Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 6

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September 6, 2023
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Those from Oman who remained steadfast on Islam

A group of Muslims in Oman stood with their leader Jayfar[1] and his brother ‘Abbad[2] against Dhu al Taj Laqit ibn Malik al Azdi[3] who claimed prophethood in Oman. They took refuge in fortified places until they were met by Hudhayfah ibn Mihsan al Ghalfani[4] and ‘Arfajah ibn Harthmah al Bariqi[5], and ‘Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl, who were commanders of the battalions that were established by al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu to fight the apostates.[6]

The Muslims from the tribes of Banu Judayd, Banu Najiyah, and Banu ‘Abdul Qays remained steadfast on Islam, as confirmed by the narrations of al Tabari,[7] Ibn al Athir,[8] and Ibn Kathir.[9] Al Khirrit bin Rashid[10] led his people, the Banu Najiyah, and Sayhan ibn Suhan[11] led his people—the Banu ‘Abdul Qays—to stand with the Muslims in weakening and killing the apostates.

Among those who remained steadfast on Islam in Oman were the people of Tabalah, from the land of Ka’b bin Rabi’ah. ‘Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, the person in charge of the charities of Banu ‘Amir bin Sa’sa’ah, went to them when the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away and the Fitnah of Laqit arose. They were, after Allah, his helpers in subduing the apostates in Oman.[12]

Wathimah mentioned some of the names and positions of those who remained steadfast on Islam in Oman, among them are:


1. Khamisah ibn Aban al Huddani

He came from Madinah to Oman after the death of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and announced to them the death of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He said to them:


تركت الناس بالمدينة يغلون غليان القدر

I left the people in Madinah in a state that they are boiling just like a kettle boils.


‘Amr ibn al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu said about him:


ونعى النبي خميصة بن أبان

صدع القلوب مقالة الحداني

The words of al Huddani tore open the hearts.

And Khamisah ibn Aban announced the death of the Prophet.[13]


2. Mujaffanah ibn al Nu’man al ‘Ataki

He was the poet of the Azd tribe. When their leader, appointee by the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, ‘Amr ibn al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu, wanted to return to Madinah after the death of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Mujaffanah said to him:


قد أتى به الأمر الذي لا يدفع

يا عمرو إن كان النبي محمدا

حار وأعناق البرية خضع

فقلوبنا قرحى وماء دموعنا

فينا وننظر ما يقول ونسمع

يا عمرو إن حياته كوفاته

یا عمرو ذاك هو الأعز الأمنع

فاقم فإنك لا تخاف رجوعنا

O ‘Amr, if the Prophet Muhammad has faced an unavoidable event,

our hearts are wounded, the tears we shed are hot,

and the necks of the people are bent in submission.

O ‘Amr, to us, he is the same in his life as he is in death,

and we always await his words and listen.

So, stand firm, for you should not fear our return.

O ‘Amr, that is the most honourable and powerful.[14]


3. ‘Uqbah ibn al Nu’man al ‘Ataki, Abu al Nu’man

He accompanied ‘Amr ibn al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu along with a group of his people until they came to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who expressed his gratitude to them. He is the one who said:


وفينا مفرخ افراخه

وفينا وفينا يبيض الوفاء

كما زين العذق شمراخه

كذلك الوفاء يزين الرجال

وقد نفخ الرأي نفاخه

وفينا لعمرو وقلنا له

We were loyal, and among us [are those in whom] loyalty is apparent,

And among us are those who disclosed their secrets.

Thus, does loyalty adorn men,

just as dates adorn the tops of the palms.

We were loyal to ‘Amr and we said to him,

and that opinion has been blown away.


He also said:

علينا ومن لا يعرف الحق هالك

رسول رسول الله أعظم بحقه

إذا كان يوم كاسف الشمس هالك

ونحن أناس يأمن الجار وسطنا

The messenger of Allah’s Messenger is the greatest in his right

over us. And whoever does not recognize the truth is doomed.

And we are people, amongst us, a neighbour is safe

When it is a day that the sun is eclipsed, a difficult day.[15]


4. ‘Amir ibn al Tufayl ibn al Harith al Azdi

He was the representative of his people and stood among them during the period of Riddah, encouraging them towards Islam. He composed a eulogy for the Prophet of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, which reads as follows:


ر الذي كان للعباد ســــــراجا

بكت الأرض والسماء على النو

ــــق وكنا لا نعرف المنهاج

من هدينا به إلى سبل الح

The earth and the heavens wept over the light,

which was a lamp for the servants.

Through which we were guided to the path of truth,

and we did not know any way.[16]


He is not ‘Amir ibn al Tufayl ibn Malik ibn Jafar al Kilabi, the chief of Banu ‘Amir during the pre-Islamic era, who died as a disbeliever. He came to the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when he was eighty years old.[17]

Among those whom al Waqidi mentioned to have remained steadfast on Islam in Oman are:

1) Zalim ibn Suraqah, Abu Sufrah al Azdi al ‘Ataki, the father of al Muhallab ibn Abi Sufrah, the famous Umayyad leader. When ‘Amr ibn al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the envoy of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Oman for preaching Islam, consulted the people of Oman regarding Abu Bakr‘s radiya Llahu ‘anhu command that he returns to Madinah following the death of the Prophet of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and gave them the news of the apostasy of some Arabs, Abu Sufrah said:


يا عمرو إنا نطيعك اليوم بطاعة الأمس ونطيعك غداً بطاعة اليوم ولا عصينا من أرسلك إلينا والسلام

O ‘Amr, we will obey you today as we obeyed you yesterday, and we will obey you tomorrow as we obey you today, and we do not disobey the one who sent you to us. May peace be upon you.


He was also among those who accompanied Ibn al ‘As to Madinah.[18]


2) Jafir ibn Jafr ibn Khaytam, who said to ‘Amr bin al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu:


يا عمرو إن رسول الله أرسلك إلينا فدعوتنا فأجبناك فإن يكن الرسول قد مات فإن الله عز وجل حي لا يموت فإن أقمت عندنا أطعناك وإن شئت المسير خفرناك والسلام

O ‘Amr, indeed the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent you to us and you called us and we responded to you. If the Messenger has passed away, then indeed Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, is alive and does not die. If you stay with us, we will obey you, and if you wish to depart, we will escort you. May peace be upon you.


And when ‘Amr radiya Llahu ‘anhu decided to travel to Madinah based on the request of Abu Bakr, among those who accompanied him were Jafr, his son Jafir, and ‘Abbad bin al Julandi; amongst seventy knights from the notables of Oman. Regarding them, ‘Uqbah bin al Nu’man al ‘Ataki said:


وظالم المودي إليه الصعالك

تضمنه منا عباد وجفير

يقهقه مزجيا عليه الأرامك

فأصبح عمرو بالمدينة سالما

With us are ‘Abbad and Jafir,

And Zalim[19] to whom the poor come to[20].

So ‘Amr arrived in Madinah safely.

laughing with a mix of musk being placed on him.[21][22]


And a man from Quraysh said about them:


ويا جفير بن جفر الهمام

یا عباد ويا بن سراقة الخير

O ‘Abbad, O son of Suraqah of goodness,

and O Jafir bin Jafr, the noble.[23]


NEXT⇒ Those who remained steadfast on Islam During the Apostasy Part 7

[1] He is Jayfar ibn al Julanda al Azdi, the king of Oman. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent ‘Amr ibn al ‘As to him and he accepted Islam. See his biography in al Isabah, 1/264, biography: 1308; al Isti’ab, 1/261; al Tabaqat, 1/262, 7/493; ‘Uyun al Athar, pg. 267-269; Usd al Ghabah, 1/313.

[2] See his story linked to his brothers story in the same sources. Ibn Hajar has him indexed under the name ‘Ubayd.

[3] Al Tabari says (3/314), “Dhu al Taj Laqit ibn Malik al Azdi was called al Julanda in the pre-Islamic era.”

[4] Al ‘Alqa’i or al Qal’a’i or al Ghalfa’i or al Qal’ani. These are all his different names according to the different sources. See al Isabah, 1/317, biography: 1646. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu made him the governor of Oman when he removed ‘Ikrimah from that position. Al Isabah, 1/317; al Isti’ab, 1/278-279; Usd al Ghabah, 1/390. Here you will find the word al Qal’ani and the differences in the different sources regarding it.

[5] Al Isabah, 2/474, biography: 5509; Usd al Ghabah, 3/401.

[6] Al Tabari, 3/314; al Kamil, 2/372-373; al Bidayah, 6/372.

[7] Ibid., 3/315-316.

[8] Al Kamil, 2/372-373.

[9] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 6/372. Regarding the steadfastness of Banu ‘Abdul Qays see: Tarikh al Khamis: 2/201.

[10] Al Naji; he met the Prophet of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as part of the delegation of Banu Salamah ibn Lu’ay. He was the commander of the Banu Najiyah during the wars of apostasy and was one of the leaders at that time. See al Isabah, 1/423-424, biography: 2244; al Isti’ab: 1/455-456; Usd al Ghabah, 2/118.

[11] He was amongst the leaders in the Muslims when they were fighting against the apostates. He was killed in the Battle of Jamal while fighting on the side of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. See al Isabah, 2/103, biography: 3630; al Tabaqat, 6/221; Siyar A’lam al Nubalaʾ, 3/525.

[12] Hurub al Riddah, pg. 208-210.

[13] Wathimah: Qit’ min Kitab al Riddah, pg. 26; al Isabah, 1/456, biography: 2292.

[14] Wathimah: Ibid.; al Isabah, 3/486 – 487, biography: 8371. Wilhelm stated in his commentary that in version (k) of al Isabah the name is spelt as مجفية, and in our version of al Isabah, it is محقية. There are misspellings and Allah knows best.

[15] Wathimah: Ibid., pg. 27; al Isabah, 3/108, biography: 6440.

[16] Wathimah: Ibid., pg. 28; al Isabah, 2/251, biography: 4396.

[17] Al Isabah, 2/251.

[18] Muhammad ibn ‘Umar al Waqidi: Kitab al Riddah, edited by Dr. Yahya al Jaburi, edition 1, Dar al Gharb al Islami Beirut, 1410 AH/1990, pg. 55-57 and edited by Dr. Mahmud ‘Abdullah Abu al Khayr, Dar al Furqan, Amman, pg. 89.

[19] He is Zalim ibn Suraqah, Abu Sufrah.

[20] That is the lion.

[21]Al Aramik: The plural of al Ramik, something black mixed with musk.

[22] Al Waqidi, Op. cit., pg. 56.

[23] Ibid., pg. 59; al Riddah by al Waqidi, edited by Dr. Abu al Khayr, pg. 93.