Surah al Shura: 23.

[10] Surah al Anfal: 41.

[11] Surah al Shura: 23.

[12] Fath al Bari vol. 8 pg. 564.

[13] Tafsir al Tabari vol. 11 pg. 145.

[14] Tafsir al Baghawi vol. 4 pg. 119.

[15] Fath al Bari vol. 8 pg. 565.

[16] Tafsir al Qur’an al ‘Azim vol. 7 pg. 267.

[17] Zad al Masir vol. 7 pg. 270.

[18] Surah al Rum: 21.

[19] Surah al Mumtahinah: 1.

[20] Surah al Mumtahinah: 7.

[21] Surah al Ma’idah: 82.

[22] Surah al Shura: 23.

[23] Surah al Anfal: 41.

[24] Minhaj al Sunnah vol. 4 pg. 28.

[25] Al Kafi vol. 1 pg. 413; vol. 8 pg. 93.

[26] Al Kafi vol. 1 pg. 413.

Back to top