Sunni-Shia divergence on classifying the Sahabah

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Introduction

All praises are due to Allah, Sustainer of the entire universe. Peace and salutations upon his trustworthy Messenger, Muhammad, son of `Abdullah, and upon his family and all his Companions.

A Jew by the name `Abdullah ibn Sabaʼ instituted the belief that the Imamah of `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu was compulsory and publicly vilified Abu Bakr, `Umar, and `Uthman radiya Llahu `anhum. His Zoroastrian disciples continued his legacy, causing mischief, division, and separation in the Ummah with claims such as the pre-emptive right of `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu to khilafah, his superiority over all the Companions and the annual commemoration of the horrific killing of Hussain ibn `Ali radiya Llahu `anhuma at Karbala’.

Although these issues should have ended there, the Rawafid[1] continued their attempts to reignite and resuscitate them. When these arguments did not deceive the intelligent, they began exposing their true nature by claims that all but three or seven of the Companions abandoned Islam; that the Twelve Imams are infallible; that revelation descends upon them; that angels even greater than Jibril and Mikaʼil come to them; that they are superior to the Prophets; that they have knowledge of the past, present, and future; and that whoever does not believe in their Imamah is a disbeliever.

The greatest calamity is that a large numbers of Muslims continue to be goaded by them. They spread amongst them their venom and instil within them hatred and rancour for the Ummah, to the extent that individuals thus deceived believe themselves to be upon truth, when in reality they have drifted closer to falsehood.

One wishes that the issue would end here. However, the rancour and hatred which they implant is not against the Jew and the Christian. Instead it is against the greatest personalities of the Ummah: the Companions of Muhammad salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. When they claim that the Book revealed by Allah is interpolated, do you imagine that it is to the Injil or Tawrah that they refer? By no means! It is to the Protected Book of Allah that they refer—that book which no falsehood can approach and regarding which Allah has said, “Verily, We have revealed the Remembrance; and verily, We are its protectors.”[2]

In this context there appeared a book, Thumma Ihtadayt (Then I was guided) by Muhammad Tijani Samawi. This book, while zealously confirming the error and deviation of Shi`ism, served as a violent wake up call to all those who continue to believe that the Shia are advocates of Sunni-Shia rapprochement. The passage of time proved that what they promote is not unity, but destruction. How else, when every book they release is laced with deception and embroidered with falsehood? Then I was Guided is a clear example of this. The two principles on which the author relies and upon which his conclusions rest are fabrications and contradictions.

Tijani clearly does not know much about the sect to which he has been “guided”, nor does he appear to have acquainted himself with any of their reliable books. The truth is certainly within reach, but only to an objective investigator who purges himself of bias and prejudice.

The present study will facilitate the way for seekers of truth. It incorporates evidence from the books of the Ahlus Sunnah as well as the books of the Shia.

In conclusion, I wish to express appreciation to all those whose concern led to this study being undertaken and completed, as well as those who sincerely contributed effort and time. May Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala make it a means of reward for them in this world and a cause for entry into Jannat in the hereafter.

I beseech Allah to make this work sincerely for his pleasure, to resurrect us with the Companions of His Messenger Muhammad salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, and make our final abode the Everlasting Paradise. Amin.

 

Preface

Tijani divides his book into two parts. The first part mentions his travels through certain Muslim countries and his interaction with some of the Shia who he claims had a positive effect in guiding him from darkness to light, and in differentiating between truth and falsehood.

In the second part of his book, he mentions his research and his subsequent arrival at what he believes to be true about the Companions radiya Llahu `anhum. He also describes how he realized that the Ahlus Sunnah deviated from the truth, and discovered that the straight path was the way of the Twelver Shia.

The second part, which represents the majority of the book, deals with the Companions radiya Llahu `anhum. Since this issue lies at the very heart of this controversy, it is from here that I must proceed. Thereafter, I turn to the remaining misconceptions in Tijani’s book.

 

Chapter One

Sunni-Shia divergence on classifying the Sahabah

 

Tijani begins his investigation with what he considers to encapsulate the difference between the Ahlus Sunnah and the Shia: the lives of the Companions radiya Llahu `anhum. He begins his examination by comparing the manner in which the Companions are classified by the Ahlus Sunnah and the Shia respectively. He mentions that the Shia divide the Companions into three categories:

 

Through my discussions with the scholars of the Shia, I have concluded that the Companions, according to the Shia, can be divided into three categories:

  • The select Companions, who truly knew Allah and his Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, who pledged their allegiance to him up to death, who accompanied him with truth and sincerity, and did not change after him but rather remained firm on their covenant. Allah praises them abundantly in the noble Qur’an. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam also commends them in many places. The Shia, like the Ahlus Sunnah mention them with respect and reverence and invoke Allah’s pleasure on them.
  • The Companions who embraced Islam and followed the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam out of either greed or fear. They considered their Islam as a favour upon the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. They would occasionally cause harm to him and would not submit to his commands and prohibitions. Instead, they would give preference to their own opinions, directly contradicting explicit text, to the extent that verses would occasionally be revealed to rebuke or warn them. Allah disgraced them in many verses and the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam warned against them in many ahadith. The Shia mention them by their actions, with no respect or reverence.
  • The hypocrites who accompanied the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam to conspire against him. They curried favour in order to conspire against Islam and Muslims. Allah revealed an entire surah concerning them, mentioned them in many places, and threatened them with the lowest level of Jahannam. The Messenger of Allah mentioned them, warned against them, and taught some of his Companions radiya Llahu `anhum their names and their signs. The Shia and the Ahlus Sunnah agree on them being cursed and disowned.[3]
 

This is the Shia classification of the Companions radiya Llahu `anhum, as mentioned by Tijani in his book. In addition, there is a special category of Companions who have distinction on account of their close relationship and innate merit and disposition. They are the Ahlul Bayt, the household of the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, may Allah be pleased with them all.

 

Thereafter, Tijani discusses the beliefs of the Ahlus Sunnah concerning the Companions radiya Llahu `anhum, and says:

 

As for the Ahlus Sunnah, although they respect, honour and favour the Ahl al Bayt, they do not recognise this typology, nor do they consider the hypocrites amongst the Companions. Rather, in their opinion, they consider the Companions as the best creation of Allah after the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. If there is to be any categorisation, it should be from the perspective of virtue, embracing Islam earlier, and enduring tribulation. They therefore give preference to the Rightly Guided Khulafaʼ at the highest level, then the six remaining people who were given glad tidings of Jannat, according to what they narrate.[4]

 

This is how Tijani represents the Sunni view of the Sahabah.

 

Before I begin my refutation of the Twelver Shia classification of the Companions, it is necessary to first define who is a Sahabi and who is a hypocrite, from a lexical and technical perspective. Thereafter it will be necessary to understand who the targets of this Shia classification are, in light of their most relied upon sources. This will make it easy for the reader, be he Sunni or Shia to distinguish between truth and falsehood.

I now commence the refutation and exposé of the Shia classification of the Companions radiya Llahu `anhum. And to Allah is my recourse.

 

Definition of Sahabah

Lexically: The word Sahabah derives from the Arabic root s-h-b. This root denotes accompaniment or companionship. Thus the word Sahib means companion, the plural of which is Sahabah.

Technically: A Sahabi is someone who met the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, whilst believing in him, and eventually passed away a believer. This definition implies that one who saw the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam without believing in him and died upon disbelief does not fall in the category of those termed as Sahabah.

 

Definition of munafiq

Lexically: The root n-f-q produces the word nafiqa’ which denotes the holes in which a Jerboa hides, escaping from one to the other. It also produces the word nafaq, a tunnel. What these words have in common is a sense of concealment. The word nifaq (hypocrisy) arises from this same lexical meaning.

Technically: A munafiq is one who outwardly portrays to have embraced Islam and to follow the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam while concealing his disbelief and enmity towards Allah and his Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam.

Having understood this explanation of the two terms, sahabi and munafiq, it becomes clear that they are mutually exclusive, both lexically and technically. Thus, a Sahabi is one who believed in the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and passed away with iman, whereas a munafiq is one who outwardly pretends to believe while concealing disbelief in his heart. It is therefore as impossible for a Sahabi to be a munafiq as it is for a munafiq to be a Sahabi.

The question might be asked: “How do we differentiate between a Sahabi and a munafiq?” To this I respond that a munafiq possesses characteristics and attributes clearly mentioned in the Qur’an and Sunnah that allow for differentiation between him and the Sahabah. These characteristics will be mentioned in our critical assessment of the Shia classification of Sahabah.

 

The True Shia Classification of Sahabah

Tijani mentions that the Shia divide the Sahabah into three categories. The fact of the matter is that they divide them into two categories, with no third. This stands confirmed in the statements of their scholars and the testimony of their own books.

Tijani’s first category with whom the Shia are well pleased in fact number no less than three and no more than seven. Their main authority on hadith narrators, al Kashshi, reports with a chain of narration deemed reliable by Shia standards that Imam Muhammad al Baqir said:

 

“All the people became murtad (apostate) except for three: Salman, Abu Dhar and al Miqdad.”

The narrator says, “So I asked about `Ammar and he said, ‘He fell into a predicament initially, but later returned.’”[5]

 

Another narration states:

 

… after sometime the people returned (to Islam). The first to return was Abu Sasan al Ansari, `Ammar, Abu `Umayrah and Shatirah. So they were seven, and even Amir al Mu’minin did not know anyone besides these seven.[6]

 

Al Kulayni, the most senior hadith scholar of the Twelver Shia and author of al Kafi[7] one of their four major hadith collections narrates from Humran ibn A`yan:

 

I said to Abu Jafar (al Baqir), “May I be sacrificed for you! How few are we in number! Were we to gather for one sheep we would not be able to finish it.”

He said, “Should I not tell you of something stranger than that? The Muhajirin and the Ansar left Islam, except (gesturing with his hand) three.”[8]

 

It is narrated in al Rawdah from `Abd al Rahim al Qasir, who said:

 

I said to Abu Jafar, “Indeed the people become agitated when we say, ‘The people became apostate’.”

He said, “O `Abd al Rahim! All the people returned to Jahiliyyah after the demise of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. The Ansar withdrew but they did not withdraw in goodness. They pledged their allegiance to Sa`d, while singing the poetry of the period of Jahiliyyah, ‘O Sa`d! You are the man of our hopes, your mane is well-groomed and your steed runs hard.’”[9]

 

To the Shia, this is then the first category of the Companions upon whom they look with approval.

As for the second category, to the Shia they are the rest of the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum who were not mentioned in the first category. The Shia regard them as people of hypocrisy, apostasy and betrayal. At the head of them are the Three Khalifas, then the remaining Six who were given glad-tidings of Paradise, and thereafter the remaining Sahabah. This is what the Shia believe concerning the Sahabah as taken from their original sources.

Why would Tijani divide the Sahabah into three categories? The reason: to mislead, especially the Sunni reader, by creating the false impression that these Sahabah were not apostates, but only men who desired worldly gain or feared the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam (which is inevitably hypocrisy). This insertion of an intermediate category in his chapter on the Companions is a shrewd tactic on Tijani’s part; he thus enables the reader to place any of the Companions into the category of the apostates. Later in his book, Tijani combines the categories of hypocrites and apostates into one. Thereby, the Companions become divided into two groups: a group with whom Allah is pleased and a group who apostatized. This makes it easy to persuade the reader to accept the Shia classification of the Companions. Any misgivings that by the term “hypocrite” Tijani is referring to `Abdullah ibn Ubay ibn Salul and his companions will soon be put to rest when Tijani comes to the defence of Ibn Ubay in connection with the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam performing the funeral prayer over him.[10]

 

Refutation of the Shia Categorisation of the Sahabah

1. Since the Shia do not consider iman to be a condition for being Sahabi they include the Munafiqin amongst the Sahabah. If this were true, the Jews and Christians and idolaters who saw the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam should also be termed Sahabah. Such a statement can only be made by a witless fool. If the Shia admit that a Sahabi is one who saw the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam while believing in him and who died upon that belief, then their claim that a munafiq is a Sahabi becomes void.

2. Without specifying who is a Munafiq and who is a Sahabi, this definition has flung the door wide open and any Sahabi, including those who he approves of like `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu, can be included in the category of the Munafiqin. This would give any individual the right to believe that any Companion of the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam is a munafiq, by resting upon the notion that the Munafiqin can be considered as Companions. Such a concept would enable the atheists, the godless, and the Orientalists to vilify Islam and its adherents.

3. Tijani leads his readers to conclude that the true Sahabah were few, far outnumbered by the Munafiqin who seized central leadership. Tijani himself says in the third category of Sahabah that the Munafiqin outwardly displayed Islam and concealed their kufr, constantly drawing closer in order to plot against Islam and the Muslims. If this was their objective, and they were the majority, why did they not besiege the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and his Sahabah, annihilate them, and destroy the fledgling Islamic state? Reality, however, testifies that Islam was victorious, spread to every region of the world, and raised its standard, while every flag of kufr collapsed before it. Consider therefore, dear reader, how the perceptions of the Shia clash with both reason and historical fact.

4. The hypocrites were not unknown entities within the society of Madinah; instead, they were a small yet notorious group. Some of them were known by name and others by the qualities they possessed which are mentioned in the Qur’an. This reality is explained in the hadith of Ka`b ibn Malik radiya Llahu `anhu who was one of the three who stayed behind during the Battle of Tabuk. He said:

 

Whenever I went out amongst the people after the Messenger of Allah left, I would roam around amongst them and it would sadden me that the only people I would see is either a man known as an open hypocrite or a man whom Allah excused due to weakness.[11]

 

The Qur’an has identified the symptoms of Nifaq and exposed the salient features of the hypocrites in numerous places:

  • They mock the faith and the faithful.[12]
  • They transgress and choose deviation at the expense of guidance.[13][14]
  • They are distracted and lazy during `ibadah (worship).[15]
  • They are neither with the believers nor the disbelievers.[16]
  • They take false and vain oaths in the name of Allah.[17]
  • They lack understanding of Islam.[18]
  • They are miserly.[19]
  • They lack faith in Allah and the Last Day.[20]
  • They are saddened when the believers receive good or assistance, and they celebrate when the believers go through any difficulty or trials.[21]
  • They patiently await the changing tide against the believers.[22]
  • They refrain from spending in the path of Allah.[23]
  • They are pleased when they are left behind from jihad.[24]
  • They take oaths in the name of Allah in order to protect themselves against the rejection of Muslims.[25]
  • They cause division amongst believers and are treacherous in times of dispute.[26]
  • They delay salah to its latest possible time, abstain from congregational salah and find Fajr and `Isha the most difficult of the prayers.[27]
 

These are some of the qualities of the hypocrites, as described by Allah. So, by Allah, is this the description given to those who accompanied the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam? Are these descriptions befitting of those who are categorised as Sahabah? There is no doubt that the Sahabah of the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam are the furthest of people from these qualities. They are deserving of the pleasure of Allah and His approval, so much so that Allah says about them:

 

كُنْتُمْ خَیْرَ اُمَّةٍ اُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَاْمُرُوْنَ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْکَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُوْنَ بِاللّٰهِ

You are the best of nations who have been raised for mankind. You command the good, prohibit the evil and believe in Allah.[28]

 

Allah also says:

 

یٰاَیُّهَا النَّبِیُّ حَسْبُكَ اللّٰهُ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِیْنَ

Sufficient for you is Allah, and those believers who follow you.[29]

 

مُحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللّٰهِؕ     وَ الَّذِیْنَ مَعَهٗٓ اَشِدَّآءُ عَلَی الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَآءُ بَیْنَهُمْ تَرٰهُمْ رُکَّعًا سُجَّدًا یَّبْتَغُوْنَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللّٰهِ وَ رِضْوَانًاؗ

Muhammad salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam is Allah’s Messenger and those with him are severe against the kuffar and compassionate among themselves. You will see them sometimes bowing, sometimes prostrating, seeking Allah’s bounty and His pleasure. Their hallmark is on their faces because of the effect of prostration.[30]

 

وَالَّذِیْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَهَاجَرُوْا وَجٰهَدُوْا فِیْ سَبِیْلِ اللّٰهِ وَالَّذِیْنَ اٰوَوْا وَّنَصَرُوْٓا اُولٓئِكَ هُمُ الْمُؤْمِنُوْنَ حَقًّاؕ   لَهُمْ مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَّرِزْقٌ کَرِیْمٌ

As for those who believe, migrate and strive in the path of Allah, and those who help and assist, they are the true believers. For them is forgiveness and a noble sustenance.[31]

 

Those who believed, migrated and strove, they are the Muhajirin. And those who assisted and helped, they are the Ansar. All of whom are Sahabah. Allah describes them collectively as true believers.

Who then, with a vestige of intellect and sanity, would place the Sahabah and the Munafiqin in the same trench?

 

5. It is an agreed fact, acknowledged also by Tijani, that the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam taught a few Sahabah the names of the Munafiqin. It has also been established that the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was pleased with his Sahabah and made loving them, praising them, and defending their honour compulsory. He said:

لا تسبوا أصحابي فو الذي نفسي بيده لو أن أحدكم أنفق مثل أحد ذهبا ما بلغ مد أحدهم ولا نصيفه

Do not revile my Sahabah, for I swear by the One Who controls my life, if any of you have to spend gold equal to Mount Uhud, it will never equal one mudd[32] spent by the Sahabah, and not even half.[33]

 

The Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam also said:

من سب اصحابي فعليه لعنة الله والملائكة والناس اجمعين

Whoever curses my Sahabah, may the curse of Allah, the angels and the entire humanity, be upon him.[34]

 

إحفظوني في أصحابي ثم الذين يلونهم ثم الذين يلونهم

Protect me by protecting my Sahabah, then those after them, then those after them.[35]

 

This proves with certainty the `adalah (religious integrity) of all the Sahabah. It is absolutely impossible to insert the munafiqin into the meaning of these ahadith. Verily Allah has revealed concerning the Munafiqin:

اِنَّ الْمُنٰفِقِیْنَ فِی الدَّرْكِ الْاَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِۚ

Indeed, the munafiqin will be in the lowest depths of the Fire.[36]

 

The ال in the word Munafiqin is to indicate istighraq (inclusiveness), i.e. to include every single one of the munafiqin. The only exception would be if, Allah forbid, the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam contradicted himself in his statements, and that could never be.

 

6. We ask the “guided” Tijani what he means by categorising the Sahabah into two groups: Category One who followed the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, which he claims were the minority of the Sahabah; and Categories Two and Three, the vilified, who followed the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam for worldly gain, out of fear, or out of hypocrisy, as well as those who later turned on their heels.

If the majority of the Sahabah were deserters or hypocrites, it would mean that the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam was not capable of instilling truth and integrity in his Sahabah. Allah forbid! Did he only manage to train three or seven Sahabah in all the time of his Prophethood? Such allegations against him are far-fetched indeed! May our parents be sacrificed for him, peace and salutations be upon him.

To a real seeker of truth I say: Is this not a direct insult against the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam? By Allah, what did he accomplish over the length of this period with his Sahabah? And did they only learn evil from him? Subhan Allah! Is this the great Prophet who prepared a single nation of mankind, through whom Allah conquered the world, and through them saved mankind from the worship of creation and brought them to the worship of the Creator, from the tyranny of other religions to the justice of Islam, and from the darkness of ignorance to the light of freedom? Through them people entered the religion of Allah from every deep corner in droves and groups, and even Jews and Christians acknowledge the greatness of this generation.

Yet, fifteen centuries later, we still hear the claims of Ibn Saba’s followers telling us that this same generation of Sahabah were hypocrites who turned on their heels and are destined for the Fire.

7. Whoever studies the biography of our Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam will know that Islam was not plagued by hypocrisy during the Makkan period on account of the persecution which the Muslims faced during that time. Instead, it emerged in Madinah after Allah had firmly established His Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam there and Islam had become an accepted reality. There is consensus that Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Uthman, and others radiya Llahu `anhum embraced Islam at the very dawn of its emergence in Makkah. This alone should make it clear that they were the furthest people from hypocrisy.

8. Verily Allah unmasked the munafiqin in two surahs—Surah al Munafiqun and Surah al Tawbah—exposing their condition, their conspiracies, and that which their hearts concealed with regards to the believers. This is why Surah al Tawbah is called al Fadihah (The Exposer) and al Mudamdamah (The Annihilator). It then reveals the condition of the people of iman, the noble Sahabah, through the testimony of Allah.

Surah al Munafiqun was revealed concerning the leader of the hypocrites, `Abdullah ibn Ubay ibn Salul, and his companions. It is reported by al Bukhari in his Sahih, under the commentary of Surah al Munafiqun, from Zaid ibn Arqam radiya Llahu `anhu:

 

I was in an expedition when I heard `Abdullah ibn Ubay saying, “Do not spend on those who are with the Messenger of Allah, until they disperse from him. And if we return from him, the honoured will definitely expel the weak.” So I mentioned that to my paternal uncle — or to `Umar — so he mentioned it to the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. He then summoned me and I told him what I had heard. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam sent a message to `Abdullah ibn Ubay and his companions, but they took an oath that they had not said such a thing. The Messenger of Allah refuted what I had said and believed him. This caused me such grief that I had never experienced before. So I remained at home, and my uncle said to me, “What did you expect, except that the Messenger of Allah would belie you and detest you.” Allah then revealed, “When the munafiqin come to you…” (Surah al Munafiqun). The Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam summoned me and read the verses, after which he said, “Verily Allah has attested to the truth of what you said, O Zaid.”

 

Perhaps Tijani will contest this, so let me elaborate:

I recommend that he study the book Majma` al Bayan fi Tafsir al Qurʼan by al Tabarsi, one of their leading scholars, who confirms that Surah al Munafiqun was revealed regarding Ibn Ubay: “The verses were revealed concerning `Abdullah ibn Ubay, the hypocrite, and his companions.”

He then mentions the narrations of al Bukhari which supports this. It is also established that each of the companions of Ibn Ubay were known to the Sahabah. This is very clear from the context of the hadith.

With regards to Surah al Tawbah, it mentions the Munafiqin explicitly on many occasions and brings to the fore many of their qualities, such as in the statement of Allah :

اِنَّمَا یَسْتَاْذِنُکَ الَّذِیْنَ لَا یُؤْمِنُوْنَ بِاللهِ وَالْیَوْمِ الْاٰخِرِ وَ ارْتَابَتْ قُلُوْبُهُمْ فَهُمْ فِیْ رَیْبِهِمْ یَتَرَدَّدُوْنَ

Only those would ask permission of you who do not believe in Allah and the Last Day and whose hearts have doubted, and they, in their doubt, are hesitating.

 

وَلَوْ اَرَادُوا الْخُرُوْجَ لَاَعَدُّوْا لَهٗ عُدَّۃً وَّلٰکِنْ کَرِہَ اللُه انْۢبِعَاثَهُمْ فَثَبَّطَهُمْ وَقِیْلَ اقْعُدُوْا مَعَ الْقٰعِدِیْنَ

And if they had intended to go forth, they would have prepared for it [some] preparation. But Allah disliked their being sent, so He kept them back, and they were told, “Remain [behind] with those who remain.”

 

لَوْ خَرَجُوْا فِیْكُمْ مَّا زَادُوْكُمْ اِلَّا خَبَالًا وَّلَاۡ اَوْضَعُوْا خِلٰلَكُمْ یَبْغُوْنَكُمُ الْفِتْنَةَ ۚ   وَفِیْكُمْ سَمّٰعُوْنَ لَهُمْؕ وَاللُه عَلِیْمٌ ۢ بِالظّٰلِمِیْنَ

Had they gone forth with you, they would not have increased you except in confusion, and they would have been active among you, seeking [to cause] you fitnah. And among you are avid listeners to them. And Allah is Knowing of the wrongdoers.

 

لَقَدِ ابْتَغَوُا الْفِتْنَةَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَقَلَّبُوْا لَکَ الْاُمُوْرَ حَتّٰی جَآءَ الْحَقُّ وَظَهَرَ اَمْرُ اللِه وَهُمْ کٰرِهُوْنَ

They had already desired dissension before and had upset matters for you until the truth came and the ordinance of Allah appeared, while they were averse.

 

وَمِنْهُمْ مَّنْ یَّقُوْلُ ائْذَنْ لِّیْ وَلَا تَفْتِنِّیْؕ اَلَا فِی الْفِتْنَةِ سَقَطُوْاؕ   وَ اِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِیْطَةٌ ۢ بِالْکٰفِرِیْنَ

 And among them is he who says, “Permit me [to remain at home] and do not put me to trial.” Unquestionably, into trial they have fallen. And indeed, Hell will encompass the disbelievers. [37]

 

It is common knowledge that all of the Sahabah went out with the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam to fight, with the exception of a few. Initially, Abu Dhar and Abu Khaythamah radiya Llahu `anhuma remained behind, but they too left soon thereafter and joined the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. Amongst the Sahabah who remained behind were three and they were Ka`b ibn Malik, Hilal ibn Umayyah, and Murarah ibn al Rabi` radiya Llahu `anhum; who were from the Ansar.

The manner in which Allah forgave them and accepted their repentance will be discussed shortly. The Munafiqin and those who were exempted from jihad remained in Madinah. I have previously mentioned the statement of Ka`b ibn Malik radiya Llahu `anhu, one of the three who remained behind, that no one stayed behind except the person whom Allah had excused or the person who was known for open hypocrisy. This indicates that the Munafiqin had signs by which the Sahabah knew them, and they were not unfamiliar with them:

 

یَحْذَرُ الْمُنٰفِقُوْنَ اَنْ تُنَزَّلَ عَلَیْهِمْ سُوْرَةٌ تُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِمَا فِیْ قُلُوْبِهِمْؕ   قُلِ اسْتَهْزِءُوْا ۚ   اِنَّ اللّٰهَ مُخْرِجٌ مَّا تَحْذَرُوْنَ

The munafiqin fear that a surah may be revealed about them, informing them of what is in their hearts. Say: “(Go ahead and) Mock! Certainly Allah will expose that which you fear”.[38]

 

Ibn Kathir mentions under the commentary of this verse:

 

Mujahid said, “They say something amongst themselves then they say, ‘We hope that Allah will not expose this secret of ours.’” This verse is similar to Allah’s statement, When they come to you, they greet you in a manner in which Allah does not greet you, and they say within themselves, ‘why does Allah not punish us for what we say?’ Jahannam will be sufficient for them, they will burn in it and what an evil destination. This means that Allah will reveal to His Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam that which will expose you and clarify to you your affair. Similarly, the statement of the Most High, Do those in whose hearts there is disease think that Allah will not expose their grudges?… until and surely you will know them by the tone of their speech.[39] It is for this reason that Qatadah said, “This surah used to be known as The Exposer, i.e. the exposer of the Munafiqin.”[40]

 

In other words, Allah has exposed them to the entire creation and has made their true nature clear to humanity, whereas previously their plans were made stealthily and in secret. After having understood this, only those who are enveloped by compound ignorance will say that the Munafiqin and the Sahabah are in one category.

 

As for the verses:

 

سَیَحْلِفُوْنَ بِاللِه لَكُمْ اِذَا انْقَلَبْتُمْ اِلَیْهِمْ لِتُعْرِضُوْا عَنْهُمْؕ   فَاَعْرِضُوْا عَنْهُمْؕ   اِنَّهُمْ رِجْسٌؗ   وَّمَاْوٰىهُمْ جَهَنَّمُۚ جَزَآءً ۢبِمَا کَانُوْا یَكْسِبُوْنَ

They will swear by Allah to you when you return to them that you would leave them alone. So leave them alone; indeed they are evil; and their refuge is Hell as recompense for what they had been earning.

 

یَحْلِفُوْنَ لَكُمْ لِتَرْضَوْا عَنْهُمْۚ فَاِنْ تَرْضَوْا عَنْهُمْ فَاِنَّ اللَه لَا یَرْضٰی عَنِ الْقَوْمِ الْفٰسِقِیْنَ

They swear to you so that you might be satisfied with them. But if you should be satisfied with them – indeed, Allah is not satisfied with a defiantly disobedient people. [41]

 

These verses were revealed concerning those Munafiqin who remained behind during the Battle of Tabuk. They were approximately eighty people, who came to present their excuses before the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam when he returned, and none of them were amongst the elite Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum.

 

In Sahih al Bukhari, the narration of `Abdullah ibn Ka`b discusses the reason of the revelation of verses 107-108 of Surah al Tawbah:

 

وَالَّذِیْنَ اتَّخَذُوْا مَسْجِدًا ضِرَارًا وَّكُفْرًا وَّتَفْرِیْقًا ۢ بَیْنَ الْمُؤْمِنِیْنَ وَ اِرْصَادًا لِّمَنْ حَارَبَ اللَه وَرَسُوْلَهُ مِنْ قَبْلُؕ   وَلَیَحْلِفُنَّ اِنْ اَرَدْنَآ اِلَّا الْحُسْنٰیؕ   وَاللُه یَشْهَدُ اِنَّهُمْ لَکٰذِبُوْنَ

And [there are] those [hypocrites] who took for themselves a mosque for causing harm and disbelief and division among the believers and as a station for whoever had warred against Allah and His Messenger before. And they will surely swear, “We intended only the best.” And Allah testifies that indeed they are liars.

 

لَا تَقُمْ فِیْهِ اَبَدًاؕ لَّمَسْجِدٌ اُسِّسَ عَلَی التَّقْوٰی مِنْ اَوَّلِ یَوْمٍ اَحَقُّ اَنْ تَقُوْمَ فِیْهِؕ   فِیْهِ رِجَالٌ یُّحِبُّوْنَ اَنْ یَّتَطَهَّرُوْا ؕ   وَاللُه یُحِبُّ الْمُطَّهِّرِیْنَ

Do not stand [for prayer] within it – ever. A masjid founded on righteousness from the first day is more worthy for you to stand in. Within it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah loves those who purify themselves.[42]

 

This verse also exposes the Munafiqin. It refers to the incident when they built Masjid Dirar for Abu `Amir, the sinful monk, in order to fight the believers. They requested the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam to perform salah in it, but Jibril `alayh al-Salam informed him of their reality. Allah instructed His Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam to destroy it and he in turn ordered a few of his Sahabah to carry out the task. On the contrary, they were instructed to perform salah in the masjid whose foundations was laid on taqwa (piety).

There is no doubt that those who built Masjid Dirar were known to the Sahabah, but in Tijani’s prejudiced view the majority of the Sahabah were Munafiqin. Reason dictates that the masjid in which the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam performed salah was the masjid of the Sahabah, whereas the masjid which was ordered to be destroyed was the masjid of the Munafiqin. It begs the question: If the majority of the Sahabah were Munafiqin and the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam then performed salah in the masjid of the hypocrites, then did the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam destroy the masjid of the believers? Was this only so that salah could be performed in the masjid of the Munafiqin? Understand, O people of intellect!

And in this very same Surah, Allah expresses His pleasure with the Sahabah, the first forerunners of the Muhajirin and the Ansar, by saying:

 

وَالسّٰبِقُوْنَ الْاَوَّلُوْنَ مِنَ الْمُهٰجِرِیْنَ وَالْاَنْصَارِ وَالَّذِیْنَ اتَّبَعُوْهُمْ بِاِحْسَانٍ ۙ   رَّضِیَ اللّٰهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوْا عَنْهُ وَ اَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنّٰتٍ تَجْرِیْ تَحْتَهَا الْاَنْهٰرُ خٰلِدِیْنَ فِیْهَآ اَبَدًاؕ   ذٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِیْمُ

And the forerunners of the Muhajirin and the Ansar and also those who followed them in goodness. Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him. He has prepared for them gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever. That is the ultimate success.[43]

 

Thus did Allah express His pleasure with the Sahabah, the Muhajirin and the Ansar.

So woe to those who hate them or abuse them, or hate or abuse some of them, especially the leader of the Sahabah after the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, and the best of them and most virtuous, the greatest friend and the best successor: Abu Bakr ibn Abi Quhafah radiya Llahu `anhu. Undoubtedly the disgraced cult of the Rafidah oppose the noblest of Sahabah, hate them and abuse them—may Allah protect us from that. What is the state of their faith in relation to the Qur’an if they curse those whom Allah is pleased with? As for the Ahlus Sunnah, they express their pleasure with those with whom Allah is pleased, curse those whom Allah and His Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam curse, befriend those whom Allah befriends, and oppose those whom Allah opposes.

They are adherents and not innovators; they follow and do not formulate their own ideas. This is why they are the successful Hizb Allah (army of Allah) and His believing servants.

 

Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala says:

 

لَقَدْ تَّابَ اللّٰهُ عَلَی النَّبِیِّ وَ الْمُهٰجِرِیْنَ وَ الْاَنْصَارِ الَّذِیْنَ اتَّبَعُوْهُ فِیْ سَاعَةِ الْعُسْرَةِ مِنْۢ بَعْدِ مَا کَادَ یَزِیْغُ قُلُوْبُ فَرِیْقٍ مِّنْهُمْ ثُمَّ تَابَ عَلَیْهِمْؕ   اِنَّه بِهِمْ رَءُوْفٌ رَّحِیْمٌ

Verily, Allah has pardoned the Prophet, the Muhajirin and the Ansar, who followed him in the hour of difficulty, after the hearts of a group of them nearly deviated. He then pardoned them. Verily, He is Most Kind, Most Merciful unto them.[44]

 

This verse is also very clear in its praise for the Muhajirin and Ansar, and testifies to their purity of heart. The testimony of Allah in these two verses explicitly proves the integrity of these chosen Sahabah. Furthermore, Allah was pleased with the three who stayed behind and included them amongst the larger group of the Sahabah, as opposed to the Munafiqin who stayed behind and made excuses that the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam accepted on account of their outward appearance.

This is the greatest proof of the vast difference between the Sahabah, who were declared people of integrity by Allah despite their mistakes, and the Munafiqin whom Allah exposed in His Noble Book. And all praise belongs to Allah, Lord of the entire universe.

9. It is imperative that I now quote the opinion of a very senior Twelver Shia scholar, who Allah caused to speak the truth. In his Tafsir Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Mas`ud al `Ayyashi reports a narration from Imam Muhammad al Baqir (who is regarded as the fifth Imam by the Shia) under the commentary of the verse:

اِنَّ اللّٰهَ يُحِبُّ التَّوَّابِيْنَ وَ يُحِبُّ المُتَطَهِّرِيْنَ

Verily Allah loves those who repent and He loves those who are pure.[45]

 

This narration explicitly negates any form of hypocrisy from the Sahabah of the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam. He reports that Imam Muhammad al Baqir said:

 

كنت عند ابي جعفر عليه السلام فدخل عليه حمران بن اعين فساله عن اشياء فلما هم حمران بالقيام قال لابي جعفر عليه السلام اخبرنا اطال الله بقاك و امتعنا بك انا ناتيك فما نخرج من عندك حتى ترق قلوبنا و تسلوا انفسنا عن الدنيا و تهون علينا ما في ايدي الناس من هذه الاموال ثم نخرج من عندك فاذا صرنا مع الناس و التجار احببنا الدنيا ؟ قال فقال ابو جعفر عليه السلام انما هي القلوب مرة يصعب عليها الامر و مرة يسهل ثم قال ابو جعفر اما ان اصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قالوا يا رسول الله نخاف علينا النفاق قال فقال لهم و لم تخافون ذلك ؟ قالوا انا اذا كنا عندك فذكرتنا روعنا ووجلنا نسينا الدنيا و زهدنا فيها حتى كانا نعاين الاخرة و الجنة و النار و نحن عندك فاذا خرجنا من عندك و دخلنا هذه البيوت وشممنا الاولاد و راينا العيال و الاهل و الاولاد و المال يكاد ان نحول عن الحال التي كنا عليها عندك و حتى كأنا لم نكن على شيء افتخاف علينا ان يكون هذا النفاق؟ فقال لهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كلا! هذا من خطوات الشيطان ليرغبنكم في الدنيا والله لو انكم تدومون على الحال التي تكونون عليها و انتم عندي في الحال التي و صفتم انفسكم بها لصافحتكم الملائكة و مشيتم على الماء و لو لا انكم تذنبون فتستغفرون الله لخلق خلقا لكي يذنبوا ثم يستغفروا فيغفر لهم ان المؤمن مفتن تواب اما تسمع لقوله ﴿ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ يُحِبُّ التَّوَّابِيْنَ ﴾ وقال ﴿اِسْتَغْفِرُوْا رَبَّكُمْ ثُمَّ تُوْبُوْا اِلَيْهِ

I was with Abu Jafar (Imam al Baqir) when Humran ibn A`yan entered and asked him about some matters. When Humran stood to leave, he said to Abu Jafar, “Inform us, may Allah keep you amongst us for a long time and allow us to benefit from you: we come to you and do not leave without our hearts being softened and our souls forgetting about the world, and we consider insignificant the wealth which people possess. Then (why is it) when we leave you, and mingle with people and businessmen, that we love the world?”

Abu Jafar said, “It is only but the heart. Occasionally things are difficult and sometimes things are easy.”

Then Abu Jafar said, “Did not the Sahabah of the Messenger of Allah say, ‘O Messenger of Allah, do you fear hypocrisy for us?’ He enquired, ‘And why do you fear that?’ They said, ‘When we are with you, and you remind us of our fears and apprehensions, we forget the world and withdraw from it; as if we see the hereafter and Jannat and Jahannam, while we are with you. But when we leave from you, and enter these houses, see our children, look at our dependants, our wives, our children and our wealth, we almost entirely deviate from the condition we were in when we were with you. Do you fear for us that this might be hypocrisy?’ So the Messenger of Allah said to them, ‘Never! This is of the footsteps of Shayţan, to make you desirous of the world. By Allah, if you were to stay in the condition that you were in while you were with me, as you described to me, then the angels would have been shaking hands with you and you would walk on water. Were it not for you committing sin and seeking forgiveness from Allah, He would have created a creation who would sin, and then seek forgiveness, so He could forgive them. Indeed, the believer is one who errs and seeks forgiveness. Have you not heard His statement, Verily, Allah loves those who repent. He also said, seek forgiveness from your Lord then repent unto Him.’”[46]

 

Imam al Hassan al `Askari is regarded as the eleventh Imam by the Shia. In his Tafsir he provides clear proof for the lofty status of the Sahabah. He reports that when Prophet Musa `alayh al-Salam asked Allah a number of questions, one of them was:

 

هل في صحابة الانبياء اكرم عندك من صحابتي قال الله عز و جل: يا موسى اما علمت ان فضل صحابة محمد على صحابة المرسلين كفضل ال محمد على جميع ال النبين و كفضل محمد على جميع المرسلين

“Are there amongst the Sahabah of the Messengers people who are more honourable than my Sahabah?”

Allah replied, “O Musa! Do you not know that the superiority of the Sahabah of Muhammad over all the companions of the Messengers is like the superiority of the family of Muhammad over all the families of the Prophets, and like the superiority of Muhammad over all the Messengers.”[47]

 

I conclude with the memorable words of `Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu `anhu about the Sahabah:

 

لقد رايت اصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه و سلم فما ارى احدا يشبههم منكم لقد كانوا يصبحون شعثا غبرا و قد باتوا سجدا و قياما يراوحون بين جباههم و خدودهم و يقفون على مثل الجمر من ذكر معادهم كأن بين اعينهم ركب المعزي من طول سجودهم اذا ذكر الله هملت اعينهم حتى تبل جيوبهم و مادوا كما يميد الشجريوم الريح العاصف خوفا من العقاب و رجاء للثواب

Indeed, I have seen the Sahabah of Muhammad salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and I do not see anyone amongst you who resembles them. They would rise in the morning, unkempt and covered with dust, because they had spent the night in prostration and standing. They would alternate between their foreheads and their cheeks, while it felt as if they were standing on coals, when thinking of their return to the hereafter. It is as if between their eyes there were marks like knees of goats due to the length of their prostration. When they would remember Allah, their eyes would drip until their bosoms would become wet. They would shake as a tree shakes on a terribly windy day, fearing punishment and hoping for reward.[48]

 

The Shia scholar, Ibrahim al Thaqafi, mentioned in his book al Gharat—which is amongst the classical works of the Shia—the following exchange between `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu and his companions:

 

“O Amir al Mu’minin! Inform us about your comrades.”

He asked, “About which comrades of mine?”

They said, “About the Sahabah of Muhammad.”

He said, “All of the Sahabah of Muhammad are my comrades.”[49]

 

This is the statement concerning the Sahabah of the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam by their greatest Imam. Yet, the “guided” Tijani and other Shia claim that the majority of these Sahabah were Munafiqin. Will they rescind this vile statement of theirs and control their tongues concerning the noble Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum, or else refrain from claiming to have iman?

I thus encourage you, dear reader, to refer to the proofs mentioned here in order to determine how accurately we have represented the Shia position on the majority of the Sahabah, especially their claim that the Three Khalifas were amongst the Munafiqin who turned apostate.

 
 

NEXT ⇒ Chapter Two – The Sahaba at Hudaybiyyah


[1] Rafidi (plural: Rawafid) and Rafidah is a name which pejoratively refers to the Shia.

Al Kulayni has reported in Al Rawdah min al Kafi a lengthy narration from Muhammad ibn Salman, who reported from his father. A portion of it makes mention:

Abu Basir said to Imam Jafar, “May I be sacrificed for you! There are words that are constantly thrown at us breaking our backs, killing our hearts and used as justification by the rulers to kill us. It is a narration reported by their jurists.”

Imam Jafar asked, “Do you refer to the narration pertaining to The Rafidah?”

Abu Basir replied in the affirmative.

Imam Jafar then said, “They are not the ones who have given you all, this name, instead it is Allah who has named you such.” (vol. 8 p. 28).

[2] Surah al Hijr: 9

[3]Then I was guided p. 78 – 79

[4]  Ibid

[5]Haqq al Yaqin fi Ma`rifat Usul al Din vol. 1 p. 370 – 371, Rijal al Kashshi p. 17, Tafsir al `Ayyashi vol. 1 p. 223

[6]  Ibid

[7]  `Abd al Hussain al Musawi says in his book Al Muraja`at (p. 334), “The best of these compilations are the Four Books, which are the main sources for the Shia in the primary and secondary aspects of their faith, from the earliest generation until present. They are al Kafi, al Tahdhib, al Istibsar, and Man la Yahdurhu al Faqih. They are all mutawatir (mass transmitted) and their contents categorically established to be authentic. Al Kafi precedes the others and is the most superior, most distinguished and excellent.”

[8] Al Usul min al Kafi vol. 2 p. 191, Rijal al Kashshi p. 13, Tafsir al Safi vol. 1 p. 359

[9]Al Rawdah min al Kafi p. 246

[10]Then I was guided p. 90

[11] Sahih al Bukhari Hadith no. 4156

[12] Surah al Nisa: 140, Surah al Tawbah: 65, 79

[13] Ibn `Abd al Barr reports that `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu was asked about those who fought against him in Nahrawan (i.e. the Khawarij):

“Are they kuffar?”

`Ali radiya Llahu `anhu replied, “It is from kufr that they have fled!”

He was asked, “Are they then munafiqin?”

`Ali radiya Llahu `anhu replied: “Verily the munafiqin do not remember Allah except a little.”

He was then asked, “So what are they?”

`Ali radiya Llahu `anhu answered, “They are people who have been afflicted by a trial, and have thus become blind and deaf. They rebelled against us and fought us, so we fought them” (Ibn Qudamah: Al Mughni vol. 12 p. 241 – 241).

Subhan Allah! So when `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu negates the quality of nifaq from the Khawarij, regarding whom the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said, “The Khawarij are the dogs of Hell,” simply because they would remember Allah and Allah stated in the Qur’an that the munafiqin do not remember Allah except a little, what then can be said about the Sahabah of the Messenger salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, whom Allah described as Muhammad salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam is Allah’s Messenger and those with him are severe against the kuffar and compassionate among themselves. You will see them sometimes bowing, sometimes prostrating, seeking Allah’s bounty and His pleasure. Their hallmark is on their faces because of the effect of prostration. (Surah al Fath: 29) Astonishing indeed is the deviation of the Shia!

[14] Surah al Baqarah: 16

[15] Surah al Nisa: 142

[16] Surah al Nisa: 143

[17] Surah al Tawbah: 56, Surah al Munafiqin: 2

[18] Surah al Baqarah: 13

[19] Surah al Tawbah: 76-78

[20] Surah al Tawbah: 45

[21] Surah Al `Imran: 120, Surah al Tawbah: 50

[22] Surah al Tawbah: 98

[23] Surah al Tawbah: 67, Surah al Munafiqin: 7

[24] Surah al Tawbah: 81

[25] Surah al Munafiqin: 2

[26] Surah al Tawbah: 47-48

[27] Tariq al Hijratayn wa Bab al Sa`adatayn p. 666 – 667

[28]  Surah Al `Imran: 110

[29]  Surah al Anfal: 64

[30]  Surah Fath: 29

[31]  Surah al Anfal: 74

[32]  A measurement of volume equivalent to approximately 750 ml.

[33]Sahih al Bukhari Hadith no. 3470

[34]  Tabarani: al Mu`jam al Kabir vol. 12 Hadith no. 12709, Abu Nu`aym: Hilyah vol. 7 p. 103, Ibn Abi `Asim: Al Sunnah Hadith no. 1000

[35]Musnad Ahmed Hadith no. 177, with an authentic chain of narration. Ibn Majah Hadith no. 2363, Hakim vol. 1 p. 114, corroborated by al Dhahabi as authentic by the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim.

[36]  Surah al Nisaʼ: 145

[37]  Surah al Tawbah: 45 – 49

[38]  Surah al Tawbah: 64

[39]  Surah Muhammad: 29

[40]Tafsir Ibn Kathir vol. 2 p. 381

[41]  Surah al Tawbah: 95 – 96

[42]  Surah al Tawbah: 107 – 108

[43]  Surah al Tawbah: 100

[44]  Surah al Tawbah: 117

[45] Surah al Baqarah: 222

[46]Tafsir al `Ayyashi, vol. 1 p. 128

[47]Tafsir al Hassan al `Askari commentary on Surah al Baqarah p. 11

[48]Nahj al Balaghah with commentary of Muhammad `Abduh, p. 225

[49]  Al Thaqafi: Al Gharat vol. 1 p. 177