Refuting Tijani’s claim that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam dispraised the Sahabah

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Chapter Four

 

1. Tijani’s claim that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam dispraised the Sahabah

 

Tijani commences this chapter with a discussion around a Hadith which the Shia commonly refer to as the Hadith of the Hawd (Pond):

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: As I was standing, there came a group of people whom I recognized, and a man stood between the group and myself, then said: “Let us go.” I said, “Where to?” He said, “To Hell, by Allah!” I asked, “What have they done?” He answered, “They turned back after you had departed, and I expect only a few will reach salvation.”

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also said:

I shall arrive at the pool before you, and he who passes by me will drink, and whoever drinks from it will never feel thirsty. There will come to me people that I know and they know me, but we shall be separated, then I shall say, “My companions”. An answer shall come, “You do not know what they did after you left.” Then I shall say, “Away with those who changed after me.”

When we look deeply at the various sayings that have been referred to by the Sunnis in their books, we will have no doubt that most of the Companions changed or even became apostates after the departure of the Messenger of Allah, except a few who were considered to be the minority. The above sayings could not be applied to the third type [of Companions], for they were the hypocrites, and the text states: I shall say, “My companions.”[1]

 

Refuting Tijani’s claim that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam dispraised the Sahabah

There are a number of fundamental elements which cannot be compromised in any objective research project. One of these key features is the reliability and accuracy of the collected data. Another element is faithful representation of that data. I leave it to the reader to assess Tijani’s adherence to these principles in his citing of these narrations, as well as his interpretations thereof.

 

Tijani’s distortion of text

Neither of the two versions of the Hadith which Tijani referenced to the Sahih collections of al Bukhari or Muslim are worded as such in those collections. As a matter of fact, the first hadith cited by Tijani appears to have been distorted and truncated. We have come to notice a recurring pattern of misdirection and manipulation of data in Tijani’s assessment of text in the past chapters; and he has not failed in maintaining that consistency here as well.

The complete narration in Sahih al Bukhari as reported by Abu Hurayrah radiya Llahu ‘anhu from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is reproduced below:

 

بينا أنا نائم إذا زمرة حتى إذا عرفتهم خرج رجل من بيني وبينهم فقال هلم فقلت أين ؟ قال إلى النار والله قلت وما شأنهم ؟ قال إنهم ارتدوا بعدك على أدبارهم القهقرى . ثم إذا زمرة حتى إذا عرفتهم خرج رجل من بيني وينهم فقال هلم قلت أين ؟ قال إلى النار والله قلت ما شأنهم ؟ قال إنهم ارتدوا بعدك على أدبارهم القهقرى فلا أراه يخلص منهم إلا مثل همل النعم[2]

While I was sleeping, a group were brought close to me, and when I recognised them, a man (an angel) emerged between me and them, and said to them, “Come along.” I asked, “Where?” He said, “To the Hell-Fire, by Allah.” I asked, “What is wrong with them?” He said, “They turned back after you left.” Then behold! Another group were brought close to me, and when I recognised them, a man (an angel) emerged between me and them. He said (to them), “Come along.” I asked, “Where?” He said, “To the Hell-Fire, by Allah.” I asked, “What is wrong with them?” He said, “They turned back after you left.” So I did not see anyone of them escaping except a few who were like camels without a shepherd.

 

Notice the word Na’im (sleeping) which appears in al Bukhari has been substituted for the word Qa’im (standing) in Tijani’s citation of the Hadith.

The misdirection does not end here. Tijani referenced the Hadith to both al Bukhari and Muslim. The Hadith under discussion is found only in al Bukhari; Muslim does not narrate it!

Yes, such ahadith are recorded in the reliable Hadith books of the Ahlus Sunnah. Tijani, however; conveniently ignores the explanation offered by the Ahlus Sunnah throughout the centuries. Instead he applies his oblique approach to understanding texts; completely disregarding the prescribed framework of interpretation. For the sake of fairness it is my duty to present the explanations given by the Ahlus Sunnah on this hadith.

 

Sunni interpretation of these ahadith

The scholars have offered a number of explanations on the meaning of the word Riddah as well as the intended party mentioned in the hadith. Some scholars have said that they are the people of innovation and heretical tendencies.

 

Qabisah says, “They are those who turned apostate during the era of Abu Bakr and remained upon disbelief until they were killed or died upon it.”

Al Khattabi says, “Not a single Sahabi turned apostate. The only ones to turn apostate were from the Bedouin Arabs who did not assist the religion at all; and that does not imply criticism against the well-known Sahabah.”

Ibn Tin says, “It is possible that they are the munafiqin or those who committed major sins.”[3]

Ibn Hajar says, “It has been said that they are a group from the Bedouin Arabs who had not wholeheartedly entered into Islam.”[4]

Further he says, “It has been said that they are the perpetrators of major sins and bid’ah but died upon Islam.”

Imam al Nawawi says, “This is from those matters about which the scholars differ. It has been said that they are the munafiqin apostates, it has also been said that they are those were in the era of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then turned apostate after him.”[5]

At another place he says, “It has also been said that those intended are the perpetrators of major sins and crimes who died upon tawhid; and also the people of bid’ah but remained within the fold of Islam.”[6]

Imam Ibn ‘Abd al Barr says, “Each person who innovated in the religion will be of those repelled from the Hawd; such as the Khawarij, the Rawafid, and all other people of heretical tendencies.”[7]

 

Abu Ishaq al Shatibi says:

 

The most plausible interpretation is that it refers to individuals of this Ummah. This is because of the identifying features of ghurrah and tahjil (a radiance that will appear on the limbs washed during wudu’) which will not be seen on the disbelievers. It is inconsequential whether their disbelief was from the outset or subsequent apostasy.

Furthermore, the words, “they changed after you”, were used in the hadith. Had reference been made to disbelief, the words “they disbelieved after you”, would have been used. The most accurate manner of understanding it is that they substituted the Sunnah. This applies aptly to the people of innovation. If one applied the meaning to the hypocrites it would also be plausible since the hypocrites adopted the religion to conceal their beliefs; not for the sake of worship. In so doing they have substituted true religion for alternative matters; this is the essence of innovation.

 

This clearly establishes that those intended by the words ‘turning back’ were the hypocrites and innovators. Therefore, it is evident that the Sahabah were not intended in the hadith.

In order to further demonstrate Tijani’s bigotry I will present the writings of the Shia, since even they have inadvertently demonstrated some objectivity in this matter.

 

Shia scholars do not apply it to sahabah

Under his commentary of the verse:

فَأَمَّا الَّذِيْنَ اسْوَدَّتْ وُجُوْهُهُمْ أَكَفَرْتُمْ بَعْدَ إِيْمَانِكُمْ

As for those whose faces turn black, [to them it will be said]: “Did you disbelieve [i.e., reject faith] after your belief?”

 

Fadl al Tabarsi writes in Majma’ al Bayan, “They differ concerning who is intended…” He then mentions four views, the last of them being:

They are the people of bid’ah and heretical tendencies from this Ummah…

 

As proof for the fourth view he cites the Hadith of the Hawd:

 

The fourth view is that they are the people of innovations and dissension from this Ummah, as reported from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. A similar view is ascribed to Qatadah with the addition of those who apostatised. It has been related from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that he said, “By He in whose control lays my soul, people from those who accompanied me will come to me at the Hawd. When I see them they will be prevented from approaching and I will say, ‘My companions!’ It will then be said, ‘You do not know what they innovated after you. They turned on their heels.’ Al Tha’labi mentions in his Tafsir that Abu Umamah al Bahili said, “They are the Khawarij and it has been transmitted from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that they will pierce through Islam like an arrow pierces through prey.”[8]

 

This is al Tabarsi’s commentary of this hadith—that they were the people of bid’ah like the Khawarij—which conforms entirely to the interpretation of the Ahlus Sunnah. Note that he did not imply in any way that it referred to the Sahabah of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Al Kashani comments on this verse, citing this hadith as a proof that the people of bid’ah and heretical tendencies are referred to in it. He says:

 

In al Majma it is reported from Amir al Mu’minin (‘Ali) that they are the people of innovation, dissension and false views from this Ummah. It is reported from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that he said, “By He in whose control lays my soul, people from those who accompanied me will come to me at the Hawd. When I see them they will be prevented from approaching and I will say, ‘My companions!’ It will then be said, ‘you do not know what they innovated after you. They turned on their heels.’”. Al Tha’labi mentions it in his Tafsir. [9]

 

The Shia have unjustly criticised the Sahabah at many places in their Qur’anic exergies, yet despite their animosity and condemnable allegations they have not understood this hadith to apply to the Sahabah. Tijani does not cite the interpretation given by the Shia since they did not give the slightest indication of it applying to the Sahabah.

Thus we safely establish that the hadith does not refer to them. The Sahabah were not apostates, nor innovators who followed heretical beliefs. Once again we refer the honourable reader to the discussion on the division of the Sahabah.

 

Shia Imams exonerate Sahabah

If any further doubt remains regarding the Sahabah being free from any form of innovation and irtidad (apostasy); I will now present statements from the likes of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu and other ‘Infallible’ Imams as recorded in Shia sources which exonerate the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum from these outlandish allegations.[10]

We find the likes of Zayn al ‘Abidin[11] praising the Companions of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, seeking mercy and forgiveness for them in his supplications. This positive attitude towards them is acknowledgement of their support for the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and their contribution to the spread of Islam. This is part of a supplication rendered by ‘Ali ibn Hussain Zayn al ‘Abidin in salah:

 

… And include them in Your forgiveness and pleasure. O Allah, especially the Sahabah of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who were excellent companions, who endured great hardships in supporting him, who stood by his side and welcomed him eagerly. They hastened to his call, and surrendered to him when he conveyed the proof of his message. They endured the pain of separation from their wives and children in promoting his message, and fought their fathers and sons to affirm his Prophethood and through him were victorious. Their love for him was pure and intense and they anticipated great reward on account of it. They are the ones whose families ostracised them when they held firm onto his rope and whose relationships were annulled when they remained in the shadow of his relationship. Do not forget, O Allah, what they sacrificed for Your sake. Grant them Your divine pleasure because they were with Your Messenger. They were callers towards You. Compensate them for abandoning the homes of their people for Your sake, and for forsaking prosperity for narrowness of life. Grant them this because of the many who were oppressed for the establishment of your religion.

O Allah, grant the greatest of Your rewards to those who followed in their way; those who say O Allah, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith; those who pursued their example and strove to tread their path, following in their footsteps; not doubting, being steered by the light of their guidance, accepting their teachings as religion, and being led by their guidance. Send your rewards to those who do not dispute about them and do not accuse them falsely. O Allah, send salutations upon those who follow them (the Sahabah) from this day to the Day of Judgement, and upon their wives and families, and upon those who obey You. Send such a salutation which will safeguard them from Your disobedience and extend for them (their abodes) in Your gardens of Paradise and save them from the scheme of Shaytan…[12]

 

The most senior Shia scholar of hadith, al Kulayni produces the following narration in his book, Usul al Kafi: [13]

 

Mansur Ibn Hazim narrates, “I asked Imam Jafar al Sadiq, ‘Why is it that when I ask you concerning a matter you respond to me with an answer then someone else comes to you (with the same question) and you respond to him with another answer?’

He said, ‘We respond to the people with additions and omissions.’

I then said, ‘Tell me about the Companions of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; were they honest concerning Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam or did they lie concerning him?’

He said, ‘Rather, they were honest.’

I said, ‘Why do they differ concerning them?’

He replied, ‘Do you not know that a man would come to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and he would respond to him with an answer then he would give him an answer which abrogated that answer. In that way the hadith, some abrogated others.’[14]

 

Imam Hassan al ‘Askari, the eleventh Imam, in the Tafsir attributed to him, elaborates on a communication between Musa ‘alayh al Salam and his Lord during which some questions were asked. This is one of the questions asked by Musa ‘alayh al Salam:

 

“Is there anyone nobler than my companions in previous nations?”

Allah said, “O Musa, do you not know that the superiority of the Companions of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam over the companions of other Messengers is like the superiority of the family of Muhammad over all the families of other prophets; and like the superiority of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam over all other prophets.”[15]

 

He also said:

Indeed a (single) man from the prominent Companions of the best Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would outweigh all the companions of other prophets ‘alayh al Salam if weighed against them.[16]

 

After all of these explanations it becomes clear to the reader that the noble Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were innocent of apostasy or turning on their heels according to both Sunni scholars, and the Imams of the Shia. All that remains is the charge of bid’ah and heretical beliefs.

Al Qummi writes in al Khisal—from Hisham ibn Salim—from Imam Jafar who said:

 

The Companions of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were twelve thousand, eight thousand from Madinah, two thousand from Makkah and two thousand from the Tulaqaʾ (those who accepted Islam after the Conquest of Makkah). Not a single Qadari, Murji’i, Haruri (Khariji), or Mu’tazili, or person of vain desire, was seen amongst them. They cried during the night and day; and would say, “Take our souls before we eat the leavened bread.”[17]

 

From this we learn that the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum are exonerated from the charge of bid’ah by the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt in the narrations found in the books of leading Shia scholars. It appears that Tijani could not conceal his bias no matter how often he assured us that his point of departure was from a position of neutrality and impartiality.

 

Further responses to Tijani’s reasoning

There are a few more elements in Tijani’s argument that require attention. Let us begin with his insinuation from the word ashabi (my companions) in the hadith. He asserts that this is proof that those prevented from the Hawd are none other than the Sahabah of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This interpretation is farfetched since it ignores the need to harmonise between the various narrations of this hadith. An intelligent person would be consistent in his speech and the only way to understand him objectively is to reconcile all the various wordings used so that the intended party becomes clear. We are left with no choice but to analyse the various expressions found in the hadith in order to accurately determine who is intended by the word ashabi in this context.

The word Sahabah is general and unrestricted in its application in language. Through convention it later became associated with the Companions of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. However, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not qualify the meaning of this word nor did he define its application. Since the conventional understanding of this word cannot be applied to the hadith retrospectively, the only plausible meaning is that it refers to anyone whom the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had seen or met.[18]

There is no debate about the fact that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had seen the munafiqin, and was aware of them during his lifetime. Similarly those Bedouin Arabs who later turned apostate were seen by him too. This undeniable fact clarifies the position of those who understood the hadith to apply to the subsequent apostates and hypocrites.

 

Variant wordings in the Ahadith

Imam Ahmed and al Tabarani transmit a hadith which is narrated with an acceptable chain from Abu Bakrah radiya Llahu ‘anhu that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

Men from those who accompanied me and saw me will come to me at the Hawd.[19]

 

Al Bukhari and Muslim transmit narrations in which the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mentioned those prevented from the Hawd using the diminutive form of the noun.

Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu relates that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

ليردن على الحوض رجال ممن صاحبنى حتى إذا رأيتهم ورفعوا إلى اختلجوا دونى فلأقولن أى رب أصيحابى أصيحابى.فليقالن لى إنك لا تدرى ما أحدثوا بعدك

Men from amongst those who accompanied me will come to me at the Hawd. When I see them and they approach me they will be obstructed and I will say, “O Lord, Usayhabi! Usayhabi! (In each instance the diminutive form of the noun is used).” It will be said to me, “Indeed, you do not know what they innovated after you.”[20]

 

This further clarifies what is meant in the additions found in other narrations which read, “They are from my Ummah,” and in another, “Men from amongst you,” and in yet another, “A group (from amongst you)”.

It is therefore incorrect to interpret the meaning of the hadith in light of the wording of one narration alone, which in itself does not give credence to the meaning promoted by Tijani. Citing one hadith and ignoring all other variant wordings displays a lack of objectivity and academic discretion.

As for the Messenger’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam statement in the hadith that “he recognised them”, it does not mean, necessarily, that he knew them personally. Rather, it means that he recognised them through some distinguishing features possessed by them as clarified by the hadith of Abu Hurayrah in Sahih Muslim wherein the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

ترد على أمتى الْحوض وأنا أذود الناس عنه كما يذود الرجل إبل الرجل عن إبله قالوا يا نبى الله أتعرفنا قال نعم لكم سيما ليست لأحد غيركم تردون على غرا محجلين من آثار الوضوء وليصدن عنى طائفة منكم فلا يصلون فأقول يا رب هؤلاء من أصحابى فيجيبنى ملك فيقول وهل تدرى ما أحدثوا بعدك

“My Ummah will come to me at the Hawd and I will ward off people from it like a man wards off the camels of another man from his camels.”

They (the companions) said, “O Messenger of Allah, will you recognise us?”

He said, “Yes, you will have distinguishing features that others besides you will not have. You will come to me Ghurr Muhajjalin[21] from the effects of wudu’. A group from amongst you will be obstructed and will not reach me and I will say, ‘O Lord, my Companions!’ An angel will respond to me and say, ‘Do you know what they did after you?’”[22]

 

This hadith implies that even the people of innovation and hypocrisy will be raised with the distinguishing marks of radiance from the limbs washed during Wudu’.

The word minkum (from amongst you) in the hadith implies that all of them will be resurrected with the same distinguishing marks of the believers as it comes in the hadith of the Sirat (the Bridge) in which he said, “and this Ummah will remain, amongst them the munafiqin…”[23]

The abovementioned hadith points to the fact that the munafiqin will be resurrected with the believers.

After this detailed explanation we can confidently assert that it is irrational to conclude that the Sahabah will be the ones prevented from the Hawd based on the hadith for the following reasons:

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pleased with them and defended them. He salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

خير الناس قرني ثم الذين يلونهم ثم الذين يلونهم ثم يجيء أقوام تسبق شهادة أحدهم يمينه ويمينه شهادته

The best people are those living in my generation, and then those who will follow them, and then those who will follow the latter. Then there will come some people who will bear witness before taking oaths, and take oaths before bearing witness.[24]

 

In this hadith the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam affirms the superiority of the Sahabah over all the subsequent generations.

Muslim relates a hadith from Abu Burdah, from his father, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam raised his head to the heavens and said:

 

النجوم أمنة للسماء فإذا ذهبت النجوم أتى السماء ما توعد وأنا أمنة لأصحابي فإذا ذهبت أتى أصحابي ما يوعدون وأصحابي أمنة لأمتي فإذا ذهب أصحابي أتى أمتي ما يوعدون

The stars are a source of security for the sky and when the stars disappear there comes to the sky, (i.e. it meets the same fate) as it has been promised (it would plunge into darkness). And I am a source of safety and security to my Sahabah and when I would go away there would fall to the lot (of my Sahabah) what they have been promised and my Sahabah are a source of security for the Ummah and as they would go there would fall to the lot of my Ummah what (its people) have been promised.[25]

 

Al Nawawi says in his Sharh Muslim:

 

“My Sahabah are a source of security for the Ummah and as they would go there would fall to the lot of my Ummah what (its people) have been promised,” it refers to the appearance of bid’ah and innovations in the religion and sedition in it, the emergence of the horns of Shaytan, the victory of the Romans and others over the Muslims, and the violation (of the sanctity) of Makkah and Madinah and other places. This is from his miracles (his prophecies which came to pass).[26]

 

In addition to the narrations above the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave glad tidings of Jannat to some Sahabah during their lifetimes.

‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu said that the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

أبو بكر في الجنة وعمر في الجنة وعثمان في الجنة وعلي في الجنة وطلحة في الجنة والزبير في الجنة وعبد الرحمن بن عوف في الجنة وسعد في الجنة وسعيد في الجنة وأبو عبيدة بن الجراح في الجنة

Abu Bakr is in Jannat, ‘Umar is in Jannat, ‘Uthman is in Jannat, ‘Ali is in Jannat, Talhah is in Jannat, Zubair is in Jannat, ‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf is in Jannat, Sa’d (ibn Abi Waqqas) is in Jannat, Sa’id (ibn Zaid) is in Jannat, and Abu ‘Ubaydah ibn al Jarrah is in Jannat.[27]

 

Imam Ahmed narrates from Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhu that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

The man who witnessed Badr and Hudaybiyyah will never enter the Fire.[28]

 

Also, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away while being pleased with the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

It has also never been proven that any of the Muhajirin or the Ansar became apostate.

Imam ‘Abd al Qadir al Baghdadi says in his book al Farq bayn al Firaq:

 

The Ahlus Sunnah are unanimous in that those who turned apostate after the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam death were from Kindah, Hanifah, Fazarah, Banu Asad, and Banu Bakr ibn Wa’il. None of them were from the Muhajirin or the Ansar; who accepted Islam before the Conquest of Makkah.

They also agree that the title of Muhajirin is only for those who migrated before the Conquest of Makkah and that they, through the grace of Allah, remained upon the straight path.[29]

 

An intelligent person is always understood to be coherent and consistent in what he says or does. Tijani’s assertions imply, by necessity, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam contradicted himself. Anyone who buys into Tijani’s ridiculous idea is actually accepting that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was incoherent, inconsistent, and self-contradictory in his speech. How else would the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam give glad tidings of Paradise to the Companions yet predict that they would be chased from his Hawd in the Hereafter?

Al Tabarani transmits a hadith with an acceptable chain of narrators from Abu al Darda’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he asked the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam afterwards:

I said, “O Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, pray to Allah that I am not amongst them!”

He said, “You are not amongst them.”[30]

 

Did the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not know the condition of Abu al Darda’? Did he pray for him only that he turns out to be an apostate?

If the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was not aware of the conditions of the Sahabah in the Hereafter he would not have said about Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, his closest, most honoured, and beloved Companion:

 

أنت عتيق الله من النار

You are Allah’s ‘Atiq (one who is emancipated) from the Fire.[31]

 

And about ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu he said:

 

دخلت الجنة فإذا أنا بقصر من ذهب فقلت لمن هذا القصر قالوا لشاب من قريش فظننت أني أنا هو فقلت ومن هو فقالوا عمر بن الخطاب

I entered Jannat and I was before a palace of gold. So I said, “Whose palace is this?”

They said, “A youth from the Quraysh.”

So I thought that I was him. I asked, “And who is he?”

They said, “‘Umar ibn al Khattab.”[32]

 

And about ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu he said:

You are in Jannat.[33]

 

Over 80 of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhu including Abu Hurayrah radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrate the Hadith of the Hawd. If they were renegades and apostates why would they bother to narrate this hadith of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam after his demise since it would implicate them in the first degree?

Let us for a moment assume the plausibility of Tijani’s interpretation. The hadith that he has cited is general which means all the Companions ought to be included. If all are subject to inclusion it stands to reason that even those Companions with whom the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pleased according to Tijani’s definition like ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Hassan, Hussain, ‘Ammar ibn Yasir, Abu Dhar al Ghifari, Salman al Farisi, Miqdad ibn Aswad, Khuzaymah ibn Thabit, and Ubayy ibn Ka’b all deserve to be included. The onus is upon Tijani to provide proof for the exclusion of the aforesaid Companions. If he says that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has mentioned virtues of these Companions which preclude them; our response is simply that the other Companions also have virtues which preclude them.

As for the statement, “You do not know what they innovated after you,” it is an accepted fact that the Sahabah did not substitute or innovate after the death of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Sayyid Muhammad Siddiq Hassan al Qanuji says in his book al Din al Khalis:

 

A Rafidi asked a Sunni, “What do you say concerning the Sahabah?”

He replied, “I say about them what Allah says about them in his book when he says:

رَضِيَ اللّٰهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوْا عَنْهُ

Allah being pleased with them; and they with Him.

The Rafidi then said, “Indeed, they innovated after the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

The Sunni then said, “Allah says:

وَمَا بَدَّلُوْا تَبْدِيْلًا

And they did not alter [the terms of their commitment] by any alteration.

And we do not believe in a Lord who informs about something not knowing that things would change thereafter.”

 

Tijani’s claim that “most of the Sahabah substituted and changed”

Tijani said, Most of the Sahabah substituted and changed (things within the religion), rather, most of them turned apostate after him except for a few who he referred to as Haml al Na’am.”

 

Refuting Tijani’s claim that “most of the Sahabah substituted and changed

Tijani is finding it increasingly difficult to hide bigotry. His failure to comprehend the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam words reveal to us his myopia when processing information. The words “Haml al Na’am” refer to those who came close to the Hawd in that vision and nearly reached it but were obstructed from it. It does not refer to everyone who came to the Hawd.

In another narration the word raht [group] is used. Abu Hurayrah radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

يرد على يوم القيامة رهط من أصحابي فيحلئون عن الحوض فأقول يا رب أصحابي‏ فيقول إنك لا علم لك بما أحدثوا بعدك إنهم ارتدوا على أدبارهم القهقرى

A raht [group] from my companions will come to me on the Day of Judgement but they will be prevented from the Hawd and I will say, “O my Lord, my companions!” He will say, “Indeed you have no knowledge about what they innovated after you. Indeed they turned on their heels after you.”[34]

 

The word Raht, as everyone is aware, refers to a group of men who do not exceed ten in number.[35]

Lastly, I say: Tijani wants us to arrive at a particular conclusion. That conclusion is that majority of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum turned apostate. But what are the implications of arriving at such a conclusion? It implies that this din, which we have been practicing for the last fourteen centuries, this Qur’an with us today, the Sunnah which we attempt to emulate, the salah, the pillars of the din which we have established in our lives and any other act of worship in general; all of the aforementioned is incorrect as it was transmitted to us via apostates.

This also means that the ‘murtaddin’ [apostates] who conquered the lands of the East and subjugated the lands of the West did so not to humble people to the worship of Allah but to enter them into the door of apostasy.

This also means that Musaylamah al Kadhdhab, Sujah, and others were the people of the truth as they did not turn murtadd from Islam but rather turned away from the people of apostasy.

 

2. Tijani on the Companions competing for worldly motives

Tijani says:

 

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

I lead you and am your witness, and by Allah I now look at my pool and have been given the keys to the treasures of the earth [for the earth’s keys], and by Allah I am not worried that you become polytheist after me, but I am worried that you will compete for it.

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was right. They competed for this world to the extent that they fought against each other, and each party accused the other of blasphemy. Some of the famous Companions were eager to collect gold and silver, and historians such as al Masudi in Muruj al Dhahab and al Tabari and others stated that the wealth of al Zubair on its own came to fifty thousand Dinars and a thousand horses with one thousand slaves and many holdings in Basra, al Kufa, Egypt and many other places.

The agricultural products from Iraq alone brought Talhah one thousand Dinars every day, and perhaps more than that.

Abdul Rahman ibn Awf had one hundred horses, one thousand camels and ten thousand sheep. After his death, quarter of his wealth which was divided among his wives came to eighty four thousand Dinars.

Uthman ibn Affan left on the day of his death one hundred and fifty thousand Dinars apart from an enormous wealth of land, cattle and villages.

Zaid ibn Thabit left an amount of gold and silver that had to be broken by hammers! Apart from money and agricultural holdings which came to one hundred thousand Dinars..

These were just a few historical examples. Since we do not want to go into detailed analysis of their importance at the moment, we only mention them as a proof and support of the sayings, that they [these companions] were more interested in the present life. [36]

 

Refuting Tijani on the Companions competing for worldly motives

I am still trying to find any indication in this hadith that portrays a number of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum with ownership of abundance of wealth or worldly possessions. The hadith informs us that in the future this Ummah would own the treasures of this world and that people will compete with one another in it. This is from the miracles of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and sign of Prophethood that he prophesized future events that came to be.

That being said, the hadith does not apply to the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum as they never owned the treasures of the world.

In addition to the above, the fighting which took place among them did not occur on account of competing for the petty wealth of this world, but on account of the fitnah which occurred as a result of the murder of ‘Uthman, even though they did not intend to fight one another.

In general, each of the two groups will be rewarded for its Ijtihad (scholarly discretion) on the matter. More clarity will be given concerning this topic later in this book.

 

Incoherence in Tijani’s reasoning

Without realizing it Tijani proves that the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were not apostates. Whatever arguments he presented in the previous section, are responded to by evidence that he has furnished. In the previous discussion he claimed that the majority of the Sahabah turned apostate; yet here he cites a hadith which clearly states that the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not fear apostasy for his Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Rather, he feared that they would compete with one another in worldly things.

Again, without realizing he implies criticism against ‘Ali ibn Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his companions as the (verb used in the) hadith is in its plural form, tanafasu ‘ala al dunya (they competed with one another in worldly things), which includes both sides. In fact, Tijani admits to that when he says:

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was right. They competed for this world to the extent that they fought against each other, and each party accused the other of blasphemy.

It is an accepted fact that the fighting which took place was between Talhah and Zubair’s radiya Llahu ‘anhuma army against ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu army. By accepting the apparent meaning of the hadith he has to concede that both sides were at fault (as the verb in the hadith is in the plural form as mentioned before).

The corollary of this line of argument is that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib competed for wealth, leadership and power by fighting his adversaries. Allah forbid.

He goes on to say:

Some of the famous Companions were eager to collect gold and silver.

There is no doubt that wealth which the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum owned does not warrant dispraise or reprimand. The accomplishments of these noble Companions—who are accused of hoarding their wealth—clearly establish that they were from the choicest of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

 

Sahabah’s spending

To demonstrate ties let us take the example of the third Khalifah’, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who was among the closest people to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and extremely generous. ‘Abd al Rahman ibn Samurah radiya Llahu ‘anhu said about him:

 

عن عبد الرحمن بن سمرة قال جاء عثمان إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بألْف دينار قال الحسن بن واقع وكان في موضع آخر من كتابي في كمه حين جهز جيش العسرة فنثرها في حجره‏ قال عبد الرحمن فرأيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقلبها في حجره ويقول‏ ما ضر عثمان ما عمل بعد اليوم مرتين ‏

‘Uthman went to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with one thousand dinars. Hassan ibn Waqi’ (one of the narrators) said, “And in another place in my book, ‘went to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with one thousand dinars in his garment,’” when the ‘army of difficulty’ (during the expedition of Tabuk) was being prepared. So he poured them into the Messenger’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lap.” ‘Abd al Rahman said, “So I saw the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam turning them over in his lap, saying, ‘Whatever ‘Uthman does after today will not harm him,’ he said it twice.”[37]

 

The Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam once said:

من يحفر بئر رومة فله الجنة فحفرها عثمان

Whoever digs the well of Rumah will be rewarded with Jannat. (The narrator of the hadith says,) ‘‘‘Uthman then dug it.”[38]

 

We can clearly see that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu used his wealth in the obedience of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Similarly, Talhah ibn ‘Ubayd Allah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was given the glad tidings of Jannat by the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[39] He was also from those who strove in the path of Allah, defending the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam during the Battle of Uhud which resulted in his hand becoming paralysed.

Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

 

عن الزبير قال كان على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم أحد درعان فنهض إلى صخرة فلم يستطع فأقعد تحته طلحة فصعد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حتى استوى على الصخرة فقال سمعت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول‏ أوجب طلحة ‏

On the Day of Uhud, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wore two coats of mail. He tried to get up on a boulder, but was not able to, so Talhah squatted under him, lifting the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam upon it, such that he could sit on the boulder. So he said: “It (Paradise) is obligatory for Talhah.”[40]

 

Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu used to fear sleeping the night after he had gathered a bit of wealth. Talhah ibn Yahya radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Sa’da bint ‘Awf al Mariyyah, the wife of Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, said:

 

I went to Talhah one day while he was dreary. I said, “What is the matter? Is there something about your family that is unsettling you?”

He said, “No, you are a good wife. I have some wealth that is bothering me.”

I said, “What about it bothers you? Divide it amongst your people.”

He said (to his servant), “Call my people!” He then divided it amongst them.

I asked the treasurer, “How much did he give?” and he said, “Four hundred thousand.”[41]

 

Hassan al Basri said that Talhah ibn ‘Ubayd Allah radiya Llahu ‘anhu sold a piece of land which he owned for seven hundred thousand. That night he could not sleep. The next morning he woke up and dispersed the wealth.

As for Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave him the glad tidings of Jannat.[42] He was also the hawari[43] of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

عن علي بن أبي طالب رضى الله عنه قال قال رسول الله إن لكل نبي حواريا وإن حواري الزبير بن العوام‏

Indeed, every Messenger has a Hawari, and my Hawari is Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam.[44]

 

Is it possible for one who has excessive love for wealth, and desires to horde gold and silver, that he would impart the following advice on his death bed? He urged his son, ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair to cover his debts just before his death. Al Bukhari transmits a hadith from ‘Abdullah ibn Zubair, who said:

 

عبد الله بن الزبير، رضي الله عنهما، قال‏:‏ لما وقف الزبير يوم الجمل دعاني فقمت إلى جنبه، فقال‏:‏ يا بني إنه لا يقتل اليوم إلا ظالم أو مظلوم ،وإني لا أرانى إلا سأقتل اليوم مظلوما، وإن من أكبر همي لديني، أفترى ديننا يبقي من مالنا شيئًا‏؟‏ ثم قال‏:‏ يا بني بع مالنا واقض ديني، وأوصى بالثلث وثلثه لبنيه، يعني لبني عبد الله بن الزبير ثلث الثلث‏.‏ قال فإن فضل من مالنا بعد قضاء الدين شيء فثلثه لبنيك ، قال هشام ‏:‏ وكان بعض ولد عبد الله قد وازى بعض بني الزبير خبيب وعباد، وله يومئذ تسعة بنين وتسع بنات‏.‏ قال عبد الله ‏:‏ فجعل يوصيني بدينه ويقول‏:‏ يا بنى إن عجزت عن شيء منه فاستعن عليه بمولاي‏.‏ قال فوالله ما دريت ما أراد حتى قلت‏:‏ يا أبت من مولاك‏؟‏ قال‏:‏ الله‏.‏ قال‏:‏ فوالله ما وقعت في كربةٍ من دينه إلا قلت‏:‏ يا مولى الزبير اقض عنه دينه، فيقضيه

When Zubair, got ready to fight in the Battle of al Jamal, he called me and said, “My son, whoever is killed today will be either a wrongdoer or a wronged one. I expect that I shall be the wronged one today. I am much worried about my debts. Do you think that anything will be left over from our property after the payment of my debt?”

He then said, “My son, sell our property and pay off my debts.”

Zubair then willed one-third of that portion to his sons; namely ‘Abdullah’s sons. He said, “One-third of the one-third. If any property is left after the payment of debts, one-third (of the one-third that is left) is to be given to your sons.”

(Hisham, a sub-narrator added, “Some of the sons of ‘Abdullah were equal in age to the sons of Zubair, e.g. Khubayb and ‘Abbad. ‘Abdullah had nine sons and nine daughters at that time.”)

He kept on instructing me about his debts and then said, “My son, should you find yourself unable to pay any portion of my debt then beseech my Master for His help.”

By Allah, I did not understand what he meant and asked, “Father, who is your Master?”

He said, “Allah.”

By Allah! Whenever I faced a difficulty in discharging any portion of his debt; I would pray, “O Master of Zubair, discharge his debt,” and He discharged it. [45]

 

‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu was a noble Sahabi to whom the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave the glad tidings of Jannat. He had the honour of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam praying behind him.[46] In addition he took the responsibility of overseeing the spending on the wives of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam after his demise. ‘Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha said that the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to say:

 

عن عائشة أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يقول‏‏ إن أمركن مما يهمني بعدي ولن يصبر عليكن إلا الصابرون‏‏ قال ثم تقول عائشة فسقى الله أباك من سلسبيل الجنة‏ تريد عبد الرحمن بن عوف وقد كان وصل أزواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بمال بيعت بأربعين ألفا

Indeed your affair [referring to his wives] is from that which concerns me after I am gone. None shall bear this responsibility except the patient ones.

Then ‘Aisha said to Abu Salamah, “May Allah give your father drink from the Salsabil (a fountain) of Paradise.”

Referring to ‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf (Abu Salamah is the son of ‘Abd al Rahman bin ‘Awf). And he had seen to the finances of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wives with property that had been sold for four hundred thousand.[47]

 

Abu Salamah says:

عن أبي سلمة أن عبد الرحمن بن عوف أوصى بحديقة لأمهات المؤمنين بيعت بأربعمائة ألف

‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf left a garden for the Ummahat al Mu’minin that was sold for four hundred thousand.[48]

 

This is ‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhu who, Tijani claims, was greedy for gold and silver.

As for the Sahabi Zaid ibn Thabit radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he was one of the four who collected the (entire) Qur’an during the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam life.

Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

جمع القرْآن على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أربعة كلهم من الأنصار معاذ بن جبل وأبى بن كعب وزيد بن ثابت وأبو زيد

Four persons collected the Qur’an during the lifetime of Allah’s Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and all of them were of the Ansar: Mu’adh ibn Jabal, Ubay ibn Ka’b, Zaid ibn Thabit, and Abu Zaid.[49]

 

Al Bukhari narrates with his chain to al Bara’ ibn ‘Azib radiya Llahu ‘anhu who said that the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

ادع لي زيدا وليجئ باللوح والدواة والكتف أو الكتف والدواة ثم قال اكتب لا يستوي القاعدون

Call Zaid for me and let him bring the board, the inkpot and the scapula bone (or the scapula bone and the ink pot).

Then he said: “Write: ‘Not equal are those believers who sit…’”[50]

 

He was also one of those whom Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu recommended for the job of compiling the Qur’an during his Khilafah, and about whom the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

The most learned in the field of inheritance is Zaid ibn Thabit.[51]

 

These are the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum; loved by the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but reviled by Tijani. They are the ones whose honesty, integrity, and moral conduct was attested to by the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. All of their actions were in their acquisition of the pleasure of Allah and Jannat.

 

Tijani’s sources

Tijani could only find material from a historian who is not from the Ahlus Sunnah.

Al Mas’udi is majruh (discredited) according to the Ahlus Sunnah. Ibn Hajar writes in the biography of al Mas’udi in his book Lisan al Mizan:

His books are replete with proofs that he was a Shia Mu’tazili.[52]

 

Ibn Taymiyyah said about his book, Muruj al Dhahab:

In the Tarikh of al Mas’udi are so many lies that none besides Allah can encompass them.

 

Therefore, Tijani’s citing of al Mas’udi as his source is another disappointment since it is compromised by prejudice and bias. Al Qummi, one of the senior scholars of the Shia, mentions al Mas’udi in his book al Kuna wa l-Alqab, confirming that he was a Shia and not of the Ahlus Sunnah:

 

He was the sheikh of the historians and their pillar of reliance. He is Abu al Hassan ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn ‘Ali al Mas’udi, al Hudhali… Ibn Mutahhar al Hilli, mentions him in the first section of al Khulasah and said, “He authored a book in the discipline of Imamah among other works, which include a book affirming the Wasiyyah to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. He is the author of Muruj al Dhahab…” ‘Allamah al Majlisi says in the introduction of al Bihar, “Mas’udi: Al Najashi counts him, in his al Fihrist, amongst the Shia transmitters.”[53]

 

Even though Tijani quotes from Muruj what he believes to be disparagement of ‘Uthman, he conveniently omitted what al Mas’udi was unable to conceal:

‘Uthman was a man of the highest levels of generosity, kindness, forbearance, and spending on the near and distant relatives. His governors and many people of his era followed his example and emulated him in his actions.[54]

 

It is the preconceived resentment and prejudice which leads Tijani to deception and concealment of the truth. Tijani cited al Mas’udi as reference for his claim that an eighth of ‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf’s wealth, which was distributed among his wives, amounted to 84 000. This detail could not be found in al Muruj despite prolonged efforts and continuous searching.

In conclusion, Tijani says:

These were just a few historical examples. Since we do not want to go into detailed analysis of their importance at the moment, we only mentions them as a proof and support of the sayings …

All I can say about this ‘reassuring’ claim is that I hope in future Tijani finds more ‘corroborating proofs’ so that we, and the readers, are not conveniently fed selected bits of information!

 

NEXT ⇒ Chapter 5 – Refuting Tijani’s claims that the Sahabah Vilified One Another


[1]Then I was guided, p. 103

[2]Sahih al Bukhari: vol. 5, Kitab al Raqa’iq, hadith no. 6215

[3]Fath al Bari, vol. 11 p. 393

[4]  Ibid

[5]Sahih Muslim ma’a al Sharh, vol. 3 p. 173

[6]Sahih Muslim ma’a al Sharh, vol. 3 p. 173

[7]  Ibid

[8] Majma’ al Bayan, vol. 2 p. 160-162

[9] Tafsir al Safi 2/162

[10]  Refer to CHAPTER 1 and CHAPTER 3 of this book.

[11]  The reader will notice that the narrations quoted from the Twelver Shia are often self-contradictory. It is barely possible to find a narration from an Imam except that you will find another which contradicts it. This inconsistency and self-contradiction merely affirms the claim of fabrication within the Shia tradition. Surprising still is their own confession of these contradictions.

Muhammad al Tusi said in the introduction to his book Tahdhib al Ahkam (p. 45), one of the four relied-upon books of the Twelver Shia school:

All praise is for Allah, the owner of praise and the one deserving of it. Salutations upon the choicest of his creation, Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. A friend of mine, may Allah strengthen him, reminded me about the phenomenon of contradictory ahadith to the point where there is hardly a report except that there is another which contradicts it or is in conflict with it.

This has allowed our opponents to level some of the greatest criticisms against our school to the point where they falsify our beliefs.

They say that our scholars, past and present, continue to criticise their opponents on the premise of the differences amongst them in matters of worship, and they (Shia scholars) attack them on account of their differences also in the furu (subsidiary matters)…

Here they mean that the Ahlus Sunnah disagree in the subsidiary (legal) matters with which there is latitude. Shia scholars say it is not permissible to worship Allah in light of the aforementioned differences. That being said, we find them in a position worse than that of their opponents since these difference are meant to be preserved by infallibles. Furthermore, these differences are in the essential beliefs rather than in the subsidiary matters. The differences among the narrations within the Sunni legacy can be resolved through various modes of reconciliation; whereas the contradictions within the Shia tradition are irreconcilable as acknowledged by Shia scholars themselves. All of this is an undeniable proof that the source of their narrations is not one.

A leading Shia scholar, Dildar al Lakhnawi, says in his book Asas al Usul on page 51:

The ahadith transmitted from the Imams vary considerably. It is hard to find a hadith except that there is another contradicting it to the extent that it caused some to turn away from the true belief.

This is the school of the Twelver Shia Indeed, Allah speaks the truth when he says:

إِنَّكُمْ لَفِيْ قَوْل ٍمُخْتَلِف ٍيُؤْفَكُ عَنْهُ مَنْ أُفِكَ قُتِل َالْخَرَّاصُوْنَ

Indeed, you are in differing speech. Deluded away from it [i.e. the Qur’an] is he who is deluded. Destroyed are the falsifiers. (Surah al Dhariyat: 7-10)

They say at one place that the Sahabah are disbelievers while at another they say they are the best of people. Likewise, they say at one place that fasting on the day of ‘Ashura is a major sin and at another that it is of the best of deeds (refer to Wasa’il al Shia by al Hurr al ‘Amili, vol. 5; The Chapter of Fast; p. 337-339). Similarly, they say that the Qur’an is distorted at one place, then deny any distortion occurred at another place, then they claim to have uncovered a new Qur’an. Likewise, sometimes they say that mut’ah (temporary marriage) is a good deed and at other times they say that only the worst of people practice it (refer to Wasa’il al Shia, vol. 14; The Chapter of Marriage; p. 456).

[12]Al Sahifah al Kamilah al Sajadiyyah of Imam Zayn al ‘Abidin; p. 26-27; Published in Iran, Mu’assasah Ansariyan.

[13]  Refer to al Muraja’at of ‘Abd al Hussain al Musawi, p. 334.

[14]Usul al Kafi, vol. 1; p. 52; The Chapter on the Virtues of Knowledge. Usul al Kafi is one of the four books considered to be the chief resources for the fundamental and subsidiary matters of the Twelver school.

[15]Tafsir al Hassan al ‘Askari, p. 11; Surah al Fatihah.

[16]  Ibid, al Baqarah: 88; p. 157.

[17] Kitab al Khisal of al Qummi, p. 239-240; Chapter 12.

[18] Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah, vol. 8 p. 387

[19] Refer to Fath al Bari, vol. 11 p. 393

[20] Sahih Muslim ma’a Sharh, hadith no. 2304, vol. 15; Sahih al Bukhari , The Chapter of Riqaq, hadith no. 2611.

[21]  These words refer to the light which emanate from the limbs of wudu’ on the Day of Judgement.

[22]Sahih Muslim ma’a Sharh, vol. 3, hadith no. 247, The Chapter of Taharah.

[23]Al Fath, vol. 11, p. 393

[24]Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 3, The Chapter concerning the virtues of the Sahabah, hadith no. 3451, from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud.

[25] Sahih Muslim ma’a Sharh, vol. 16, The chapter concerning the virtues of the Sahabah, hadith no. 2531.

[26]  op. cit, p. 125

[27]Sunan al Tirmidhi, The book of Manaqib, The chapter about ‘Abd al Rahman ibn ‘Awf; Refer also to Sahih al Tirmidhi, hadith no. 2947

[28]Musnad Ahmed, vol. 5, hadith no. 15262, p. 213; Refer also to al Silsilah al Sahihah, vol. 5, hadith no. 2160

[29]Al Farq bayn al Firaq, p. 318-319,

[30]  Refer to Fath al Bari, vol. 11, p. 393

[31] Sunan al Tirmidhi, The book of virtues, hadith no. 3679; Refer also to Sahih al Tirmidhi, hadith no. 2905, from ‘Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha

[32]Sunan al Tirmidhi, The book of virtues, hadith no. 3688, from Anas; Also refer to Sahih al Tirmidhi, hadith no. 2911; And refer to Bukhari for a similar narration, hadith no. 3476

[33]  See NARRATION cited earlier in this doc

[34]Sahih al Bukhari with Fath al Bari, vol. 11, p. 473, hadith no. 6585

[35]Mukhtar al Sihah, 109

[36]Then I was guided, p. 105

[37]Sunan al Tirmidhi, Kitab al Fada’il, bab Fada’il ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, hadith no. 3701; Also refer to Sahih al Tirmidhi, hadith no. 2920

[38]Sahih al Bukhari, Kitab al Wasaya, bab idha waqafa ard wa bi’r, hadith no. 2626

[39]  Refer to NARRATION cited earlier in this doc

[40]Sunan al Tirmidhi, Kitab al Manaqib, bab Talhah ibn ‘Ubayd Allah, hadith no. 3738; Refer also to Sahih al Tirmidhi, hadith no. 2939

[41]Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, Imam al Dhahabi, vol. 1, p. 32; The muhaqqiq of the book said: “Its narrators are reliable.”

[42] See NARRATION cited earlier in this doc

[43]Hawari: it has been said that its meaning is the one suitable for leadership, or it means minister, or helper, or the sincere one. Refer to al Fath, vol. 7, p. 100

[44]Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 3, p. 32, hadith no. 3514; See also Tirmidhi, vol. 5, hadith no. 3744

[45]  Ibid. vol. 3, Kitab Fard al Khumus, hadith no. 2961

[46]  This hadith has been cited before. See NARRATION cited earlier in this doc

[47] Sunan al Tirmidhi, Kitab al Fada’il, hadith no. 3749; See also Sahih al Tirmidhi, hadith no. 2983

[48]  Op. cit, hadith no. 3750; See also Sahih al Tirmidhi, hadith no. 2949

[49]Sunan al Tirmidhi, Kitab al Fada’il, hadith no. 3794; See also: Sahih al Tirmidhi, hadith no. 2983

[50]Sahih al Bukhari, Kitab al Fada’il al Qur’an, bab Jam’ al Qur’an, hadith no. 4701

[51]Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2, p. 431, The muhaqqiq states in the margin, “Its chain is sound.”

[52]  Refer to Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 4, p. 85

[53]Al Kunna wa l-Alqab of al ‘Abbas al Qummi, vol. 3, p. 175, publisher: Maktabah al Sadr: Iran, and in the publication of Intisharat p. 153

[54]Muruj al Dhahab of al Mas’udi, vol. 2, p. 332, publisher: Dar al Andalus: Beirut