The Presence and Testifying of Abu Bakr, `Umar and `Uthman in the Nikah of Fatimah

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The Presence and Testifying of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman in the Nikah of Fatimah

 

The subject of the past chapter was the preparations for the wedding of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and the arranging of her home. In this regard the services of Abu Bakr and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma had been mentioned. In this chapter I shall introduce a new subject: the presence of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum at this blessed wedding and them being made to testify therein.

There are many narrations in both Sunni and Shia sources that establish this particular subject. I find it fit to first quote two types of narrations from Shia sources. Thereafter to corroborate them, I shall cite few narrations from Sunni sources.

 

First Type of Narrations

1. The coming narration in quoted in Manaqib al Khawarizmi (pg. 251-252) under the section, the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam marrying Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

“قال علي رضي الله عنه فخرجت من عند رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم وأنا لا أعقل فرحا وسرورا فاستقبلني أبوبكر وعمر رضي الله عنهما وقالا ما وراءك، فقلت زوجني رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم ابنته فاطمة وأخبرني أن الله عز وجل زوجنيها من السماء و هذا رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم خارج أثر ظهري ليظهر ذلك بحضرة من الناس ففرحا بذلك فرحا شديدا ورجعا معي إلي المسجد فما توسطناه حتي لحق بنا رسول الله وإن وجهه لتهلل سرورا و فرحا. فقال يا بلال فأجابه فقال لبيك يا رسول الله قال اجمع إلي المهاجرين والأنصار فجمعهم ثم رقي درجة من المنبر فحمد الله وأثني عليه و قال معاشر المسلمين إن جبريل أتاني انفا فأخبرني عن ربي عزوجل أنه جمع الملائكة عند البيت المعمور وأنه أشهدهم جميعا أنه زوج أمته فاطمة بنت رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم من عبده علي بن أبي طالب وأمرني أن ازوجه في الأرض و أشهدكم علي ذلك.”

This narration has been quoted verbatim in:

  • Kashf al Ghummah of al Arbili in the first volume on pg. 483-484 (of the new publication) under the section: ‘his wedding to the queen of all women’.
  • Bihar al Anwar of Mulla Baqir al Majlisi in the tenth volume on pg. 38-39 under the section regarding her wedding.
 

Summary of the Narration

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu mentions:
 

I was extremely elated after talking with the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam regarding my marriage to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Upon leaving the house of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam I met Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. They asked me: “What happened?” I informed them that the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told me that Allah had solemnised my marriage to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha in the heavens and that soon the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was intending to emerge from his home and break the news to everyone. They became exultant upon hearing this and immediately accompanied me to the masjid. We had barely reached the centre of the masjid before the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam cheerfully entered the masjid behind us; his blessed face was radiant with joy. He then called Bilal radiya Llahu ‘anhu and ordered him: “Gather the Muhajirin and the Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum.” When they had congregated he ascended the pulpit and after glorifying Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala said: “O Muslims! Jibril ‘alayh al Salam had just come to me and informed me that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had gathered all the angels at al Bayt al Ma’mur (a place resembling the Ka’bah directly above it in the seventh heaven) and had made them attest that he has married Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, the daughter of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, to his servant, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and has commanded me to solemnise his marriage to her on earth and make you witness it.”

 

2. Mulla Baqir al Majlisi has cited this narration, with some additions, in his book, Jilaʾ al ‘Uyun, under the discussion regarding the marriage of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Ostensibly the only reason why he has altered this narration is to tarnish the mutual sincerity and connection that was prevalent amongst the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Nevertheless, I shall present it in Persian as is, so that the readers examine it for themselves:

 

در سائر کتب عامہ وخاصہ روایت کردہ اند نبی کریم فرمود اے ابو الحسن بیروں رو کہ من از عقب تو آیم بسوۓ مسجد در حضور مردم فاطمہ را بتو بتزویج می نمایم واز فضیلت تو ذکر خواہم کرد آنچہ باعث روشنی دیدہ تو و دوستان تو گردد در دنیا و آخرت ۔ حضرت امیر المومنین فرمود کہ من از خدمت حضرت بیروں آمدہ بسرعت متوجہ مسجد شدم ومرا چنداں فرح و شادی او دادہ بود کہ وصف نا توانم کرد۔ چوں ابوبکر وعمر آں حضرت را فرستادہ بودند وانتظار بیروں آمدن آ حضرت را میکشیدند سر راہ برآں حضرت گرفتہ پرسیدند کہ چہ خبرداری، حضرت فرمود کہ رسول دختر خود فاطمہ را بمن تزویج کرد ومرا خبردار کہ حق تعالی در آسمان فاطمہ را بمن تزویج نمودہ است اینک حضرت رسول بیروں می آید کہ در حضور مردم فاطمہ بمن تزویج کند۔ چوں ایشاں آں خبر را شنیدند بظاہر فرح و شادی کردند و بہ مسجد بر گشتند و حضرت امیر فرمود کہ ما ہنوز بمیان مسجد نرسیدہ بودیم کہ حضرت رسول بما ملحق شد واز روۓ مبارکش اثر خرمی و شادی ظاہر بود وبلال را امر فرمود کہ ندا کند مہاجر وانصار را کہ جمع شوند،چوں جمع شدند بر یک پایہ منبر بالا رفت، حمد وثناۓ حق ادا کرد وفرمود کہ اے گروہ مسلماناں درایں زود می جبریل نزد من آمد وخبرداد مرا کہ پروردگار من ملائکہ را نزد بیت المعمور جمع کرد وہمہ را گواہ گرفت برآںکہ تزویج کرد کنیز خود فاطمہ را بہ بندہ خود علی ابن ابی طالب و مرا پروردگار امر کرد کہ فاطمہ را بتزویج نمائیم در زمین وشمارا می گیریم بریں۔” )جلاء العیون ص 125 باب تزویج سیدہ با علی المرتضی، طبع ایران)

It is reported in many books that the Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “O Abu al Hasan go outside, I am on my way behind you to the masjid and I am going to solemnise your marriage to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha in the presence of a group of people; I am going to mention for your sake that which will be of benefit to you and your friends in this world and the hereafter.” Amir al Mu’minin says: “After leaving the house of the Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam I immediately proceeded to the masjid. I cannot describe the jubilancy I was experiencing at the time.” Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma had sent ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and were eager to learn of what had transpired, they were thus waiting for him outside on the road and enquired about what had happened as soon as he emerged from the house of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said: “Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam intends to perform my nikah to his daughter Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, and has informed me that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has arranged my marriage with her in the heavens. He is going to perform my nikah to her in presence of the people.” They outwardly expressed their happiness upon hearing this…

 

Second type of Narrations

The above mentioned narrations have been cited from four popular Shia sources. I shall now present a different type of narrations from their sources to establish the subject.

1. Abu ‘Isa al Arbili has quoted the following narration in his book Kashf al Ghummah fi Ma’rifat al A’immah:

 

عن أنس قال كنت عند النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم فغشيه الوحي فلما أفاق قال: أتدري ما جاءني به جبريل من عند صاحب العرش؟” قال قلت الله ورسوله أعلم. قال أمرني أن أزوج فاطمة من علي فانطلق فادع لي أبا بكر وعمر و عثمان وعليا و طلحة والزبير و بعددهم من الأنصار قال فانطلقت فدعوتهم له فلما أن أخذوا مجالسهم قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم الحمد لله ……. ثم إني أشهدكم أني قد تزوجت فاطمة من علي علي أربع مائة مثقال فضة…….( كشف الغمة للأربلي ص 471-472 , جلد أول طبع جديد. باب ذكر تزويج فاطمة . طهران)

 

This narration has been quoted in Bihar al Anwar of Mulla Baqir Majlisi, (vol. 10, pg. 37-38): “chapter regarding her marriage to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anha”. It has been cited without any criticism.

Manaqib al Khawarizmi, 246: chapter regarding Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam performing the nikah of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. It has been cited with its chain of transmission.

 

Summary of the Narration

Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu mentions:

 

I was present in the company of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam while revelation was descending upon him. After the revelation had ended he said to me: “O Anas do you have any idea what Jibril ‘alayh al Salam brought from the King of the Mighty throne?” I said: “Allah and his Rasul know best.” He said: “I have been commanded to perform the nikah of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Therefore go and call Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, Talhah and Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhum. And call the same number of people from the Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum.” Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu says: “I went and I called all of them. When they came and took their places before Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, he recited the khutbah after which he said: “I make you all testify that I have performed the nikah of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in lieu of four hundred Mithqals[1] of silver.

 

The following conclusions can be drawn from this narration:

  1. Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum were invited to the wedding of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.
  2. They were made to testify at this auspicious occasion.
 

Both these aspects are clear signs of the mutual love and reciprocal understanding that existed between them. One will most certainly not invite people with whom he has hatred to such a joyous occasion.

 

Few References From the Books of the Ahlus Sunnah

To further expound in this regard, I shall cite few references of the Ahlus Sunnah so that the subject under discussion becomes completely clear.

1. Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

يا أنس أخرج وادع لي أبا بكر وعمر بن الخطاب وعثمان بن عفان و عبد الرحمن بن عوف و سعد بن أبي وقاص و طلحة والزبير وبعدة من الأنصار. قال فدعوتهم فلما اجتمعوا عنده كلهم وأخذوا مجالسهم وكان علي غائبا في حاجة للنبي صلي الله عليه و سلم فقال النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم: الحمد لله المحمود بنعمته المحمود بقدرته…. ثم قال النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم إن الله تعالي أمرني أن أزوج فاطمة بنت خديجة من علي بن أبي طالب فاشهدوا أني قد زوجته علي أربع مائة مثقال فضة إن رضي بذلك علي بن أبي طالب ثم دعا بطبق من بسر فوضعت بين أيدينا ثم قال انتهبوا فانتهبنا فبينا نحن ننتهب إذ دخل علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه علي النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم فتبسم النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم في وجهه ثم قال إن الله أمرني أن أزوجك فاطمة علي أربع مائة مثقال فضة إن رضيت بذاك فقال قد رضيت بذلك يا رسول الله. (ذخائر العقبي في مناقب ذوي القربي لمحب الدين الطبري (المتوفي 694 من الهجرة)، ص 30: باب ذكر أن تزويج فاطمة عليا كان بأمر الله عزوجل ووحي منه)

 

2. Muhibb al Din al Tabari has cited this narration verbatim in Riyad al Nadirah fi Manaqib al ‘Asharah al Mubashsharah (vol. 2 pg. 241), another literary work of his, under the chapter regarding the marriage of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, with reference to Abu al Khayr al Qazwini al Hakimi, Ahmed ibn Ismail ibn Yusuf.

 

Summary of the Narration

Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu mentions that Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed him: “Call Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Talhah, Zubair and a few of the Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum for me.” He called all of them. When they all came in the presence of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam they sat in their respective places. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu at the time was gone out on an errand for Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam recited the khutbah of nikah and then said: “Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has instructed me to give Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha in marriage to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Therefore testify that I have performed her nikah to him in lieu of four hundred mithqal’s of silver.” After that he asked for a tray of dates to be brought and said: “Eat,” hence we began consuming the dates. In the mean while ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had returned from his errand. Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam upon seeing him smiled, then said: “Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has instructed me to perform the nikah of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha to you in lieu of four hundred mithqal’s, do you consent?” ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said, “I consent, O Rasul Allah.”…

 

3. Similarly the details of the marriage of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha have been cited at great length in the second volume of Mawahib al Ladunniyyah of Qastalani on pg. 6-7: chapter regarding the marriage of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. However, these narrations cover many aspects which were not mentioned in the previously quoted narration such as: Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma inducing ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to propose for Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, him accepting their advice and going to propose for her, selling his armour to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in order to make preparations for the wedding, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu conferring it and the money that he had given as a gift, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum being invited for the wedding and being asked to testify at this momentous occasion. In order not to prolong the book, I have not cited these narrations and have sufficed on alluding to its reference. Those who desire to study them should source them from the above mentioned reference.

 

Note:-

One aspect mentioned in the details of the wedding of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was that Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Allah has instructed me to perform the nikah of Fatimah to ‘Ali.” At this juncture I deem it appropriate to remind the readers of the narration in which mention is made of the marriage of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to the daughter of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha, there as well the same sentiments had been expressed, hence Imam al Bukhari radiya Llahu ‘anhu has cited the following narration with its chain of transmission in: al Tarikh al Kabir (vol. 2 pg. 281)

 

قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه و سلم ما زوجت أم كلثوم من عثمان إلا بوحي من السماء

The Rasul of Allah said: “I did not give Umm Kulthum in marriage to ‘Uthman but by means of divine revelation.”

 

Just as the former wedding had been arranged divinely so was the latter wedding arranged in the heavens. There are no discrepancies whatsoever in the validity of both weddings.

 

NEXT⇒ The Invaluable Help that Aisha and Umm Salamah had Rendered During the Reception of Fatimah


[1]  Mithkal: A unit of measurement equal to approximately 4.3 grams.

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