Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 7

Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 6
September 6, 2023
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September 7, 2023

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Those from Bahrain who remained steadfast on Islam

Indeed, among those who remained steadfast on Islam in Bahrain is al Jarud ibn ‘Amr ibn Hanash ibn al Mu’alla al ‘Abdi,[1] who stood up among his tribe, Banu ‘Abdul Qais,[2] and reminded them of the reality of death. He recited to them the saying of Allah Almighty:


وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُوْلٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ

Muhammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him…[3][4]


This statement and position had an effect on them, so they remained steadfast on their Islam and did not change like some people of Rabi’ah in Bahrain.[5] When Aban ibn Sa’id ibn al ‘As,[6] the governor of Bahrain, came to Madinah to find out the opinion of the Companions radiya Llahu ‘anhum concerning the Fitnah in Bahrain, al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu commented on their firm stance by saying:


ألا ثبت مع قوم لم يبدلوا ولم يرتدوا

He remained firm with a people who did not change nor apostatize.[7]


Aban spoke well of them to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[8]

And when Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent al ‘Ala’ ibn al Hadrami[9] radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Bahrain with sixteen riders, he said to him:


أمعن فإن أمامك عبد القيس

Apply yourself assiduously, for in front of you is ‘Abdul Qais![10]


So, he proceeded until he reached them, and he passed by Thumamah ibn Uthal al Hanafi, so he strengthened him with himself and with his tribe, Banu Suhaym.[11] He roused the Muslims in those regions.[12] Al Jarud used to send fighting men to al ‘Ala’[13], thus a large army gathered with him. With this army, he fought the apostates and Allah granted victory to the believers through him after they had faced a severe trial when the apostates besieged them in the village of believers, Juwatha.[14]

Among those who supported al ‘Ala’ in suppressing the Fitnah of Bahrain were also:

  • Qais ibn ‘Asim al Minqari[15] and ‘Afif ibn al Mundhir,[16]
  • ‘Utaybah ibn al Nahhas from the Banu Bakr ibn Wa’il,[17]
  • ‘Amir ibn ‘Abdul Aswad,[18]
  • Masma’,[19]
  • Khafsah al Tamimi,[20]
  • al Muthanna ibn Harithah al Shaybani,[21]
  • Wahb from the Banu Dabi’ah ibn ‘Ajl,[22]
  • and al Lahazim.[23]


Those who remained steadfast on Islam in the land of Tamim were people such as ‘Amr and the Abna’ and Sa’d ibn Tamim and al Rabab.[24]

If it were not for the intervention of some foreign elements in favour of the apostates, the apostates would not have dared to stand against the Muslims for a long period. The Persians provided the apostates with nine thousand fighters whereas the number of apostate Arabs was only three thousand, while the number of Muslims was four thousand.[25]

The Muslims of Bahrain assisted the leaders of Islam in quelling the Fitnah of Dhu al Taj Laqit ibn Malik al Azdi.[26]

Wathimah mentioned the names of some who remained steadfast on Islam in Bahrain and their role in suppressing the Fitnah of apostasy in the region. Among them are:


1. Subah ibn al ‘Abbas al ‘Abdi

He was among those who accompanied Aban ibn Sa’id when they received news of the death of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, until Aban reached Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu with thirty of his people. Regarding this, Aban says:


عن أبان بن سعيد

جزي الجارود خيرا

هرم خیر عمید

وصباح وأخوه

May al Jarud be well rewarded,

On behalf of Aban ibn Sa’id.

And Subah and his brother Haram,

Are the best pillars of strength.


Al Tabari mentioned, in the narration of Sayf ibn ‘Umar al Tamimi that Ibn al Walid sent five people that he had captured from Banu Tha’lab with Subah; whether this is reference to the same or not [is unclear], as Ibn Hajar said.[27]


2. ‘Abdullah ibn Sawwar

He was from the governors of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Bahrain and among those who were loyal to Aban.[28]


3. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Awf al ‘Abdi

When al ‘Ala’ ibn al Hadrami radiya Llahu ‘anhu came from Bahrain to Madinah by the order of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he came with twenty men from ‘Abdul Qais, at their forefront was ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Awf al Ashajj, as al Tabari mentioned from the narration of al Waqidi.

Ibn Hajar says:


وهذا يحتمل أن يكون هو الأشج المشهور ويكون اختلف في اسمه ويحتمل أن يكون غيره وكلام وثيمة يقوي هذا الاحتمال الثاني فإنه ذكر عبد الله بن عوف في ذكر ردة ربيعة وفرق بينه وبين الأشج المنذر

And this might be the well-known al Ashajj, and there might be a difference in his name. Or it might be someone else, and the statement of Wathimah strengthens this second possibility, as he mentioned ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Awf  when talking about the apostasy of Rabi’ah, and he differentiated between him and al Ashajj al Mundhir.[29]


4. ‘Abdullah ibn Qais al Subahi

He was among those who pointed out the weak points of the people of the fortress in Bahrain. He was one of the delegations of ‘Abdul Qais along with al Ashajj to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. An excerpt of his poetry that he composed during the Fitnah of apostasy is given below:


من يلقنا يلق منا سنّة الحطم

لا توعدونا بمغرور وأسرته

Do not threaten us with the deluded and his people,

Whoever meets us will face our tradition of destruction.[30]


5. ‘Abdullah ibn Hadhf

He composed the following during the Fitnah of apostasy:


وفتيان المدينة أجـمـعـيـنـا

ألا أبلغ أبا بكر رسولا

قعود في جواثى محصرينا

فهل لكم إلى قـوم كـرام

وجدنا النصر للمتوكلينا

توكلنا على الرحمن إنا

وبالإسلام دينا قد رضينا

وقلنا قــد رضـــيـنـا الله ربا

Indeed, convey to Abu Bakr,

and the youths of al Madinah, all of them;

Do you have anything to say to a noble people

seated in Juwatha, besieged?

We rely upon al Rahman indeed,

We found victory for those who rely upon Him,

And we said we are pleased with Allah as a Lord,

And with Islam as a religion, we are pleased.


Al Tabari mentioned him in several places, including that he pointed out the vulnerabilities of the apostates of his tribe to al ‘Ala’ ibn al Hadrami radiya Llahu ‘anhu enabling him to capture them.[31]

In addition to the aforementioned, there were luminaries in Bahrain who firmly held onto Islam, as mentioned by al Waqidi, including:

1) Haram ibn Hayyan al ‘Abdi, who at that time was the elder of ‘Abdul Qais and its most senior. He advanced to Aban ibn Sa’id and said:


يا أبان إن الله عز وجل قد كثر بالإسلام عددنا وشد به قلوبنا وألسنتنا فلسنا نخاف أعداءنـا مـن الناس وقد أبيت المقام بأرضنا فإن كان أوحشك منا شيء أمناك منه وإن خشيت أن تعجـز عـن ولايتنا أعناك بأنفسنا وإذا أردت خيراً مما أنت فيه بذلنا لك أموالنا

O Aban, indeed Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, has multiplied our numbers through Islam and strengthened our hearts and tongues with it, so we no longer fear our enemies among the people. But you have refused to reside in our land, if there is something from us that makes you uneasy, we will ensure your safety from it. If you are worried that you will not be able to govern over us, we will support you with our very selves. And if you desire something better than what you are currently in, we offer our wealth to you.[32]


2) Al Mundhir ibn ‘A’idh al ‘Abdi, he is the one whom the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed as the leader of the delegation of ‘Abdul Qais when they visited him. He was among those who accompanied Aban ibn Sa’id to Madinah, along with his brother Subah ibn Hayyan, Jarud ibn al Mu’alla, al Ashajj ibn ‘A’idh, ‘Abdullah ibn Sawwar, and al Harith ibn Murrah, with a total of 30 horsemen from the leaders of ‘Abdul Qais.[33]


NEXT⇒ Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 8

[1] See his biography in al Isabah, 1/216, biography: 1042; Usd al Ghabah, 1/260.

[2] It is mentioned in an authentic Hadith that when they came to him, Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to them:

عبد القيس خير أهل المشرق اللهم اغفر لعبد القيس قالها ثلاثاً وبارك في ثمارهم

‘Abdul Qais are the best of the people of the East! O Allah, forgive ‘Abdul Qais and bless their fruits.


He said this 3 times, and they left rejoicing at his supplication and presented him some of their best fruits (narrated by Ahmed 4/206).

See Hurub al Riddah, pg. 194; and see the story of their steadfastness on Islam in Futuh Ibn A’tham, pg. 45, 47, who said about them:

وعبد الـقـيـس يـومـنـذ بـالـبـحـرين متمسكون بدين الإسلام ولم يرتدوا مع من ارتد

And ‘Abdul Qais at that time in Bahrain were adhering to the religion of Islam and did not apostatize with those who did.

And about the steadfastness of a group of the people of Bahrain with al Jarud, also see: al ‘Asfari (Khalifah ibn Khayyat d. 240H): Tarikh Khalifah ibn Khayyat, checked by Dr. Akram Dia’ al ‘Umari, vol. 2 pg. 116, Beirut, Mu’assasat al Risalah, 1977.

[3] Surat Al ‘Imran: 144.

[4] See the story in Hurub al Riddah, pg. 194.

[5] Al Tabari, 3/303; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 6/369.

[6] See his biography in al Isabah, 1/13-15 under number 2; and a part of his biography regarding his governance of Bahrain in al Tabaqat, 4/361.

[7] Hurub al Riddah, pg. 196.

[8] Ibid.

[9] He converted to Islam early on. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent him to Bahrain to call its ruler, al Mundhir ibn Sawa, to Islam and put him in charge of the charities of Bahrain. When the delegation from Bahrain complained about him to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he was removed from his position, and the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed Aban ibn Sa’id ibn al ‘As in his place. When the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away, Aban excused himself from governance, so al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed al ‘Ala’ ibn al Hadrami in his place. See the complete biography of al ‘Ala’ in al Tabaqat, 4/359-363; al Isabah, 2/497-498, biography: 5642; Usd al Ghabah, 4/7-8.

[10] Ibid. For the position of Banu ‘Abdul Qais regarding apostasy, see Tarikh al Khamis, 2/201.

[11] This story was previously mentioned in the context of the role of Thumamah ibn Uthal al Hanafi in dealing with the Fitnah of the apostates, pg. 71.

[12] Al Tabari, 3/305-306.

[13] Hurub al Riddah, pg. 196-197.

[14] Refer to the reports of this calamity in Hurub al Riddah, pg. 197 onwards; al Kamil, 2/368; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 6/369.

[15] Al Tabari, 3/305; Futuh Ibn A’tham, pg. 50-51.

[16] Al Tabari, 3/310.

[17] Ibn Hajar says about him in al Isabah, 3/103, biography: 6412:


كان من كبار العجليين… له إدراك ومشاهد في خلافة أبي بكر كان شريفا وكان مع خالد بن الوليد باليمامة واستعمله على اللهازم حين سار إلى فاطمة… من الكماة الشجعان….وإن العلاء بن الحضرمي أرسل إليه في أمر الردة وأخوه عتاب كان شريفا

He was among the prominent of the ‘Ijliyyin… he witnessed events during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr. He was noble and was with Khalid ibn al Walid in al Yamamah. He was made a governor over al Lahazim when he went to Fatimah… from the brave fighters… Indeed, al ‘Ala’ ibn al Hadrami wrote to him regarding the issue of apostasy, and his brother ‘Attab was noble…

[18] As is found in al Tabari, 3/310; al Isabah, 3/86, biography: 6285, ‘Amir ibn ‘Abdul Asad, he says about him:


له إدراك ذكر الطبري أن العلاء ابن الحضرمي كتب إليه يأمره بالتمادي على جده واجتهاده في قتال أهل الردة والفحص عن أمورهم والتتبع لأخبارهم

He was alive at the time of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Al Tabari mentioned that Al ‘Ala’ ibn al Hadrami wrote to him ordering him to persevere in his efforts and striving in fighting the people of apostacy and to investigate their matters and to follow up on their news.

[19] In Futuh Ibn A’tham, pg. 47 it reads, Mashma’ ibn Malik. While according to al Waqidi in Kitab al Riddah, pg. 149, we see, Masma’ ibn Malik. See his biography in al Isabah, 3/494, biography: 8417. Ibn Hajar did not consider it unlikely that the father of Malik ibn Masma’ be the leader of Bakr ibn Wa’il in Basrah in the beginning of Islam during the Umayyad Dynasty.

[20] Ibn Hajar did not add more than what al Tabari mentioned (3/310). See al Isabah, 1/429, biography 2269.

[21] See his lineage and biography in al Isabah, 3/361, biography: 7720; Usd al Ghabah, 4/299. Read about his role in Futuh Ibn A’tham, pg. 47; al Isabah, 3/361-362; al Isti’ab, 3/522-525. His conversion to Islam and his arrival to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was in the ninth, tenth, or eleventh year of the Hijrah. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent him to Iraq and reinforced him with Khalid ibn al Walid radiya Llahu ‘anhu while ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu reinforced him with Abu ‘Ubaidah then with Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas. He was brave and performed well in Jihad. He passed away in the year 14 AH, before Sa’d’s reinforcements reached him.

[22] Wahb: We did not find a biography for him.

[23] Read about them in al Tabari, 3/310.

[24] Al Kamil, 2/369.

[25] Futuh Ibn A’tham, pg. 47; al Waqidi: Kitab al Riddah, pg. 152.

[26] For this, see for example al Tabari, 3/315-316.

[27] Wathimah: Qit’ min Kitab al Riddah, pg. 23; al Isabah, 2/175, biography: 4030.

[28] Wathimah: Ibid., pg. 224; al Isabah, 3/92, biography: 6329.

[29] Wathimah: Ibid.; al Isabah, 2/356, biography: 4871. And see al Waqidi: Kitab al Riddah, pg. 153.

[30] Wathimah: Ibid., pg. 24, 25; al Isabah, 2/361, biography: 1905.

[31] Wathimah: Ibid., pg. 25; al Isabah, 3/88, biography: 6306, and here he is mentioned as ‘Abdullah ibn Hadq. Wilhelm has indicated that it is Hadhq in version K of al Isabah.

[32] Al Waqidi: Kitab al Riddah, pg. 60; a previously mentioned source.

[33] Ibid., pg. 60-61; al Isabah, 3/460, biography: 8218.