The Incident of Jamal

The Incident of Jamal and the Misconceptions of the Rawafid – The stance of the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah regarding the differences of the Sahabah
March 1, 2018
Misconception: She set out to fight ‘Ali
March 1, 2018

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The Incident of Jamal

 

Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred on Friday, the 18th of Dhu al Hijjah 53 A.H. according to well-known reports. The people, among whom is our Mother, Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, came to know of his martyrdom and that people gathered to give bay’ah to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. She entered into what the people entered into and ordered others to give bay’ah to him. However, the hearts were painfully affected by the martyrdom of the pure and righteous Abu ‘Abdullah Dhu al Nurayn at the hands of a sinful group who instilled fear into the people’s hearts and murdered Amir al Mu’minin.

A group of the noble Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum rose to pledge allegiance to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and requested him to enforce qisas on the murderers of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The latter requested them to proceed unhurriedly and to adopt patience since the criminals had strength and had mixed with the common folk. Moreover, they had tribes behind them who defended and supported them, and would protest against qisas. Therefore, it was necessary to strengthen their affair and consolidate the pillars of khilafah so that the qisas may be implemented and civil strife may not rear its ugly head again. Accordingly, Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma feared that these criminals might treat Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu cruelly so he advised him not to take bay’ah from the people in the Masjid but rather to choose another venue. However, the latter declined the advice and insisted on the Masjid.[1]

Days went by until four months had elapsed after the martyrdom of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu but no qisas had yet been taken from his murderers. The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum differed in their ijtihad and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the closest to the truth. Nevertheless, Allah decreed that conflict takes place and things become chaotic. This led to the Saba’iyyah and people harbouring rancour in their hearts to spit their venom at the Sahabah in order to cause anarchy between the two groups. Consequently, they provoked the people and triggered the army; and history unfolded.

The assemblies summoned each other to avenge the blood of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Umm al Mu’minin Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha made ijtihad and decided to leave, in conformity to Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement:

 

لَّا خَيْرَ فِي كَثِيْرٍ مِّنْ نَّجْوَاهُمْ إِلَّا مَنْ أَمَرَ بِصَدَقَةٍ أَوْ مَعْرُوْفٍ أَوْ إِصْلَاحٍ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ ۚ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذٰلِكَ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيْهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيْمًا

No good is there in much of their private conversation, except for those who enjoin charity or that which is right or conciliation between people. And whoever does that seeking means to the approval of Allah – then We are going to give him a great reward.[2]

 

She felt it appropriate to rise for this cause due to her status and superiority in the hearts of the believers, especially when the command to remain at home is not in polarity to striving for goodness and fulfilment of a need. What goodness and need could be greater than striving to create unity between the two groups? At the same time, accepting the khilafah of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu without rebelling against him nor breaking her pledge to him?

Imam Ibn Battal[3] comments on the stance of Sayyidina Abu Bakrah[4] radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his narration:

 

لن يفلح قوم ولوا أمرهم امرأة

A nation that hands its affairs over to a woman will never succeed.

 

He explains:

 

و أما حديث أبي بكرة فإن في ظاهره توهية لرأي عائشة في الخروج قال المهلب و ليس كذلك لأن المعروف من مذهب أبي بكرة أنه كان على رأي عائشة و على الخروج معها و لم يكن خروجها على نية القتال و إنما قيل لها اخرجي لتصلحي بين الناس فإنك أمهم و لم يعقوك بقتال فخرجت لذلك و كان نية بعض أصحابها إن ثبت لهم البغي أن يقاتلوا التي تبغي و كان منهم أبو بكرة و لم يرجع عن هذا الرأي أصلا

Apparently, the hadith of Abu Bakrah weakens the stance of Aisha in setting out. Al Muhallab explains, “However this is not the case because it is common knowledge that Abu Bakrah held the same stance as Aisha and set out with her. However, her journey was not with the intention to fight. On the contrary, she was told, ‘Set out to build bridges between the people as you are their Mother and they will not disobey you by fighting.’ Accordingly, she travelled for this. The intention of some of her companions was to fight those who rebelled. And Abu Bakrah was one of them. He did not retract from the stance at all.

 

He then explains:

 

و ليس في الإسلام أحد يقول إن عائشة دعت إلى أمير معها و لا عارضت عليا في الخلافة و لا نازعته لأخذ الإمارة و إنما أنكرت عليه منعه من قتلة عثمان و تركهم دون أن يأخذ منهم حدود الله و دون أن يقتص لعثمان منهم لا غير ذلك ألخ كلامه رحمه الله

No Muslim claims that Aisha campaigned for any Amir with her or opposed ‘Ali with regards to the khilafah or contested with him to undertake leadership. She only objected to him for defending the murderers of ‘Uthman and leaving them without enforcing the hudud (legal punishments) of Allah upon them nor taking qisas from them; nothing else.[5]

 

Notwithstanding her noble objective and blessed intention, she recited to Allah do we belong and to Him is our return when she reached the water of Haw’ab[6] and intended to return, in order to keep safe and distance herself from all matters, apprehending that something distasteful might occur.

Ahmed in al Musnad and al Hakim in al Mustadrak document:

 

أن عائشة رضي الله عنها لما بلغت مياه بني عامر ليلا نبحت الكلاب قالت أي ماء هذا قالوا ماء الحوأب قالت ما أظنني إلا راجعة إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال لنا كيف بإحداكن تنبح عليها كلاب الحوأب فقال لها الزبير ترجعين عسى الله عز و جل أن يصلح بك بين الناس

When Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha reached the springs of Banu ‘Amir at night, the dogs began to bark. She asked, “Which spring is this?”

“The spring of Haw’ab,” they replied.

She remarked, “I feel I should return then. Indeed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told us, ‘How will one of you react when the dogs of Haw’ab bark at you?’

Zubair told her, “Are you returning? Probably Allah – the Mighty and Majestic – will unite the people because of you.”[7]

 

Imam Ibn Kathir explains the actual happenings and describes the reality of what took place:

 

و أشرف القوم على الصلح كره ذلك من كره و رضيه من رضيه و أرسلت عائشة إلى علي تعلمه أنها إنما جاءت للصلح ففرح هؤلاء و هؤلاء و قام علي في الناس خطيبا فذكر الجاهلية و شقاءها و أعمالها و ذكر الإسلام و سعادة أهله بالألفة و الجماعة و أن الله جمعهم بعد نبيه صلى الله عليه و سلم على الخليفة أبي بكر الصديق ثم بعده على عمر بن الخطاب ثم على عثمان ثم حدث هذا الحدث الذي جره على الأمة أقوام طلبوا الدنيا و حسدوا من أنعم الله عليه بها و على الفضيلة التي من الله بها و أرادوا رد الإسلام و الأشياء على أدبارها و الله بالغ أمره ثم قال ألا إني مرتحل غدا فارتحلوا و لا يرتحل معي أحد أعان على قتل عثمان بشيء من أمور الناس

فلما قال هذا اجتمع من رؤوسهم جماعة كالأشتر النخعي و شريح بن أوفى و عبد الله بن سبأ المعروف بابن السوداء و غيرهم في ألفين و خمسمائة و ليس فيهم صحابي و لله الحمد فقالوا ما هذا الرأي و علي والله أعلم بكتاب الله ممن يطلب قتلة عثمان و أقرب إلى العمل بذلك و قد قال ما سمعتم غدا يجمع عليكم الناس و إنما يريد القوم كلهم أنتم فكيف بكم و عددكم قليل في كثرتهم

فقال الأشتر قد عرفنا رأي طلحة و الزبير فينا و أما رأي علي فلم نعرفه إلا اليوم فإن كان قد اصطلح معهم فإنما اصطلح على دمائنا فإن كان الأمر هكذا ألحقنا عليا بعثمان فرضي القوم منا بالسكوت فقال ابن السوداء بئس ما رأيت لو قتلناه قتلنا فإنا يا معشر قتلة عثمان في ألفين و خمسمائة و طلحة و الزبير و أصحابهما في خمسة آلاف و لا طاقة لكم بهم و هم إنما يريدونكم فقال علباء بن الهيثم دعوهم و ارجعوا بنا حتى نتعلق ببعض البلاد فنمتنع بها فقال ابن السوداء بئس ما قلت إذا والله كان يتخطفكم الناس ثم قال ابن السوداء قبحه الله يا قوم إن عزكم في خلطة الناس فإذا التقى الناس فأنشبوا القتال و لا تفرغوهم للنظر فمن أنتم معه لا يجد بدا من أن يمتنع و يشغل الله طلحة و الزبير و من معهما عما تكرهون فأبصروا الرأي و تفرقوا عليه انتهى كلام ابن كثير

The people were on the verge of reconciliation. Whoever disliked it disliked it and whoever approved of it approved of it. Aisha sent a message to ‘Ali informing him that she only came for reconciliation. Thus, both sides were pleased with this. ‘Ali stood up in front of the people to deliver an address. He spoke about the period of ignorance, its ill fortune and actions and then spoke about Islam and the good fortune of its adherents with mutual love and unity. He mentioned that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala united them after His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the khilafah of Abu Bakr al Siddiq, then upon ‘Umar ibn al Khattab and thereafter upon ‘Uthman.

He said, “Thereafter, this civil strife took place which was brought upon the ummah by people who sought worldly benefits, and harboured jealousy for those whom Allah favoured, and the virtue Allah awarded them. They intended to upset and reverse Islam and its affairs. However, Allah will accomplish His purpose.”

He then announced, “Harken! Indeed I am returning tomorrow, so you return. However, anyone who was instrumental in the murder of ‘Uthman in any way should not accompany me.”

After he announced this, a group of their leaders gathered, viz. al Ashtar al Nakha’i, Shurayh ibn Awfa, ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’ – well known as Ibn al Sawda’, and others who numbered 2500. However, no Sahabi was among them, and all praise belongs to Allah. They said, “What kind of stance is this? By Allah, ‘Ali is more learned in the Book of Allah than those who seek the murderers of ‘Uthman and closer to practicing upon this. He has stated what you heard. Tomorrow, the people will gather against you and all of them only desire you. So what will you do when you are only a handful in front of their great numbers?”

Al Ashtar said, “We knew Talhah and Zubair’s stance with regards to us. However, we only came to know of ‘Ali’s stance today. If he has united with them, then they have only united upon our blood. If this is the matter, we will join ‘Ali with ‘Uthman [i.e. we will kill him too.]”

The people displayed their happiness at this by remaining silent.

Ibn al Sawda’ said, “Your opinion is flawed. If we assassinate him, we will be killed. O group of the murderers of ‘Uthman, we are only 2500 in number while Talhah, Zubair, and their comrades are 5000 in number. We do not have the power to combat them. And they only intend you.”

‘Ilba’ ibn al Haytham spoke, “Leave them and return with us till we settle in some city and defend ourselves there.”

Ibn al Sawda’ commented, “Your view is erroneous. Then, by Allah, people will snatch you.”

Ibn al Sawda’ – May Allah disfigure him – then proffered, “O people, your honour lies in your mingling with the people. When you join them, ignite the flames of war and do not allow them to evaluate the situation. Whoever you join will be compelled to defend you. Meanwhile, Allah will occupy Talhah and Zubair and their comrades from what you dislike.”

They thus settled on this view and dispersed.[8]

 

He says at another juncture:

 

و بات الناس بخير ليلة و بات قتلة عثمان بشر ليلة و باتوا يتشاورون و أجمعوا على أن يثيروا الحرب من الغلس فنهضوا من قبل طلوع الفجر و هم قريب من ألفي رجل فانصرف كل فريق إلى قراباتهم فهجموا عليهم بالسيوف فثار كل طائفة إلى قومهم ليمنعوهم و قام الناس من منامهم إلى السلاح فقالوا ما هذا قالوا طرقنا أهل الكوفة ليلا و بيتونا و غدروا بنا و ظنوا أن هذا عن ملأ من أصحاب علي فبلغ الأمر عليا فقال ما للناس فقالوا بيتنا أهل البصرة فثار كل فريق إلى سلاحهم و لبسوا اللأمة و ركبوا الخيول و لا يشعر أحد منهم بما وقع الأمر عليه في نفس الأمر و كان أمر الله قدرا مقدورا فنشبت الحرب و تواقف الفريقان و قد اجتمع مع علي عشرون ألفا و التف على عائشة و من معها نحو من ثلاثين ألفا و قامت الحرب على ساق و تبارز الفرسان و جالت الشجعان فإنا لله و إنا إليه راجعون و السبئية أصحاب ابن السوداء قبحه الله لا يفترون عن القتل و منادي علي ينادي ألا كفوا ألا كفوا فلا يسمع أحد و جاء كعب بن سور قاضي البصرة فقال يا أم المؤمنين أدركي الناس لعل الله أن يصلح بك بين الناس فجلست في هودجها فوق بعيرها و ستروا الهودج بالدروع و جاءت فوقفت بحيث تنظر إلى الناس في معركتهم

The Muslims experienced their best night while the murderers of ‘Uthman experienced their worst night. They spent the night discussing and finally decided to commence the war just before dawn[9]. They rose just before dawn and were approximately 2000 in number. Each group went to their relatives and assaulted them with swords which led to everyone jumping up to defend his people. People woke up from their sleep and took their weapons and franticly asked, “What is happening?”

“The people of Kufah attacked us at night,” they replied, “They launched a night attack on us and deceived us.”

They thought that this was from a group of ‘Ali’s army. The news reached ‘Ali who said surprisingly, “What is the matter with the people?”

They said, “The people of Basrah attacked us at night.”

Thus every group took their weapons, wore their armour,[10] and mounted their horses. No one was aware of what actually happened. And the decree of Allah came to pass. Thus, the war started and the two armies met in battle. The army of ‘Ali consisted of 20000 while the supporters of Aisha numbered 30000. The flames of war raged fiercely. The knights contested and the brave men advanced. To Allah do we belong and to Him is our return.

The Saba’iyyah – the supporters of Ibn al Sawda’ (May Allah disfigure him – did not cease to fight. ‘Ali’s announcer announced, “Harken, stop! Harken, stop!” However, no one listened.

The judge of Basrah Ka’b ibn Sawr approached and said, “O mother of the believers! Save the people. Probably Allah will unite them at your hands.”

She thus sat in her carriage on top of her camel. They veiled the carriage with coats of mail. She then advanced and stopped where she could view the battle.[11]

 

This proves that this wicked group instigated the war and were the source of anarchy. They caused hostility between the two believing armies and incited the people to fighting a battle they were forced to and did not choose.

It was nothing but diversity of ijtihad between the armies of Sayyidah Aisha and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. And both were upon goodness. None of them intended harm for his brother and in their forefront were our mother Sayyidah Aisha and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Ibn Kathir rahimahu Llah further explains:

 

و قد قتل مع هذا بشر كثيرا جدا حتى جعل علي يقول لابنه الحسن يا بني ليت أباك مات قبل هذا اليوم بعشرين سنة فقال له يا أبه قد كنت أنهاك عن هذا و عن قيس بن عباد قال قال علي يوم الجمل يا حسن يا حسن ليت أباك مات منذ عشرين سنة فقال له يا أبه قد كنت أنهاك عن هذا قال يا بني إني لم أر أن الأمر يبلغ هذا و قال مبارك بن فضالة عن الحسن عن أبي بكرة لما اشتد القتال يوم الجمل و رأى علي الرءوس تندر أخذ علي ابنه الحسن فضمه إلى صدره ثم قال إنا لله يا حسن أي خير يرجى بعد هذا

A very large number of people were killed to the extent that Sayyidina ‘Ali began telling his son, Hassan, “O my beloved son, if only your father had died twenty years before this day.”

Hassan replied, “O my beloved father, I warned you about this.”

Qais ibn ‘Abbad narrates, “‘Ali said on the Day of Jamal, ‘O Hassan, O Hassan, If only your father died twenty years back.’

‘O my beloved father,’ replied Hassan, ‘I warned you about this.’

‘Ali explained, ‘O my beloved son, I never thought that matters would reach this ebb.’

Mubarak ibn Fadalah relates from Hassan from Abu Bakrah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, “When the battle raged on the Day of Jamal and ‘Ali saw heads being severed[12], he took his son Hassan and held him to his chest. He then said, “To Allah do we belong, O Hassan! What goodness can be hoped for after this?”[13],[14]

 

After the battle, Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha began asking about those Muslims of her supporters who were killed and those of ‘Ali’s army who were slain. Whenever anyone’s name was mentioned to her, she sought Allah’s mercy for the person and supplicated for him.[15]

Ibn Sirin reports:

 

دخل خالد بن الواشمة على عائشة بعد الجمل فقالت ما فعل فلان تعني طلحة قال قتل يا أم المؤمنين قالت إنا لله و إنا إليه راجعون يرحمه الله ما فعل فلان قال قتل قال فرجعت أيضا و قالت يرحمه الله و إنا لله على زيد و أصحاب زيد يعني زيد بن صوحان قالت و قتل زيد قال قلت نعم قالت إنا لله و إنا إليه راجعون يرحمه الله قال قلت يا أم المؤمنين هذا من جند و هذا من جند ترحمين عليهم جميعا والله لا يجتمعون أبدا قالت أو لا تدري رحمة الله واسعة و هو على كل شيء قدير

Khalid ibn al Washimah entered the presence of Aisha after the Battle of Jamal.

She asked, “What happened to him, i.e. Talhah?”

“He was killed, O Mother of the Believers,” he replied.

She recited, “To Allah do we belong and to Him is our return. May Allah have mercy on him.”

She asked, “What happened to so and so?”

“He was slain,” he replied.

She recited to Allah do we belong and to Him is our return again and said, “May Allah have mercy on him.”

He said, “And to Allah do we belong upon Zaid and Zaid’s companions i.e. Zaid ibn Suhan.”

“Was Zaid martyred,” she asked.

He replied in the affirmative.

She recited, “To Allah do we belong and to Him is our return. May Allah have mercy on him.”

He objected surprisingly, “O Mother of the believers, he belongs to one army while the other belongs to another, and you are seeking mercy for them all. By Allah, they can never ever unite!”

“Do you not know,” she responded, “the Mercy of Allah is vast and He has absolute power over everything.”[16]

 

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha deeply regretted leaving and deemed that it was best for her not to have done so.

 

Ibn Taymiyyah affirms:

 

و كذلك عائشة رضي الله عنها ندمت على مسيرها إلى البصرة و كانت إذا ذكرته تبكي حتى تبل خمارها

Similarly, Aisha regretted travelling to Basrah. When she would recall it, she would cry until her scarf would become soaked with tears.[17]

 

Abu ‘Abdullah al Dhahabi clarifies:

 

و لا ريب أن عائشة ندمت ندامة كلية على مسيرها إلى البصرة و حضورها يوم الجمل و ما ظنت أن الأمر يبلغ ما بلغ

Undoubtedly, Aisha deeply regretted her journey to Basrah and her presence in the Battle of Jamal. She never imagined that matters would reach this level.[18]

 

Our Mother would recall this and speak about it expressing her remorse over what transpired. She would say:

 

وددت أني كنت غصنا رطبا و لم أسر مسيري هذا

I wish I were a fresh branch and did not undertake this journey.[19]

 

She also said:

لأن أكون جلست عن مسيري كان أحب إلي من أن يكون لي عشرة من رسول الله مثل ولد الحارث بن هشام

Not embarking on that journey would be more pleasing to me than having ten children from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam like the children of Harith ibn Hisham.[20]

 

She said prior to her demise:

إني أحدثت بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حدثا ادفنوني مع أزواجه

I did something after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. So bury me with his wives.

 

She was thus buried in al Baqi’, may Allah be pleased with her.

 

Imam al Dhahabi writes a footnote on this saying:

 

قلت تعني بالحدث مسيرها يوم الجمل فإنها ندمت ندامة كلية و تابت من ذلك على أنها ما فعلت ذلك إلا متأولة قاصدة للخير كما اجتهد طلحة بن عبيد الله و الزبير بن العوام و جماعة من الكبار رضي الله عن الجميع

She meant by this her journey on the Day of Jamal which she regretted sincerely and repented from despite her carrying this out only after interpreting it suitably and intending good. Just as Talhah ibn ‘Ubaidullah, Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam, and a group of senior Sahabah made ijtihad. May Allah be pleased with them all.[21]

 

She also scolded Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma for not preventing her from setting out. Ibn Abi ‘Atiq reports:

 

قالت عائشة إذا مر ابن عمر فأرونيه فلما مر قيل لها هذا ابن عمر قالت يا أبا عبد الرحمن ما منعك أن تنهاني عن مسيري قال رأيت رجلا قد غلب عليك و ظننت أنك لا تخالفينه يعني ابن الزبير قالت أما إنك لو نهيتني ما خرجت تعني مسيرها في فتنة يوم الجمل

Aisha said, “When Ibn ‘Umar passes, then show me him.”

When he passed, she was told that Ibn ‘Umar was present. She said, “O Abu ‘Abdul Rahman, what stopped you from preventing me from this journey?”

He submitted, “I saw that a man overpowered you and felt that you will not oppose him, i.e. referring to Ibn Zubair.”

She said, “Listen up! Had you prevented me, I would not have set out,” meaning her journey in the fitnah of Jamal.[22]

 

She would console herself by maintaining that what transpired was the decree of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. When she was asked about her journey, she would say:

كان قدرا

It was destiny.[23]

 

This resembles Sayyidina Adam’s ‘alayh al Salam practice when he presented qadr (destiny) in response to Sayyidina Musa’s ‘alayh al Salam enquiry. Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam informed us that the former beat the latter by this response.

 

Furthermore, this is in conformity to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam command:

 

و إن أصابك شيء فلا تقل لو أني فعلت كان كذا و كذا و لكن قل قدر الله و ما شاء فعل فإن لو تفتح عمل الشيطان

If anything adverse befalls you, then do not say, “If only I had done that then so and so would have happened.” However, say, “Allah decreed it. And He does as He pleases.” For indeed it opens the action of shaitan.[24]

 

This is the accurate picture of our Mother which the enemy wishes to disfigure. They wish to blame her for something she is innocent of. She only set out after making ijtihad and tawil (interpretation). Hence, her ijtihad is a forgiven error. In fact, a rewardable deduction.

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was aware of this and he honoured her and understood her value. He implemented Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam request regarding her.

 

فقد قال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم لعلي إنه سيكون بينك و بين عائشة أمر قال أنا يا رسول الله قال نعم قال أنا قال نعم قال فأنا أشقاهم يا رسول الله قال لا و لكن إذا كان ذلك فارددها إلى مأمنها

Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam apprised ‘Ali, “Soon there will be a conflict between you and Aisha.”

‘Ali asked, “Me, O messenger of Allah?”

“Yes,” he replied.

He confirmed, “Me?”

“Yes,” he replied.

He sighed, “Then I am the worst of people, O Messenger of Allah.”

“No,” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam explained, “however, when it occurs, then return her to her sanctuary.”[25]

 

Abu al Fida’ Ibn Kathir reports:

 

و لما أرادت أم المؤمنين عائشة الخروج من البصرة بعث إليها علي رضي الله عنه بكل ما ينبغي من مركب و زاد و متاع و غير ذلك و أذن لمن نجا ممن جاء في جيشها أن يرجع معها إلا أن يحب المقام و اختار لها أربعين امرأة من نساء أهل البصرة المعروفات و سير معها أخاها محمد بن أبي بكر فلما كان اليوم الذي ارتحلت فيه جاء علي فوقف على الباب و حضر الناس معه و خرجت من الدار في الهودج فودعت الناس و دعت لهم و قالت يا بني لا يعتب بعضنا على بعض إنه والله ما كان بيني و بين علي في القدم إلا ما يكون بين المرأة و أحمائها و إنه على معتبتي لمن الأخيار فقال علي صدقت والله ما كان بيني و بينها إلا ذاك و إنها لزوجة نبيكم صلى الله عليه و سلم في الدنيا و الآخرة و سار علي معها مودعا و مشيعا أميالا و سرح بنيه معها بقية ذلك اليوم و كان يوم السبت مستهل رجب سنة ست و ثلاثين و قصدت في مسيرها ذلك إلى مكة فأقامت بها إلى أن حجت عامها ذلك ثم رجعت إلى المدينة رضي الله عنها

When Umm al Mu’minin ‘Aishah intended to depart from Basrah, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent to her everything that was needed, viz. a conveyance, provisions, baggage, etc., and gave permission to those of her army who were spared to return, except if they desired to stay. He chose 40 influential women of Basrah to accompany her. He also despatched her brother Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr to escort her. On the day of her departure, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu came and halted at the door. People gathered with him. She left from the house seated in her carriage and bid the people farewell and supplicated for them. She explained:

“O my sons, we should not reprove each other. By Allah, what happened between me and ‘Ali due to my arrival is nothing more than what happens between a woman and her bosom friends. Certainly, according to my analysis he is among the elite.”

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu confirmed: “She has spoken the truth, by Allah! What occurred between myself and her was nothing more than this. And indeed, she is the wife of your Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the world and the Hereafter.”

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu then proceeded with her for a few miles to see her off and bid her farewell. He then send his sons to travel with her for the rest of that day. It was Saturday, the 1st of Rajab 36 A.H. She journeyed to Makkah and stayed there until she performed hajj that year. Thereafter, she returned to Madinah. May Allah be pleased with her.[26]

 

This is our beloved Mother and her noble intention to unite the Muslims. She rose to fulfil her obligation – as demanded by her lofty personality – of uniting the Muslims, bringing together their hearts, and unifying their call. Every believer will recognise this who possesses a righteous heart and pure soul free from traces of rancour. And leading the pack is none other than Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in whose name the enemy have fabricated lies. Nevertheless, he recognised the value of his mother, treated her in an honourable manner befitting her reputation, nobility, and integrity, and displayed exceptional character towards her.

 

NEXT ⇒ Misconception: She set out to fight ‘Ali


[1] Tarikh al Tabari vol. 4 pg. 427.

[2] Surah al Nisa’: 114.

[3] ‘Ali ibn Khalf ibn ‘Abdul Malik, Abu al Hassan al Qurtubi, the ‘Allamah. He was among the senior scholars of the Malikiyyah and among the men of knowledge and recognition. He committed himself wholly to the acquisition and study of ahadith. He became judge of Hisn Lawraqah in Spain. He authored Sharh al Bukhari and passed away in 449 A.H. (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 18 pg. 47; Shadharat al Dhahab vol. 3 pg. 282)

[4] Nafi’ ibn al Harith ibn Kaldah, Abu Bakrah al Thaqafi, the freed slave of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He detached and isolated himself in the Battle of Jamal and did not participate on any side. He passed away in 51 A.H. – or 52 A.H. (al Isti’ab vol. 1 pg. 484; al Isabah vol. 6 pg. 467)

[5] Sharh Sahih al Bukhari vol. 10 pg. 51.

[6] Al Haw’ab: a station between Makkah and Basrah. (al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar vol. 1 pg. 456)

[7] Musnad Ahmed vol. 6 pg. 52 Hadith: 24299; Musnad Abi Ya’la vol. 8 pg. 282 Hadith: 4868; Sahih Ibn Hibban vol. 15 pg. 126 Hadith: 6732; al Mustadrak vol. 3 pg. 129. Al Dhahabi declared its isnad as sahih in Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 2 pg. 177. Ibn Kathir comments in al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 6 pg. 217, “Its isnad meets the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim.” Al Haythami remarks in Majma’ al Zawa’id vol. 7 pg. 237, “The narrators of Ahmed are the narrators of Sahih al Bukhari.” Al Albani says in Silsilat al Ahadith al Sahihah vol. 1 pg. 847, “Its isnad is extremely authentic. His narrators are reliable and trustworthy, and among the narrators of the six [main hadith books].”

[8] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 10 pg. 450.

[9] Al Ghalas: The darkness of the last portion of the night when it mixes with the light of dawn. (al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar vol. 3 pg. 377)

[10] Al La’mah: armour. It is said: weapons. (al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar vol. 4 pg. 220)

[11] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 10 pg. 455.

[12] Tundar: Nadara al shay’ yanduru: to fall. (Lisan al ‘Arab vol. 5 pg. 199)

[13] Al ‘Azlah of al Khattabi pg. 14.

[14] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 10 pg. 456 with variations.

[15] Ibid pg. 471.

[16] Musannaf ‘Abdul Razzaq vol. 11 pg. 289.

[17] Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah vol. 6 pg. 208.

[18] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 2 pg. 177.

[19] Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah Hadith: 38973.

[20] Ibid Hadith: 38966.

[21] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ vol. 2 pg. 193.

[22] Tarikh al Islam vol. 4 pg. 246.

[23] Al Zuhd of Imam Ahmed Hadith: 165.

[24] Sahih Muslim Hadith: 2664; Sunan Ibn Majah Hadith: 79; Musnad Ahmed Hadith: 8573.

[25] Musnad Ahmed Hadith: 27242. Ibn Hajar graded its isnad as Hassan in Fath al Bari vol. 13 pg. 59.

[26] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah vol. 10 pg. 472; al Fitnah wa Waqat al Jamal pg. 183; Tarikh al Tabari vol. 4 pg. 544; al Muntazam fi Tarikh al Muluk wa al Umam vol. 5 pg. 94; al Kamil vol. 2 pg. 614; Nihayat al Arab vol. 20 pg. 50.

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