The Services of Abu Bakr and ‘Uthman in Making Arrangements for the Wedding of Fatimah
In the previous pages, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma encouraging ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to propose was the centre of the discussion, wherein the advice and well-wishing of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma had been cited at length. In this chapter I now present to you the arrangements for the wedding and the preparation of the home of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. In this regard the services of Abu Bakr and the conferring of gifts by ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma are of vital importance. In Amali of Sheikh Abu Jafar al Tusi, Manaqib Khawarzimi, Manaqib Ibn Shar Ashub, Kashf al Ghummah of Abu ‘Isa Arbili, Bihar al Anwar, Jilaʾ al ‘Uyun (both of Mulla Baqir al Majlisi) and many other Shia books, this has been discussed in detail. Of all the above mentioned references it is the Amali of Sheikh al Tusi, which is considered most authentic. Therefore, I shall begin quoting from it first. Hence, Sheikh al Ta’ifah cites from the ‘infallible’ Imam ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
قال علي عليه السلام قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم قم فبع الدرهم فقمت فبعته وأخذت الثمن ودخلت علي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم فسكبت الدراهم في حجره فلم يسألني كم هي ولا أنا أخبرته ثم قبض قبضة ودعا بلالا فأعطاه وقال ابتع لفاطمة طيبا ثم قبض رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم من الدراهم بكلتا يديه فأعطاها أبا بكر وقال ابتع لفاطمة ما يصلحها من ثياب و أثاث البيت. اردفه بعمار بن ياسر و بعدة من أصحابه فحضروا السوق فكانوا يعرضون الشيئ مما ويصلح فلا يشترونه حتي يعرضوه علي أبي بكر فإن استصلحه اشتروه فكان مما اشتروه قميص بسبعة دراهم وخمار بأربعة دراهم وقطيفة سوداء خيبرية و سرير مزمل بشريطة وفراشين من خيس مصر حشو أحدهما ليف وحشو الآخر من جز الغنم و أربع مرا فق من أدم الطائف حشوها إذخر و ستر صوف وسقي من أدم وقعب للبن وجرة خضراء وكيزان خزف حتي إذا استكمل الشراء حمل أبوبكر وحمل أصحاب رسول الله الذين كانوا معه الباقي فلما عرضوا المتاع علي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم جعل يقلبه بيده ويقول بارك الله لأهل البيت………… (كتاب الأمالي للشيخ أبي جعفر الطوسي ص39 ج1. مطبوعة جديد نجف أشرف عراق )
Mulla Baqir Majlisi has translated the above mentioned narration in Persian, in his book Jilaʾ al ‘Uyun, which I shall cite here for corroboration and thereafter present the summary in order to make apparent to the readers the bond that existed between Abu Bakr and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.
“شیخ طوسی بسند معتبر از حضرت صادق علیہ السلام روایت کردہ است ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ امیر المومنین علیہ السلام فرمود کہ حضرت رسول مرا امر فرمود کہ یا علی بر خیر زرہ بفروش۔ پس برخاستم وزرہ را فروختم وقیمت آن گرفتم وبخدمت آنحضرت آوردم۔ در مہارا در دامن آنحضرت ریختم۔ آنحضرت از من نہ پرسید کہ چندست۔ من نیز نہ گفتم۔ پس یک کف ازان زرگرفت۔ بلال را طلبید با وداد وگفت ازبراۓ فاطمہ بوۓ خوش بگیر۔ دو کف ازان دراہم بر گرفت با ابو بکر داد فرمود برو ببازار واز براۓ فاطمہ بگیر آنچہ اورا درکارست ازجامہ واثاث البیت۔ عمار بن یاسر وجمعی از صحابہ را ازپۓ او فرستاد۔ ہمگی ببازار آمدند ہر یک ازیشان چیزے را اختیار کردند با ابو بکر می نمودند وبمصلحت او می خریدند۔ پس پیراہنے خریدند بہفت درہم ، ومقنعہ بچہار درہم حصیرے ودست آسیاۓ و ظرفے براۓ آب خوردن از پوست۔ وکاسہ چوبی از براۓ شیر و مشکے از براۓ آب و سبوۓ سبزے وکوزہا از سفال۔ چون ہمہ اسباب خریدند بعضے را ابو بکر برداشت وہر یک از صحابہ بعضے را برداشتند بخدمت حضرت رسول آوردند ۔ حضرت ہر یک ازنہا را بدست می گرفت و ملاحظہ مے نمود ومے فرمود خداوند مبارک گردان این را بر اھل بیت من۔”
(جلاء العیون فارسی ص 126 ، تزویج سیدہ فاطمہ با علی المرتضی)
Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Shar Ashub al Marwi al Marzindarani (d. 588 A.H), a renowned Shia scholar, has condensed the above quoted narration of Amali in his famous book, Manaqib:
وأنفذ عمارا وأبابكر وبلالا لابتياع ما يصلحها وكان مما اشتروه قميص بسبعة دراهم وخمار باربعة دراهم وقطيفة سوداء خيبرية (مناقب ابن شهر اشوب ص 20 ج4.طبع هند, فصل في تزويجها بعلي)
Overview of the Narrations:
‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu mentions:
The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed me to sell my shield so that arrangements could be made for the expenses of the wedding. I went and sold it and returned with the money I had received and placed it in his lap. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not ask me how much it was nor did I inform him of the amount. Thereupon he called Bilal radiya Llahu ‘anhu, gave him a handful of dirhams (silver coins) and instructed him to purchase perfume for Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. He then filled both his hands with dirhams, handed them over to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and instructed him to buy clothing and household items for her, he had also instructed ‘Ammar ibn Yasir and several other Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum to accompany him. Only when Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu approved of what the others intended to purchase did they purchase it, and they would not lay hands on anything that appealed to them. The list of the articles they had purchased at that time is as follows: a cloak for seven dirhams, a scarf for four dirhams, a shawl from Khaybar, a woven bedstead, two cushions, one was filled with the bark of date palms and the other with the wool of sheep, one pillow the filling of which was lemon grass, a garment of wool, a water bag made of leather, a wooden bowl for milk, a greenish clay pot and few small bowls made of sand. When they had completed purchasing, Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu carried some of the things and the remaining Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum carried the rest and presented them to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He took them in his blessed hands and supplicated thus: “O Allah place blessings in these for the Ahlul Bayt.”
To further elaborate on this issue, I shall cite another narration from their books in which mention is made of the fact that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had sold his shield to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who in return had paid him for it and had given it back to him as a gift, the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had prayed for him due to the kindness and generosity he had displayed. In the previous narrations this was not clearly stated, however, it is evident in the narrations to follow.
I shall cite this narration from the Manaqib of Akhtab al Khawarzimi (d. 568 A.H). ‘Ali ibn ‘Isa al Arbili (d. 687 A.H) in his book Kashf al Ghummah has cited this narration verbatim and Baqir al Majlisi, the Mujtahid (a scholar who is independent in passing a legal or theological ruling) of the eleventh century has likewise made mention of it in the tenth volume of his book Bihar al Anwar, under the chapter pertaining to the wedding of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. I shall refer to all of the above mentioned books. I have sourced this narration from the actual books, therefore no doubts should linger in anyone’s mind about alterations occurring due to excessive transmission; I am responsible for their validity.
Manaqib al Khawarzimi
“قال علي عليه السلام وأقبل علي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم فقال يا أبا الحسن انطلق الآن فبع درعك و ائتني بثمنها حتي أهيئ لك و لا بنتي فاطمة ما يصلحكما قال علي فأخذت درعي فانطلقت به إلي السوق فبعته بأربع مائة درهم سود هجرية من عثما ن بن عفان فلما قبضت الدراهم منه وقبض الدرع مني قال يا أبا الحسن ألست أولي بالدرع منك وأنت أولي بالدراهم مني فقلت نعم قال فإن هذا الدرع هدية مني إليك قال فأخذت الدرع و الدراهم و أقبلت إلي رسول الله صلي الله عليه و سلم فطرحت الدرع و الدراهم بين يديه و أخبرته بما كان من أمر عثمان فدعا له النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم بخير ثم قبض رسول الله صلي الله عليه و سلم قبضة و دعا بأبي بكر فدفعها إليه وقال يا أبا بكر اشتر بهذه الدراهم ما يصلح لها في بيتها و بعث معه سلمان الفارسي و بلال بن رباح ليعيناه علي حمل ما يشتري به قال أبو بكر وكانت الدراهم التي دفعها إلي ثلاثة و ستين درهما قال فانطلقت إلي السوق فاشتريت فراشا من خيش مصر محشوا بالصوف وقطعا من أدم ووسادة من أدم حشوها ليف النخل وعبائة خيبرية و قربة للماء ………. و كيزانا و جرارا و مطهرة للماء و ستر صوف رقيق و حملت أنا بعضه و سلمان بعضه و بلال بعضه و أقبلنا به فوضعناه بين يدي رسول الله صلي الله عليه و سلم.” ( منا قب لأخطب خوارزمي المتوفي سنة 568ه الفصل العشرون في تزويج رسول الله صلي الله عليه و سلم فاطمة ص 252-253 . مطبعة حيدرية نجف أشرف عراق. سن الطبا عة 1385ه /1965ع)
Kashf al Ghummah
The exact same narration is cited in the first volume of Kashf al Ghummah fi Ma’rifat al A’immah’, under the chapter regarding his (‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu) wedding to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha on pg. 485 and pg. 486. This is a book authored by Abu ‘Isa al Arbili (d. 687 A.H). It has been published in Tehran (Iran) in three volumes with its translation in Persian.
Bihar al Anwar
Likewise this narration has been quoted verbatim by Baqir al Majlisi in the tenth volume of his book, Bihar al Anwar, under the chapter pertaining to the wedding of Fatimah to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma on pg. 439 of the old Iranian publication. One can gain satisfaction by studying these references.
Summary of the Narration:
‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu states:
The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam approached me and ordered me to sell my shield and give him the money I receive for it, so that he may make adequate arrangements for the articles Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and I needed. I took my shield and set off for the market. I sold it to ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu in lieu of four hundred dirhams. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu said to me after I had taken possession of the dirhams and he of the shield: “O Abu al Hassan! Have I not become the rightful owner of this shield and are you not more deserving of the dirhams?” I replied in the affirmative upon which he said: “Well then, I now confer the shield to you as a gift, you can have it for yourself.” I returned to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with both, the shield and the dirhams, placed it before him and informed him of what had transpired. He prayed in favour of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He then summoned Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, gave him a handful of dirhams and ordered him to purchase household items which would be of need, for Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, he had ordered Salman al Farsi and Bilal ibn Rabah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma to accompany him to the bazaar to assist in carrying whatever was to be bought.” Abu Bakr relates: “Sixty-three dirhams was the total sum of what the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had given me, I had bought the following articles with it: an Egyptian bedspread, a leather cushion, a leather pillow the filling of which was the bark of a date palm, a sheet from Khaybar, a leather bag for water, few small bowls, clay pots, a utensil to be used for ritual ablutions and a fine garment of wool. Salman, Bilal and I, each one of us, carried some of these. We brought it and presented it to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”
There are several things here that are worthy of being noted:
- It is very obvious from all of the above references that all the articles procured to prepare the home of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha were procured with the money that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had given to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu as a gift. All the expenses of the wedding were met with it. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had supplicated for him that he be blessed in all his affairs. This is undeniable evidence of the fact that affinity and harmony existed between ‘Ali and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, such sacrifice and generosity is impossible to fathom if hatred existed between them. The assistance which Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu had rendered, likewise, cannot be overlooked for it is more ostensible than the sun.
- All the books that I have referred to in the discussions above are considered reliable and common amongst the Shia scholars; there is no suspicion whatsoever in their authenticity. However, the Shia can generate suspicion among the common masses, if they debate regarding the author of Manaqib, Akhtab al Khawarzimi, being a Shia or not; whereas according to the leading scholars of the Ahlus Sunnah there exists not the slightest of doubts regarding him being a Shia. Just the mere that fact that the authors of Kashf al Ghummah and Bihar al Anwar have quoted this narration in their books referencing it from his book without any criticism is sufficient proof of this, that his narrations are widely accepted in the Shi’ism. This piece of evidence is enough for the general people; however, for the benefit of those of our scholars who are unaware of this issue, I see it opportune for me to present before them a brief exposition regarding his position according to the Ahlus Sunnah.
An Analysis of the Position of Akhtab al Khawarizmi
In the books of Tarajim (books dealing with the biographies of those who were engaged in the transmission of ahadith), the name Akhtab al Khawarizmi appears in two ways:
- Muwaffaq ibn Ahmed ibn Sa’id Abu al Mu’ayyidh.
- Ahmed ibn Muhammad Muwaffaq al Din al Akhtab al Khawarizmi (d. 568/571 A.H). He was a renowned scholar of Khawarzim (presently situated in Iran).
Before acquiring this book of his (Manaqib Akhtab al Khawarizmi), I had relied totally on the research of Hafiz Ibn Taymiyyah and Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz al Dehlawi in believing that he was a Shia, now that I have obtained a copy of the book for myself, my belief regarding him being a Shia has increased manifold. Only a person who is unaware of his works and his propensity of having double standards will consider him to be part of the Ahlus Sunnah.
Hafiz Ibn Taymiyyah has written the following regarding him in his book, Minhaj al Sunnah:
“هذا له مصنف في هذا الباب فيه من الاحاديث المكذوبة ما لا يخفي كذبه علي من له أدني معرفة بالحديث فضلا عن علماء الحديث و ليس هو من علماء الحديث ولا ممن يرجع إليه في هذا الشأن البتة.”
He has written a book on the merits (of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu) wherein there are many traditions that are forgeries, which can be easily identified not only by scholars of hadith but by a person who has a little knowledge regarding it as well, he is not a scholar of hadith nor is he a point of reference in it whatsoever.
Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz al Dehlawi has expressed his personal opinion regarding him in several places in Tuhfah Ithna ‘Ashariyyah; by way of illustration I shall quote some of his remarks:
1. In Tuhfah, under hadith no. 7 of the twelve ahadith dealing with Imamah, he has written:
اخطب خوارزم از غلاۃ زیدیہ است ۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔۔ و محدثین اہل السنہ اجماع دارند کہ روایات اخطب زیدی ہمہ از مجاہیل و ضعفاء است و بسیار ے از روایات او منکر و موضوع و ہر گز فقہاۓ اہل السنۃ بمرویات او احتجاج نہ نمایند ( تحفہ اثنا عشریہ ، بحث امامہ)
Akhtab al Khawarizmi is an extremist Zaidi Shia. The scholars of hadith of the Ahlus Sunnah are unanimous that his narrations are mostly from unknown and weak sources, and many of his reports are either reprehensible or fabricated, therefore the jurists of the Ahlus Sunnah have not used them as evidence ever.
2. Similarly in Tuhfah, under ‘strategy no. 81’, he mentions:
آنکہ بعضے روایات موافق مذہب خود از کتاب مردے نقل کنند کہ در خیال مردم از اہل السنہ ماند حالانکہ فی الواقعہ چنین نیست۔ چنانچہ ابن عقدہ کہ جارودی رافضی بود و ابن قتیبہ (یعنی صاحب الامامۃ و السیاسۃ) کہ شیعی غلیظ بود واخطب خوارزم کہ زیدی غالی بود (تحفہ اثنا عشریہ تحت کید 81)
At times the Shia quote narrations which are in harmony with their doctrine from authors who some of our people perceive to be from the Ahlus Sunnah, whereas they have nothing to do with them, hence Ibn ‘Aqdah was a Jarudi Shia, Ibn Qutaybah (referring to the author of al-Imamah wa al Siyasah) was a fanatic adherent of Shi’ism and Akhtab al Khawarizmi was an extremist Zaidi Shia.
3. In Tuhfah, under ‘strategy no. 23’, he states that Shia scholars present the narrations of the following scholars to the Ahlus Sunnah after ascribing them to the Ahlus Sunnah; whereas this is against reality for they are not from them:
مثلا زمخشری صاحب کشاف (وصاحب ربیع الابرار) کہ تفضیلی و معتزلی است، و اخطب خوارزم کہ زیدی غالی است، وابن قتیبہ کہ رافضی مقرری است، وابن ابی الحدید شارح نہج البلاغۃ کہ تشیع را با اعتزال جمع نمود، وہشام کلبی مفسر کہ رافضی غالی است، وہمچنین مسعودی صاحب مروج الذہب و ابو الفرج اصفہانی صاحب کتاب الاغانی و علی ہذا القیاس۔۔۔۔۔۔۔(تحفہ اثنا عشریہ کید 23)
For example: al Zamakhshari- the author of Kasshaf (and Rabi’ al Abrar) was a Mu’tazili and a Tafdili Shia, Akhtab al Khawarizmi was a staunch Zaidi Shia, Ibn Qutaybah was a Muqarriri Shia, Ibn Abi al Hadid, the commentator of Nahj al Balaghah, had combined between Shi’ism and I’tizal, Hisham al Kalbi, a scholar of Qur’an exegeses, was a fanatic Shia, likewise is the situation of al Mas’udi — the author of Muruj al Dhahab, and Abu al Faraj al Isfahani — the author of Kitab al Aghani, etc..
After presenting the views of Hafiz Ibn Taymiyyah and Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz, I now endeavour to reveal the ideology of Akhtab from his very book, Manaqib al Khawarizmi, which has been published in Najaf, Iraq.
1. The first thing that draws one’s attention towards him being affiliated to this particular ideology is the signs alluding to this on the first page of the book:
- A Shia scholar by the name of Muhammad Rida al Musawi al Khurasani has penned its footnotes and has written its introduction in which he commends Akhtab and classifies him as reliable.
- Those who have published it are: Muhammad Kazim and Muhammad Sadiq both of whom are Shia and are the owners of the Haydariyyah bookstore; they had published it in the year 1385 A.H/ 1965. This is written on the cover page.
It is obvious from the above that this booklet is in harmony with their ideology, which is why we find Shia scholars and businessmen publishing it for a second time; the first time it was published was in the year 1313 A.H.
Due to certain personal motives they have now begun to add al Makki al Hanafi to his name.
2. Another factor which is of significant importance is the list of the books authored by Akhtab given in the beginning of the booklet, it is worthy of being studied:
- Al Manaqib (regarding the merits of Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali)
- Al Arba’in fi Manaqib al Nabi al Amin wa Wasiyihi Amir al Mu’minin’ (Forty ahadith with regards to the merits of the Nabi and his successor, Amir al Mu’minin)
- Qadaya Amir al Mu’minin ( The decisions of Amir al Mu’minin)
- Radd al Shams li Amir al Mu’minin ( The bringing back of the sun for Amir al Mu’minin)
- Maqtal Amir al Mu’minin (The assassination of Amir al Mu’minin)
- Maqtal al Imam al Husayn (The assassination of Imam Husayn)
Such issues, which the author has expounded on, are the primary objective of all such people who prescribe to the doctrine of Shi’ism. The scholars of the Ahlus Sunnah whilst considering them to be important do not perceive them to be the fundamental reason around which they would base all their efforts.
The book Manaqib al Imam Abi Hanifah (published by Da’irah al Ma’arif, Dakan, Pakistan) has been included in the above mentioned list, regarding which I shall mention few pertinent things in the coming pages.
3. A third factor that one should take note of in this regard is that all the narrations of this book are harmonious with the Shia point of view. I shall present two narrations for the benefit of the readers which should suffice in proving the above mentioned claim.
a. It is narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma with a lengthy chain of transmission that the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has mentioned:
” عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم لو أن الفياض أقلام والبحر مداد والجن حساب و الإنس كتاب ما أحصوا فضائل علي عليه السلام.
If all the trees are turned into pens and all the oceans into ink, and the jinn assume the task of enumeration, and humanity are to pen down the virtues of ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam; they would not succeed in doing so.
b. After a long chain of transmission, it is reported on the authority of Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
عن عبد الله ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه فال فال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم “يا عبد الله اتاني ملك فقال يا محمد سل من أرسلنا من قبلك من رسلنا علي ما بعثوا قال علي ولايتك وولاية علي ابن ابي طالب.”
The Nabi of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “O ‘Abdullah an angel came to me and said: ‘O Muhammad ask those of my messengers whom I had sent before you of the mission with which I had sent them.’ He then said: ‘With (the task of) befriending you (the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and befriending ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib.’”
After analysing these two narrations one can decide for himself whether or not Akhtab was Shia.
Now all that remains is the contention surrounding a book on the merits of Imam Abu Hanifah, consisting of two volumes, which has been attributed to Akhtab. There are certain details that one has to analyse in order to eliminate any doubts in this regard. The scholars have mentioned five different possibilities regarding books of this nature and they are:
- In some instances certain books which in reality are not the books of a reputable Sunni scholar are ascribed to him e.g. Sirr al ‘Alamin is ascribed to Imam al Ghazali whereas he had not written such a book.
- At times coincidently the name of an unreliable scholar happens to be the same as that of a well-reputed scholar and because of their names being alike, the book of the former is attributed to the latter, due to which many people become puzzled. An example of this is Adab al Katib, which is a book written by a well reputed scholar whose name is Ibn Qutaybah, but we find that the book al Imamah wa al Siyasah is attributed to him; whereas in reality its author is a staunch Shia whose name is also Ibn Qutaybah. There are many disparaging remarks made about the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in it, therefore it can never possibly be a book written by the famous Ibn Qutaybah.
- Sometimes the book of a renowned scholar is interpolated, like the literary works of Sheikh Akbar ibn al ‘Arabi had been interpolated (Sheikh ‘Abdul Wahhab al Sha’rani has made mention of this in the beginning of his book al Yawaqit wa al Jawahir), likewise Rowdat al Ahbab, a book penned by Sheikh Sayed Jamal al Din, had been changed (mention of this is made by Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz on pg. 18 of his book al ‘Ujalah al Nafi’ah under the term Jami’).
- Many a time the author is a Hatib al Layl, i.e. he gathers all sorts of traditions, strong and weak, valid and invalid and thus his book is void of authenticity. Examples of such books are Musnad al Firdows of al Daylami, some literary works of Ibn ‘Asakir and Ma’arij al Nubuwwah etc.
- Sometimes it so happens that the author has a tendency of being two-faced; when with Sunnis he pretends to be a Sunni and when with Shia he feigns a Shia persona, e.g. al Sibt ibn al Jowzi (when looking at his books and traditions), Wa’iz al Kashifi, the author of Rowdat al Shuhada’, Mir Khanid, the author of Rowdat al Safa. Or he happens to be a faithful adherent of Shi’ism but remains unknown to the general masses, who thus believe him to be a Sunni, e.g. Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yusuf al Kanji, the author of Kifayat al Talib, Sheikh Sulaiman al Qandarzi al Malanji, the writer of Yanabi’ al Mawaddah, Ahmed ibn A’tham al Kufi, the author of Tarikh A’tham al Kufi, al Mas’udi, the author of Muruj al Dhahab and Ibn ‘Abd Rabbihi, the author of ‘Iqd al Farid, etc..
After presenting these details, I call upon the bearers of knowledge to decide. (From the five possibilities mentioned above) There are two that can fit here:
- Coincidently the name of both the authors being the same, meaning the author of Manaqib al Imam Abi Hanifah is a Sunni scholar whose name is Akhtab al Khawarizmi (as he is classified reliable and described in the books of Tarajim), who shares the same name as that of the author of Manaqib al Khawarizmi.
- A Shia scholar has authored this book (Manaqib) which he subsequently ascribed to this Sunni scholar.
In essence there is no doubt that the author of Manaqib al Khawarizmi being a Shia.
 Manaqib al Khawarzimi pg. 2, virtues of ‘Ali al Murtada
 Manaqib al Khawarzimi, pg. 221, chapter ‘miscellaneous merits’
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