The efforts of Ibn Saba’ against the khilafah of Sayyiduna `Uthman

Judaism
January 7, 2015
Sayyiduna `Ali is appointed as khalifah
January 7, 2015

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The efforts of Ibn Saba against the Caliphate of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

One of the schemes which Ibn Saba adopted was that through his agents in Madinah he sent false correspondences, in Sayyidina Ali’s name, to his followers in Basrah, Kufah and Egypt. In doing this, he portrayed himself to be a trusted confidant of Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, which made him even more successful in achieving his aims. One learns that he was willing to perpetrate the most shameful of acts in order to achieve his objective. One should not begin to doubt the intentions of Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, as he was completely unaware of what was transpiring in his name and his noble rank is far above such devious actions.

Propaganda is like black magic. A person well versed with the politics of the west has said that invent a tale, present it as the truth and continue repeating it. At first you will be the only one talking about it, then others will quote you and after a few days it will be accepted as an actual event. One can see for himself, how hear say is slowly accepted as reality.

For decades now, the Hindus have been teaching such books of history which assert that Aurangzeb and the other Mughal emperors were oppressive and racist, merely to create animosity towards the Muslims, whereas this is a false accusation but the propaganda continues and it is working. Animosity towards the Muslims continues to increase.

A very amusing story is well-known to people. Youngsters love to hear it and believe every word of it is true, because of it appearing in a Farsi book. Then again which true story has had more appeal than a fairy-tale. One day a man was walking, with a lamb under his arm. Three youngsters saw him with the lamb and their mouths began watering with the thought of the Kebabs they could make from the lamb. However, they had no way of purchasing the lamb. (There is a saying that necessity is the creator of ideas.) An idea came to them that each of them should stand at different places and when the man passes they should say to him in a serious voice that the lamb is a dog. When the man passed the first boy, he said: “Good day! How are you? Why are you carrying that dog under your arm?” The man gazed at him angrily and the boy immediately apologised for offending him. The man continued walking and after some time passed the second boy who said to him: “Good day! How are you? Why are you carrying that dog under your arm?” The man ignored the boy and continued walking but began to have doubts. After a little while he passed the third boy, who said to him: “Good day! How are you? Why in the world are you carrying that dog under your arm?” This time the man was convinced that it must be a dog and through the lamb down. You might call the man foolish but you will have to admit that the lamb was perceived to be a dog because of the words of these three boys. This was the purpose and this is the very principle of propaganda.

Abdullah ibn Sabas propaganda was simple yet effective. The gist of it was to use the complaints about the various governors as a means of creating unrest in all the provinces. The people of Kufah, Basrah and Egypt sent letters of complaints regarding the governors to the people of Madinah. The people of Basrah wrote to the people of Kufah and Egypt and the people of Egypt wrote to the people of Kufah and Basrah, and Kufah to the people of Basrah and Egypt. The agents of Ibn Saba were present in all these cities and were constantly at work in this regard. This propaganda began to take effect in the minds of people.

When these letters reached the people of Madinah, they would urge Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to dismiss these governors. Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu would investigate the matter and discover that the allegations had no basis. There was no oppression taking place anywhere in these provinces but each province was under the impression that oppression was occurring in the other provinces and Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was supporting the actions of his governors, not meeting out any punishment nor dismissing them, thus condoning this oppression. This was the deep effects of the Ibn Sabas propaganda.

 

Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu investigated the allegations

When Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu learnt of the allegations against his governors, he sent reliable and respected individuals to all of the provinces to investigate the reality of these allegations. They found that the allegations had no basis and nowhere in the Islamic state were the people being oppressed. However, there seemed to be rising unrest in all of the provinces, with people voicing their disapproval openly, defaming Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his governors. The situation had gotten so grave that people had begun calling for the deposition of the khalifah. When those who had been sent to investigate the allegations returned and informed the people of Madinah that the allegations were false, they were contented.

 

Unrest in Kufah

Malik al Ashtar and his group, who were the creation of Ibn Sabas mischief, spearheaded the unrest in Kufah. Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had summoned all his governors to Madinah after hajj. All arrived and a meeting was convened regarding how to address the rising turmoil in these provinces but no decision could be made. Said ibn al As- governor of Kufah, had also come and when he returned to Kufah he saw that a huge army, under the leadership of Yazid ibn Qais, had gathered against him. Yazid said to Said ibn al As: “If you wish to live then go straight back to Madinah.” During this confrontation Malik al Ashtar killed the slave of Said ibn al As and said to him: “Go and tell Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he must send Abu Musa al Ashari radiya Llahu ‘anhu as governor of Kufah.” Said ibn al As informed Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu of what had transpired and he in turn sent Sayyidina Abu Musa al Ashari radiya Llahu ‘anhu as governor to Kufah. In addition, he wrote to the people of Kufah: “We will act in accordance to your desires as far as the Shariah permits us to. We will tolerate your insubordination and continue working on your reformation.” Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was extremely kind-hearted. Nevertheless, the deep insight and understanding of human temperament that Sayyidina Abu Musa radiya Llahu ‘anhu possessed and the letter of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had a positive effect on the people of Kufah. However, the party of Ibn Saba remained adamant on defying the khalifah and continued to sow discord amongst the people of Kufah.

When the season of hajj drew closer, Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu issued a declaration as follows: “I have received reports of oppression being carried out by my governors. I have instructed them to join me in hajj this year and whoever has any allegation against any of the governors should place his grievance before me during hajj and reclaim his right from either of us after it is verified.” The governors arrived as they were instructed and an announcement was made for those with grievances to come forward but not a single person came forward.

 

A meeting in opposition to Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu held close to Madinah

Abdullah ibn Saba summoned all his followers from each of the provinces to a meeting close to Madinah. Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu informed the people in Makkah: “Fitnah (trial and tribulation) will continue to remain and very soon its door will be flung open. This is because Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had informed me of it but I do not desire to be accused of being the one who allowed this fitnah to grow. Allah Taala knows best that I have only done what I thought best and most beneficial for the Muslims.” After hajj, Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu returned to Madinah, where he said in another gathering: “It is true that Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidina Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu after becoming khalifah did not attend to the needs of their close family and friends, out of fear and precaution of abusing their position as khalifah. However, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam cared for his family and assisted them as well. I too have close family and friends and I assist them from time to time. If you prove that what I am doing is unlawful then I am ready to abandon what I am doing.”

A few people raised a few political objections regarding Sayyidina Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu policies, to which he provided adequate replies. A few other people raised certain discrepancies relating to fiqh (jurisprudence) to which he once again gave satisfactory replies. With every one satisfied, the meeting was concluded and all the governors returned to their provinces.

As Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was about to leave he said to Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu: “I fear that you will be attacked here in Madinah, therefore come with me to Syria.” Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied that he is not pleased with leaving the closeness to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu then asked for permission to send an army from Syria to remain in Madinah, for the protection of the khalifah. Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not consent to this as well, saying that he did not wish to inconvenience the neighbours of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (i.e. the people of Madinah). Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu then said: “You will most certainly be harmed then.” But Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied: “Allah is sufficient for me and He is the best of helpers.”

The agents of Abdullah ibn Saba had created great resentment to the Caliphate of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu throughout the lands of Islam, such that many Arabs too were caught in this web. Some senior people too were swept away in the torrents of this mischief. These seniors were human after all and Ibn Saba instigated them and they were easily instigated. The propaganda of love for Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and for the Ahlul Bayt was having its effects but its actual purpose continued to remain hidden. Only a few select Jews, who portrayed themselves as Muslims but were actually munafiqin, knew this hidden secret.

Abdullah ibn Saba had convinced the people to either depose or kill Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu but they still disagreed as to who they would appoint as the next khalifah. The three individuals looked upon as most likely to assume the post of khalifah after Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu were Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

The agents of Ibn Saba who resided in Madinah wrote false letters in the names of Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu as well as the Ummuhat al Muminin l, to those people who held them in esteem in the provinces of Kufah, Basrah and Egypt. The contents of the letter basically stated that Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is no longer worthy of the post of khalifah and it is essential for the success of the Muslims that they act in this month of Dhu al Hijjah to rectify the situation.

 

Unrest outside Madinah

The letters that had been sent in the names of these illustrious Sahabah had worked according to plan and armies numbering a thousand each made their way towards Madinah under the pretext of Hajj. However, their actual intention was war and bloodshed, and with this in mind they all reached at the same time and camped at various places outside Madinah. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu had accompanied one of the groups, he too had been fooled by the deceit of Ibn Saba and had risen against Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Those who desired Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to be khalifah were mostly from Egypt, those who desired Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu mostly from Basrah and those who desired Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu mostly from Kufah.

As a result of the false letters each group was under the impression that the senior and renowned people of Madinah supported them. However, when each of them announced their intentions, they saw that no one was opposed to the khalifah nor was any preparation being made for battle; each group thought that perhaps these personalities are not openly supporting them for political reasons. As a result the leader of each group decided to send a messenger to each of personalities that they saw fit to be khalifah and inform them that they are opposed to the khalifah, and that they should allow them to pledge their allegiance to them, but each of these illustrious personalities refused to do so. Seeing this, the group from Egypt said to Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu that their governor- Abdullah ibn Sad, oppresses them and they will not return to Egypt until he is removed. Seeing the resolve of these people, Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu along with other Sahabah advised Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu that it is unwise to allow these people to enter Madinah and that he should give in to their demands. Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu agreed and on the advice of Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu; Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was appointed as the new governor of Egypt. Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu then said to the group from Egypt: “Your demands have been acceded to, now leave immediately.” In a similar manner, Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu ordered the other groups to return respectively.

 

The rebels surround the house of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

However, on the third of Dhu al Hijjah, all three rebel groups entered Madinah, chanting the takbir, and surrounded the house of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. When they were asked why they had returned after leaving? They replied: “The khalifah sent another letter with his slave to his governor- Abdullah ibn Sad, which we intercepted. The letter contained instructions to kill us as soon as we return. Here is the letter.” Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was astonished and enquired: “How is this possible? This is most definitely a scheme which you have devised.” They replied that whatever it might be, now they will not return until they have killed the khalifah. They even sought the assistance of Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in this regard but Sayyidina Ali angrily retorted: “How can I assist you in such a thing.” They replied: “Then why did you write to us for assistance?” When Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied that he never wrote to them, they were astonished and stared at each other in doubt as it was upon these false letters that they had set out in the first place. They surrounded the house of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu for over a month and even shut off the water supply to his house. The letter which the rebels intercepted has been said to be the handiwork of Marwan and Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had absolutely no knowledge of it. In order to remove the doubts of the rebels, he even asserted that he was ready to take an oath that he had no knowledge of the letter but still they refused to listen.

The Quraysh and Ansar were fully aware of the piety and good intentions of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and sided with him in trying to defuse the situation but the alleged actions of Marwan did not allow this to happen. The people of Madinah were also angry at Marwan but they bared no hatred for Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This is why the people of Madinah along with the rebels demanded that Marwan be handed over to them but Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not consent to this as he feared that the rebels would kill Marwan and he did not want to be the cause of his death.

When fear arose that the rebels might break into the home of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and kill him, Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent both his sons- Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu to guard the house of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu also ordered their sons to do the same. The sons of these illustrious Sahabah continued to defend the home of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

The rebels became impatient and feared that if they delay in this matter then armies are likely to be sent by the governors to aid the khalifah. Therefore, they entered the adjacent house and through it gained entry into the house of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Where was the creator of this turmoil at that time? One will not have to travel far to find him. Ibn Saba was with the rebels in Madinah spurring them on to murder Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

 

Sayyidina Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu abhorrence to bloodshed

Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not desire bloodshed, to the extent that he even addressed those who had set out to murder him in a calm manner and did not fight against them. He would say: “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took a vow from me and I intend to fulfil that vow. None will confront the rebels and none will fight them.”

 

Ahadith relating to the martyrdom of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

One day Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “The time of fitnah (turmoil) is close.” And then gesturing to Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu he said: “On that day this man will be on the right path and on that day this oppressed one will be martyred.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam referred to this fitnah as the great turmoil and when one studies the repercussions of this then one has to conclude that it was a great turmoil indeed. This created great division amongst the Muslims and divided them into many sects.

 

Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu addresses the rebels

One day while the rebels had Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu surrounded, he came out and addressed them: “One day Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam set out to the well of Thabir and Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu and myself accompanied him. On route the mountain began to tremble, such that rocks began to fall and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stamped his foot upon it and said: “Calm down! For there is no one upon you but a Nabi, a Siddiq and two martyrs.” The rebels testified to this and Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu exclaimed: “Allah Akbar! I take an oath by the Rabb of the Kabah, they have testified to the truth of my martyrdom.”

He also said to them: “When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam first came to Madinah there was no sweet water available except from the well of Rumah. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then asked if there was anybody who would purchase the well and donate it for the general use of all Muslims. This well belonged to a Jew, who use to sell its water at an exorbitant price. I purchased this well and donated it. Do you not know this? Today you deny me the water of this very well.”

All the rebels replied that they were aware of this, but still their hearts did not soften.

Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu then said to them: “I ask that person who was present on the occasion of Bay’ah al Ridwan, did not Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam say that his hand represents my hand?” A few of those present replied that this is indeed true.

This final statement had some effect on the rebels and the majority of them began saying that they should leave Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu alone. However, Malik al Ashtar leaped forward and told the people not to be fooled. He continued to exhort them until finally they turned against Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu again. Even today the Shia regard Malik al Ashtar as one of their greatest supporters and well-wishers.

Sayyidina Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had left Madinah, and Sayyidina Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu as well as other Sahabah remained in their homes, to safeguard themselves from getting involved in this fitnah. Sayyidina Ibn Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu fought the rebels back from Sayyidina Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu door but Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu bade him not to do so and instead appointed him the leader of hajj and set him off to Makkah. Sayyidina Hassan ibn Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina Abdullah ibn Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina Muhammad ibn Talhah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidina Said ibn al As radiya Llahu ‘anhu fought the rebels and drove them back. However, Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu made each of them vow that they will not fight and called them into his house. The rebels then set fire to the door of Sayyidina Uthman’s house and gained entry into the house but they fought them and drove them out. Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu pleaded with Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu to return to his father but he refused and continued to fight the rebels.

 

Martyrdom of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

A few rebels later gained entry into the house. It has been said that they were from the Egyptian rebels. One of them attempted to strike Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu with his sword but Sayyidina Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu wife- Nailah radiya Llahu ‘anha reached out for the sword and as a result two of her fingers were cut off. This wretched individual struck for the second time and martyred Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was reciting Quran at that time and his blood fell onto the Quran. A second rebel leaped forward and stabbed Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu nine times with his spear. A third rebel beat Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu so savagely that many of his ribs were broken. The rebels then looted the house of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred on Friday 18 Dhu al Hijjah 35 A.H. It was the habit of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he would fast regularly, besides those days on which it is prohibited to fast. He was fasting on this day as well and in this very condition he was martyred. His body remained untouched in his house for three days and then only was he finally buried in Jannat al Baqi.

To Allah do we belong and unto Him shall we return

 

The excellent qualities of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu

O Ibn Saba! May your soul be shattered! You murdered such an esteemed Sahabi, who shared the same grandfather[1] as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, whose foster mother was the same as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and who was called Dhu al Nurayn (Possessor of two lights) because he had the good fortune of having married two of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughters. This is an honour which no other had been bestowed with. After both his daughters had passed away, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “If I had another daughter then I would have given her in marriage also to Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.”

He was the fourth person to accept Islam and before him only three other individuals had embraced Islam. Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is one of those individuals who never practised idolatry nor consumed wine, even before the advent of Islam. It impossible to assume what love the vanguards of Islam possessed for Allah and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is amongst those ten fortunate Sahabah who were given the glad tidings of Jannat in this world, known as the ‘Asharah Mubasharah.

Whoever performed hijrah once from Makkah to Madinah was given the glad tidings of Jannat and Allah announced his pleasure with them. The Quran even bears testimony to this. Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is one of those individuals who left his friends and family on two occasions and performed hijrah twice. The first time he migrated to Abyssinia and the second time to Madinah. He was the first person, after Nabi Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam and Nabi Lut ‘alayh al Salam to migrate with his family. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would supplicate for Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu on many occasions and on one occasion Rasulullah supplicated for him from the morning till the night saying: “O Allah! I am pleased with Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, you also be pleased with him.” Allah Taala was pleased with all the Sahabah, amongst whom is Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and they were all pleased with Allah Taala.

The pledge under the tree, (known as Bayah al Ridwan) took place because of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam heard that the Quraysh of Makkah had murdered Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who he had sent as an emissary to the Quraysh, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made all the Sahabah present pledge to fight to the death to avenge the blood of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, beneath a tree close to the area of Hudaybiyyah. The number of Sahabah who participated in this pledge were approximately fourteen hundred. Allah Taala revealed the verse wherein He declared His pleasure (ridwan) with all those Sahabah who participated in this pledge. Hence it is known as the pledge of Ridwan (or Bayah al Ridwan).

اِنَّ الَّذِیْنَ یُبَایِعُوْنَکَ اِنَّمَا یُبَایِعُوْنَ اللهَ ؕ یَدُ اللهِ فَوْقَ اَیْدِیْہِمْ

Indeed those who pledge their allegiance to you (O Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) they really pledge their allegiance to Allah. Allah’s hand is above theirs.[2]

لَقَدْ رَضِیَ اللهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِیْنَ اِذْ یُبَایِعُوْنَکَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَۃِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِیْ قُلُوْبِہِمْ فَاَنْزَلَ السَّکِیْنَۃَ عَلَیْہِمْ

Allah was pleased with the Muminin when they pledged their allegiance to you (O Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) beneath the tree. Allah knew what was in their hearts, and sent tranquillity upon them.

While the Sahabah were pledging their allegiance, news reached them that Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was indeed alive but had been imprisoned. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took his own hand and stated that it represents the hand of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and pledged allegiance on his behalf. This pledge has great merit in the annals of Islam and is regarded as the noblest act in which the Sahabah participated after the Battle of Badr. Allah Taala was pleased with those who pledged their allegiance and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave them the glad tidings that they were the best of people on the face of the earth and that none of those who participated in this pledge will enter Jahannam. The Shia too also acknowledge this glad tiding of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Allah Taala was so pleased with these Sahabah that he sent down Sakinah (divine tranquillity and peace) upon them and placed the quality of taqwa firmly in their hearts, such that it will never leave them. Allah Taala then said that they were deserving of this great bounty which He had bestowed upon them.

Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had been wealthy from the days of ignorance and was called Ghani (The wealthy one). He was regard as amongst the affluent of Makkah but never boasted about his wealth. He was extremely generous and would liberally spend his wealth in the path of Allah. He did not only spend once but spent his wealth on many occasions and donated large sums at a time.

On the occasion of the Battle of Tabuk, the Muslims had a great shortage of supplies and in order to urge people to donate for this course, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said that whoever will assist in equipping the army for Jihad will be forgiven by Allah Taala. Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu donated so generously for this course that even the harness of a single camel was not short. He provided such a large amount of provisions for the army that it required a number of camels to transport it. As a result of his generosity, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lifted his hands to the sky and said: “O Allah! I am pleased with Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, you too be pleased with him.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then turned to the Sahabah and asked them to supplicate in the same manner. In this manner, Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu received the supplication of all the Sahabah.

During the Caliphate of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Madinah was struck by a severe drought. On this occasion, Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu donated one thousand camels laden with wheat, which he had just procured, to be spent on the poor and needy of Madinah. The merchants of Madinah earnestly desired to purchase this caravan from him and offered to pay him a large sum. He replied that he was receiving an even greater profit than that. When they asked what it was, he said he was receiving ten times the usual rate. He then said: “I make you my witness, I am donating this entire caravan to the poor and needy of Madinah.”

The honour of compiling the Quran also belongs to Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

During the first half of his Caliphate, the Muslims gained many victories and the borders of the Muslim empire had been extended extensively. The lands of Islam developed into provinces. Islamic institutions were built, farming, agriculture, trade and business all advanced in leaps and bounds. The Muslims had never engaged in naval battle before, but during his Caliphate the Muslims ventured into the sea and returned victorious as well.

Imam Ahmed rahimahu Llah has reported a narration from Kathir ibn Silt that on the day that Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred, he slept for a while. After he awoke he said: “Had I not been afraid that people would say that Uthman desired this fitnah, I would of informed you of something.” They enquired: “Inform us, we will not say what others will say.” Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu then went on to say: “I just dreamt of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and he said to me: “O Uthman! You will come to us on this Friday.”

Nailah radiya Llahu ‘anha– the wife of Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, narrates that after he awoke he said to her, “Today my people will murder me.” She replied: “Allah Willing! They will not do so.” He then stated: “No! They will, I just saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in a dream, accompanied by Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and he said to me: “O Uthman! Today you will break your fast with us.” Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was then martyred on that very same day while fasting.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam referred to the fitnah in which Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was going to be martyred as a great turmoil.

Abdullah ibn Saba! You are the initiator of this great turmoil. Before this the swords of the Muslims were used only on the kuffar but you were the one who turned those very swords on the Muslims. You are also responsible for the division that crept into the Muslim Ummah, as well the sects that arose as a result of this turmoil. Also a result of this turmoil, which is no less in its harm, is that Islamic conquest came to a halt. The effort of propagating and teaching Islam also stopped but Abdullah ibn Saba continued to rejoice that he had sowed division amongst the Muslims. He instilled within them the beliefs of shirk and kufr and thereby led thousands astray. Those acts which Islam had removed were revived by Ibn Saba. He revived the old tribal rivalries and made tribes war with each in a manner that they never did before. The sects that arose continued to multiply and the hatred between them increases each day. People have forgotten the true din and are plagued with various customs and traditions, which they now regard as part of their din.

My brothers! The mischief of Ibn Saba does not end here, He is still to spread more mischief that will lead to the deaths of thousands.

The news of the martyrdom of Amir al Muminin Sayyidina Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu spread quickly throughout the kingdom. People began thinking of appointing a new khalifah and the rebels were the most eager to do so. They needed to appoint a khalifah as soon as possible otherwise their lives would be in danger, such that they would most likely be killed wherever they go.

 

NEXT Sayyidina ‘Ali is appointed as khalifah


[1]In the tribe of the Quraysh was Abdul Manaf, who had three sons- Hashim, Muttalib and Abdul Shams. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was from the progeny of Hashim. Abdul Shams had a son by the name of Umayyah and Uthman t was from his progeny. Thus Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Uthman t share a common grandfather, i.e. Abdul Manaf.

[2] Surah al Fath: 10

 

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