We practiced Mut’ah during the era of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Qur’an was revealed. A man gives his own opinion as he desires

You are asking me about a man, I do not know anyone who was more beloved to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam than him
February 28, 2019
Pulpits will be placed around the ‘Arsh on the Day of Qiyamah
March 1, 2019

BACK⇒ Return to Table of contents

We practiced Mut’ah during the era of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Qur’an was revealed. A man gives his own opinion as he desires

 

تمتعنا على عهد رسول الله فنزل القرآن قال رجل برأيه ما شاء

We practiced Mut’ah during the era of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Qur’an was revealed. A man gives his own opinion as he desiresز

 

Al Bukhari has recorded it from Mutarraf ibn ‘Imran. It is evident that it is dealing with Mut’ah of Hajj (Tamattu’), not Mut’ah of women. Proof for this is that al Bukhari documents in in Kitab al Hajj, not Kitab al Nikah. The commentators of Sahih al Bukhari like al ‘Asqalani, al ‘Ayni, and al Qastalani coupled with the commentators of Sahih Muslim like al Nawawi, al Maziri, and others are unanimous in interpreting Mut’ah here as Hajj al Tamattu’.

The question which really needs to be answered is that were the commands of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed to be practiced upon by the creation or not? And are not the Prophets most desirous of practicing upon them? So why do we find that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam never ever practiced Mut’ah, and nor did any of his Ahlul Bayt?

 

The prohibition of Mut’ah from the books of the Ahlus Sunnah

 

عن عطاء قال قدم جابر بن عبد الله معتمرا فجئناه في منزله فسأله القوم عن أشياء ثم ذكروا المتعة فقال نعم استمتعنا على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و أبي بكر و عمر و في رواية فقال جابر فعلناهما مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ثم نهانا عنهما عمر فلم نعد لهما

‘Ata’ narrates, “Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah came to perform ‘umrah. We attended him at his home. The people asked him about many things. They then mentioned Mut’ah. He said, “Yes. We practiced Mut’ah during the era of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Abu Bakr, and ‘Umar.

Another narration reads: Jabir said, “We practiced both with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. ‘Umar then forbade them so we never returned to them.”[1]

 

حدثنا أبو بكر بن أبي شيبة حدثنا يونس بن محمد حدثنا عبد الواحد بن زياد حدثنا أبو عميس عن إياس بن سلمة عن أبيه قال رخص رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم عام أوطاس في المتعة ثلاثا ثم نهى عنها

Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah narrated to us―Yunus ibn Muhammad narrated to us―’Abdul Wahid ibn Ziyad narrated to us―Abu ‘Umays reported to us from―Iyas ibn Salamah from―his father who reports:

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam allowed Mut’ah the year of Awtas for three days after which he prohibited it.[2]

 

حدثنا قتيبة بن سعيد حدثنا ليث بن الربيع بن سبرة الجهني عن أبيه سبرة أنه قال أذن لنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بالمتعة فانطلقت أنا و رجل إلى امرأة من بني عامر كأنها بكرة عيطاء فعرضنا عليها أنفسنا فقالت ما تعطي فقلت ردائي و قال صاحبي ردائي و كان رداء صاحبي أجود من ردائي و كنت أشب منه فإذا نظرت إلى رداء صاحبي أعجبها ثم قالت أنت و رداؤك يكفيني فمكثت معها ثلاثا ثم إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال من كان عنده شيء من هذه النساء التي يتمتع فليخل سبيلها

Qutaybah ibn Sa’id narrated to us―Layth narrated to us from―al Rabi’ bin Saburah al Juhani from―his father Saburah who narrates:

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam permitted Mut’ah for us. I and another man went to a woman of the Banu ‘Amir, as though she was a tall young camel. We presented ourselves to her. She said, “What are you giving?”

I said, “My shawl.” My friend said the same thing. My friend’s shawl was of a superior quality than mine, but I was younger than him. When she looked at my friend’s shawl, it pleased her. She said, “You and your shawl are enough for me.”

Thus, I stayed by her for three days. Thereafter Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced, “Whoever has any of these women whom he practiced Mut’ah with, should leave her.”[3]

 

حدثنا محمد بن عبد الله بن نمير حدثنا أبي حدثنا عبد العزيز بن عمر حدثني الربيع بن سبرة الجهني أن أباه حدثه أنه كان مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال يا أيها الناس إني قد كنت أذنت لكم في الاستمتاع من النساء و إن الله قد حرم ذلك إلى يوم القيامة فمن كان عنده منهن شيء فليخل سبيله و لا تأخذوا مما أتيتموهن شيئا

Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Numair narrated to us―my father narrated to us―’Abdul ‘Aziz ibn ‘Umar narrated to us―al Rabi’ ibn Saburah al Juhani narrated to me―his father narrated to him that he was with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who announced:

O people! I had allowed you to practice Mut’ah with women. Undoubtedly, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has prohibited that till the Day of Qiyamah. Whoever has any woman of this type, should leave her. And do not take anything from what you granted them.”[4]

 

حدثنا إسحاق بن إبراهيم أخبرنا يحيى بن آدم حدثنا إبراهيم بن سعد عن عبد الملك بن الربيع بن سبرة الجهني عن أبيه عن جده قال أمرنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بالمتعة عام الفتح حين دخلنا مكة ثم لم نخرج منها حتى نهانا عنها

Ishaq ibn Ibrahim narrated to us―Yahya ibn Adam informed us―Ibrahim ibn Sa’d narrated to us from―’Abdul Malik ibn al Rabi’ ibn Saburah al Juhani from―his father from―his grandfather who reports:

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed us to practice Mut’ah the Year of the Conquest when we entered Makkah. He prohibited us from the same prior to our departure from there.[5]

 

حدثنا عمرو الناقد و ابن نمير قالا حدثنا سفيان بن عيينة عن الزهري عن الربيع بن سبرة عن أبيه أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم نهى عن نكاح المتعة

‘Amr al Naqid and Ibn Numair narrated to us saying―Sufyan ibn ‘Uyainah narrated to us from―al Zuhri from―al Rabi’ ibn Saburah al Juhani from―his father that the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam forbade Nikah al Mut’ah.[6]

 

حدثنا أبو بكر بن أبي شيبة حدثنا ابن علية عن معمر عن الزهري عن الربيع بن سبرة عن أبيه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم نهى يوم الفتح عن متعة النساء

Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah narrated to us―Ibn ‘Ulayyah narrated to us from―Ma’mar from­―al Zuhri from―al Rabi’ ibn Saburah al Juhani from―his father that on the Day of the Conquest (of Makkah) Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam banned Mut’ah of women.[7]

 

و حدثني حرملة بن يحيى أخبرنا ابن وهب أخبرني يونس قال ابن شهاب أخبرني عروة بن الزبير أن عبد الله بن الزبير قام بمكة فقال إن ناسا أعمى الله قلوبهم كما أعمى أبصارهم يفتون بالمتعة يعرض برجل فناداه فقال إنك لجلف جاف فلعمري لقد كانت المتعة تفعل على عهد إمام المتقين (يريد رسول الله) صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال له ابن الزبير فجرب بنفسك فوالله لئن فعلتها لأرجمنك بأحجارك

Harmalah ibn Yahya narrated to me―Ibn Wahb informed us―Yunus informed me saying that Ibn Shihab said―’Urwah ibn al Zubair informed me that―’Abdullah ibn al Zubair stood up in Makkah and proclaimed:

“Indeed, Allah has blinded the hearts of some people just as He blinded their eyes. They pass the verdict of the permissibility of Mut’ah,” hinting to a man.

The man called him and shouted, “You are uncivil and dry. By my life! Mut’ah was indeed practiced in the era of the leader of the muttaqin (referring to Rasulullah) salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

Ibn al Zubair warned him, “Try it out yourself. By Allah, if you practice it, I will most certainly stone you!”[8]

 

قال ابن شهاب فأخبرني خالد بن المهاجر بن سيف الله أنه بينا هو جالس عند رجل جاءه رجل فاستفتاه في المتعة فأمره بها فقال له ابن أبي عمرة الأنصاري مهلا قال ما هي والله لقد فعلت في عهد إمام المتقين قال ابن أبي عمرة إنها كانت رخصة في أول الإسلام لمن اضطر إليها كالميتة و الدم و لحم الخنزير ثم أحكم الله الدين و نهى عنها

Ibn Shihab says―Khalid ibn al Muhajir ibn Saifullah informed me that once he was sitting by a man, when another man came and enquired about Mut’ah from him. The former instructed him to carry it out. Hearing this, Ibn Abi ‘Amrah al Ansari told him, “Wait!”

“What is the matter?” he asked, “By Allah, it was practiced in the time of the leader of the muttaqin?”

Ibn Abi ‘Amrah explained, “It was rukhsah (allowed) in the initial stages of Islam for one compelled just like carrion, blood, and pig meat. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala then completed His religion and prohibited it.

 

قال ابن شهاب و أخبرني ربيع بن سبرة الجهني أن أباه قال قد كنت استمتعت في عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم امرأة من بني عامر ببردين أحمرين ثم نهانا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم عن المتعة

Ibn Shihab says―Rabi’ ibn Saburah al Juhani informed me that―his father stated, “I had practiced Mut’ah during the lifetime of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with a woman from the Banu ‘Amir in lieu of two red garments. Subsequently, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam banned us from Mut’ah.”

 

قال ابن شهاب و سمعت ربيع بن سبرة يحدث ذلك عمر بن عبد العزيز و أنا جالس

Ibn Shihab says, “I heard Rabi’ ibn Saburah narrating that to ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz while I sat (listening).”

 

و حدثني سلمة بن شبيب حدثنا الحسن بن أعين حدثنا معقل عن ابن أبي عبلة عن عمر بن عبد العزيز قال حدثنا الربيع بن سبرة الجهني عن أبيه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم نهى عن المتعة و قال ألا إنها حرام من يومكم هذا إلى يوم القيامة و من كان أعطى شيئا فلا يأخذه

Salamah ibn Shabib narrated to me―Hassan ibn A’yun narrated to us―Ma’qil narrated to us from―Ibn Abi ‘Ublah from―’Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz who said―al Rabi’ ibn Saburah al Juhani narrated to us from―his father that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam outlawed Mut’ah announcing, “Harken! It is haram from this day till the Day of Qiyamah. Whoever has given anything, should not take it back.”[9]

حدثنا يحيى بن يحيى قال قرأت على مالك عن ابن شهاب عن عبد الله و الحسن ابني محمد بن علي عن أبيهما عن علي بن أبي طالب أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم نهى عن متعة النساء يوم خيبر و عن أكل لحوم الحمر الإنسية

Yahya ibn Yahya narrated to us saying―I read to Malik from―Ibn Shihab from―’Abdullah and Hassan the sons of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali from―their father from―’Ali ibn Abi Talib that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam disallowed Mut’ah of women on the Day of Khaybar and eating the flesh of donkeys.[10]

 

حدثنا عبد الله بن محمد بن أسماء الضبعي حدثنا جويرية عن مالك بهذا الإسناد و قال سمع علي بن أبي طالب يقول لفلان إنك رجل تائه نهانا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم بمثل حديث يحيى بن يحيى عن مالك

‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Asma’ al Dabu’i narrated to us―Juwayriyah narrated to us from―Malik with this isnad. He said that he heard ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib telling someone, “You are an absent-minded man. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam forbade us …” exactly like the hadith of Yahya ibn Yahya from Malik.

 

حدثنا أبو بكر بن أبي شيبة و ابن نمير و زهير بن حرب جميعا عن ابن عيينة قال زهير حدثنا سفيان بن عيينة عن الزهري عن الحسن و عبد الله ابني محمد بن علي عن أبيهما عن علي أن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم نهى عن نكاح المتعة يوم خيبر و عن لحوم الحمر الأهلية

Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah and Ibn Numair and Zuhayr ibn Harb narrated to us from―Ibn ‘Uyainah. Zuhayr said―Sufyan ibn ‘Uyainah narrated to us from―al Zuhri from―Hassan and ‘Abdullah the sons of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali from―their father from―’Ali that the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam outlawed Nikah al Mut’ah and the meat of donkeys on the Day of Khaybar.[11]

 

و حدثنا محمد بن عبد الله بن نمير حدثنا أبي حدثنا عبيد الله عن ابن شهاب عن الحسن و عبد الله ابني محمد بن علي عن أبيهما عن علي أنه سمع ابن عباس يلين في متعة النساء فقال مهلا يا ابن عباس فإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم نهى عنها يوم خيبر و عن لحوم الحمر الإنسية

Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Numair narrated to us―my father narrated to us―’Ubaidullah narrated to us from―Ibn Shihab from―Hassan and ‘Abdullah the sons of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali from―their father from―’Ali who heard Ibn ‘Abbas displaying leniency regarding Mut’ah of women. He warned him, “Stop, O Ibn ‘Abbas! Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam disallowed it and the flesh of donkeys on the Day of Khaybar.”[12]

 

و حدثني أبو الطاهر و حرملة بن يحيى قالا أخبرنا ابن وهب أخبرني يونس عن ابن شهاب عن الحسن و عبد الله ابني محمد بن علي بن أبي طالب عن أبيهما أنه سمع علي بن أبي طالب يقول لابن عباس نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم عن متعة النساء يوم خيبر و عن أكل لحوم الحمر الإنسية

Abu al Tahir and Harmalah ibn Yahya narrated to me saying―Ibn Wahb informed us―Yunus informed me from―Ibn Shihab from―Hassan and ‘Abdullah the sons of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib from―their father who heard―’Ali ibn Abi Talib saying to Ibn ‘Abbas, “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibited Mut’ah of women and eating the flesh of donkeys on the Day of Khaybar.”[13]

 

All the above ahadith appear in Sahih Muslim.

 

The prohibition of Mut’ah from the books of the Shia

 

روى أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى في نوادره و ابن إدريس في سرائره عن ابن أبي عمير عن هشام بن الحكم عن أبي عبد الله في المتعة قال ما يفعله عندنا إلا الفواجر

Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa in his Nawadir and Ibn Idris in his Sarair narrated from―Ibn Abi ‘Umair from―Hisham ibn al Hakam from―Abu ‘Abdullah regarding Mut’ah: “Only the whores practice it according to us.”[14]

 

و روى ابن إدريس في سرائره و أحمد بن محمد في نوادره بإسناده عن ابن سنان قال سألت أبا عبد الله عن المتعة فقال لا تدنس بها نفسك

Ibn Idris in his Sarair and Ahmed ibn Muhammad in his Nawadir report with his isnad from Ibn Sinan who says that he enquired from Abu ‘Abdullah about Mut’ah who said, “Do not soil yourself with it.”[15]

 

و روى الكليني عن المفضل قال سمعت أبا عبد الله يقول في المتعة دعوها أما يستحي أحدكم أن يرى في موضع العورة فيحمل ذلك على صالحي إخوانه و أصحابه

Al Kulayni reports from―al Mufaddal who says that he heard―Abu ‘Abdullah declaring concerning Mut’ah: “Leave it. Is anyone of you not ashamed to be seen in a place of secrecy and to carry this to his righteous brothers and companions?”[16]

 

و روى المفيد و الكليني عن علي بن يقطين قال سألت أبا الحسن عن المتعة فقال ما أنت و ذاك قد أغناك الله عنها

Al Mufid and al Kulayni report from―’Ali ibn Yaqtin who reports: I questioned Abu al Hassan about Mut’ah. He replied, “What connection do you have with it? Allah has made you independent from it.”[17]

 

و روى الكليني عن عمار قال قال أبو عبد الله لي و لسليمان بن خالد قد حرمت عليكما المتعة

Al Kulayni relates from―’Ammar who says that―Abu ‘Abdullah said to him and to Sulaiman ibn Khalid, “I have declared Mut’ah haram upon you.”

 

و روى المفيد و الكليني عن ابن شمون قال كتب أبو الحسن إلى بعض مواليه لا تلحوا علي المتعة إنما عليكم إقامة السنة فلا تشتغلوا بها عن فرشكم و حرائركم فيكفرن و يتبرين و يدعين على الآمر بذلك و يلعنونا

Al Mufid and al Kulayni narrated from―Ibn Shamun who says, “Abu al Hassan wrote to some of his freed slaves, ‘Do not insist Mut’ah upon me. Your duty is only to establish the Sunnah. Do not get involved in it from your wives and slave-girls who will disbelief, dissociate, and curse the one who instructed this and they will curse us.’”

 

If they wish to escape these ahadith by claiming that the Imam said them out of Taqiyyah, as some believe, then there is no Taqiyyah when dealing with Mut’ah of women.

Kashif al Ghita’ said in Asl al Shia:

 

و من طرقنا الوثيقة عن جعفر الصادق أنه كان يقول ثلاث لا أتقي فيهن أحدا متعة الحج و متعة النساء و المسح على الخفين

And from our strong chains from Jafar al Sadiq who would declare: “I do not fear anyone in three things, viz. Mut’ah of Hajj, Mut’ah of women, and mash upon khuffayn.”[18]

 

Mut’ah marriage was permissible in the initial stages of Islam, and then forbidden, then allowed, and subsequently prohibited till the Day of Qiyamah. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam outlawed it, not Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, nor Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu simply laid emphasis on its prohibition and admonished the one whom the prohibition had not reached. The one responsible for narrating the hadith of prohibition which supports his stance is none other than Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Al Bukhari and Muslim document in their Sahih compilations:

 

إن عليا رضي الله عنه قال لابن عباس رضي الله عنهما إن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم نهى عن المتعة و عن لحوم الحمر الأنسية زمن خيبر

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu informed Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, “Certainly, the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam banned Mut’ah and the flesh of donkeys during the Khaybar campaign.”[19]

 

Another narration clarifies:

عن متعة النساء زمن خيبر

“… from Mut’ah of women during the Khaybar campaign.”[20]

Mut’ah marriage is not permissible at home nor while on a journey. It is haram till the Day of Qiyamah. Al Bayhaqi documents the hadith of Sayyidina Abu Dhar radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

إنما أحلت لنا أصحاب محمد متعة النساء ثلاثة أيام ثم نهى عنها رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم

Mut’ah of women was permitted for us―the companions of Muhammad―for three days. Thereafter, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam forbade it.

 

The text which denotes its eternal prohibition is:

إنها حرام إلى يوم القيامة

It is haram till the Day of Qiyamah.[21]

 

It is apparent that Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu highlighted the prohibition. Some―who were unaware of the abrogation―practiced Mut’ah during the lifetime of Sayyidina Abu Bakr and a small portion of the era of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Sayyidina Jabir radiya Llahu ‘anhu is one of them. However, the hadith has no indication to the fact that Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu considered it permissible since Sayyidina Jabir radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not mention Sayyidina Abu Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu knowledge of it and happiness over it. By some practicing it during his era does not necessarily mean that he was aware of it. The obvious reason of him not being informed was that it was a secret marriage, and the presence of witnesses was not a condition. Now since it was not announced, it is most befitting that it remains a secret from those close by, forget one who is fully occupied with the burdens of caliphate and the affairs of all the Muslims, viz. Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

 

Next⇒ Pulpits will be placed around the ‘Arsh on the Day of Qiyamah


[1] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1405.

[2] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1405. 18.

[3] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1406.

[4] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1406. 21

[5] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1406. 22

[6] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1406. 24.

[7] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1406. 25.

[8] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1406. 27.

[9] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1406. 28.

[10] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1407. 29.

[11] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1407. 30.

[12] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1407. 31.

[13] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 1407. 32.

[14] Sara’ir pg. 483; al Wasa’il vol. 14 pg. 456; Bihar al Anwar vol. 100 pg. 318.

[15] Sara’ir pg. 66; Nawadir pg. 66; al Wasa’il vol. 14 pg. 450.

[16] Al Kafi vol. 5 pg. 453; Bihar al Anwar vol. 100 pg. 103, 311; al Wasa’il vol. 14 pg. 450; al Nuri: al Mustadrak vol. 14 pg. 455.

[17] Khulasat al Ijaz fi al Mut’ah pg. 57; al Wasa’il vol. 14 pg. 449; Nawadir Ahmed pg. 87 Hadith: 199.

[18] Asl al Shia wa Usuluha pg. 100.

[19] Sahih al Bukhari vol. 6 pg. 129.

[20] Ibid pg. 230.

[21] Al Sunan al Kubra vol. 7 pg. 203. Shia books: al Istibsar vol. 3 pg. 142; al Tahdhib vol. 7 pg. 251; Wasa’il al Shia vol. 21 pg. 12.

Back to top