Section Two: Knowledge, Integrity, Scholarship, and Praise of Scholars for Him

Module Two: The Life of Imam al Tabari Section One: Lineage, Travel for Knowledge, Character, and Views.
October 3, 2019
Section Three: The Smear Campaign of Rafd Against Him.
October 7, 2019

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Section Two

Knowledge, Integrity, Scholarship, and Praise of Scholars for Him

 

I. Knowledge and integrity.

Imam al Tabari was divinely blessed with abilities that allowed him to draw from every science and attain from it such knowledge that would make him the undisputed Imam of his era. His fame caused people to flock to him with questions, him to widen his scope, and deepen his own understanding.

Ibn al Nadim[1] says regarding him:

 

علامة وقته وإمام عصره وفقيه زمانه و كان متفننا في جميع العلوم ، علم القرآن والنحو والشعر واللغة والفقه ، كثير الحفظ

The great scholar of his time, Imam of his era, and jurist of his period. He was a polymath, having mastered the sciences of the Qur’an, grammar, poetry, linguistics, and jurisprudence. He had memorized a great sum of knowledge.[2]

 

Ibn al Jawzi[3] says regarding him:

وقد جمع من العلوم ما رأس به أهل عصره

And he attained such knowledge, by virtue of which he surpassed the people of his era.[4]

 

Hereunder is a brief outline of his scholarly abilities under the various subjects he had mastered.

 

A. Exegesis of the Qur’an (Tafsir)

The talents of Imam al Tabari became apparent and his fame spread as result of his exegesis of the Noble Qur’an titled, Jami’ al Bayan ‘an Ta’wil al Qur’an. Many scholars have praised his Tafsir.

Al Khatib al Baghdadi says:

لم يصنف احد مثله

No one has written the likes of it.[5]

 

Ibn Khuzaimah[6] commented on it after reading the Tafsir in its entirety that he knows no one on the earth more knowledgeable than Ibn Jarir.[7]

‘Allamah Abu Hamid al Isfirayini[8] states:

ولو سافر رجل إلى الصين في تحصيل تفسير ابن جرير لم يكن کثیرا

If one travels to China in order to attain Tafsir ibn Jarir, it wouldn’t be considered a great deal.[9]

 

Similarly al Suyuti[10] has placed it above all other commentaries attesting to it being the greatest tafsir the like which has not been written. He says referring to Ibn Jarir:

وله التصانيف العظيمة منها تفسير القرآن وهر أجل التفاسير ولم يؤلف مثله ،

He has authored books of note, amongst them the tafsir of the Qur’an. It is the greatest tafsir the likes of which has not been written.[11]

 

This sentiment has been echoed by the entire fraternity of scholars. Hereunder are further testimonials by erudite scholars of the past.

Al Nawawi[12] states in Tahdhib[13]:

وذلك لأنه جمع بين الرواية والدراية

This is because he married the concepts of riwayah and dirayah[14] in his tafsir.

 

Al Suyuti says:

ولم يشاركه في ذلك أحد لا قبله ولا بعده

No one had done so before him nor has anyone done so after him.[15]

 

Al Dawoodi[16] says quoting Al Farghani in his Tarikh:

 

فثم من كتبه كتاب تفسير القرآن ، وجوده وبين فيه أحكامه ، وناسخه ومنسوخه ، ومشكله وغربيه ، ومعانيه ، و اختلاف أهل التأويل والعلماء في أحكامه ، والصحيح لديه من ذلك ، وإعراب حروفه ، والكلام على الملحدين فيه ، والقصص وأخبار الأئمة والقيامة وغير ذلك مما سواه من الحكم والعجائب كلمة كلمة ، أية آية

And from amongst his books is the Exegesis of the Qur’an. He has excelled in authoring the tafsir. He has elucidated therein the injunctions, the abrogating and abrogated, the obscure and difficult, the meanings and scholastic differences whilst giving his own preference of the views presented. He has explained the diacritical marks, incidents, stories of nations, and future events such as the Day of Judgment. Besides the above he has expressed much detail in the various laws and miraculous happenings by dissecting each word and verse.[17]

 

Al Qasim ibn ‘Aqil al Warraq[18] narrates that Abu Jafar said to his students:

 

أتنشطون لتفسير القرآن – قالوا : كم يكون قدره – فقال : ثلاثون ألف ورقة ، فقالوا : هذا ما يقني الأعمار قبل تمامیه ، فاختصره في نحو ثلاثة آلافي ورقة

“Are you’ll ready to write down a Tafsir of the Qur’an?”

They enquired as to how lengthy it would be.

“30 000 pages,” he replied.

They said, “This would take a long time and cannot be completed in one lifetime.”

He therefore made it concise and kept it to 3000 pages.[19]

 

Ibn Taymiyyah has presented the Tafsir of Imam al Tabari as one of the only books of tafsir wherein quotations of the pious predecessors have been complied with their chain of transmissions.[20]

 

B. Hadith

In the science of hadith too, Imam al Tabari gained prominence due to his talent. He studied the noble hadith under the masters of the science. He narrated much from the great huffaz and muhaddithin; the teachers of al Bukhari, Muslim, and other authors of the canonical books.

He has authored Tahdhib al Athar wherein he began with the narrations of Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu through his chain of narration commenting on each hadith and if any, the impairing defects therein. He has also noted the jurisprudic angles to the narrations, the differences of scholars and each of their proofs, commentating on the meanings of the ahadith, and elucidating the obscure words. He concluded the compilation of the Ten Promised Paradise and the Ahlul bayt. However, he passed away before completing the book.[21]

Al Khatib al Baghdadi—a specialist hadith scholar—honours him as a scholar of hadith. He says:

 

كان .. عالما بالسنن وطرقها ، وصحيحها وسليمها ، وناسخها ومنسوخها ، وله كتاب سماه  تهذيب الآثار ، لم أر سواه في معناه إلا أنه لم يتمه

He was… a scholar of hadith, its chains of transmissions, the authentic and weak, and the abrogating and abrogated. He had authored a book which he titled Tahdhib al Athar. I have not seen the like of it. However, he did not complete it.[22]

 

Al Dhahabi has considered him to be from amongst the 6th tabaqah (level) of narrators.

He states:

وابن جرير ، وابن خزيمة ، واین صاعد  وعبد الرحمن بن أبي حاتم ، من رجال الطبقة السادسة

Ibn Jarir, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Sa’id[23], and ‘Abdur rahman ibn Abi Hatim are from the narrators of the 6th tabaqah.[24]

 

Al Nawawi has placed him in the tabaqah of al Nasa’i and al Tirmidhi.[25]

Ibn Khallikan[26] says:

إنه كان اماما في الحديث

He was a leading authority in hadith.[27]

 

Al Khatib says, I heard Abu Hazim ‘Umar ibn Ahmed al ‘Abduwi[28] saying in Nisapur[29]:

 

سمعت أبا حازم عمر بن أحمد العبدويي بنيسابور  يقول : سمعت حسینك واسمه الحسين بن علي التميمي يقول : لما رجعت من بغداد إلى نیسابور سالني محمد بن إسحاق بن خزيمة فقال لي : ممن سمعت بغداد ، يعني الحديث – فذكرت له جماعة ممن سمعت منهم ، فقال : هل سمعت من محمد بن جرير شيئا – فقلت له : لا إنه بيغداد لا يدخل عليه لأجل الحنابلة – وكانت تمنع منه – فقال : لو سمعت منه لكان خيرا لك من جميع من سمعت منه سواه

I heard Hussainik; Hussain ibn ‘Ali al Tamimi[30] saying:

When I returned from Baghdad to Nisapur, Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Khuzaimah asked me who I had heard hadith from in Baghdad. I mentioned a number of scholars to him whom I had heard from.

He said, “Did you hear anything from Muhammad ibn Jarir?”

I countered that I hadn’t as he in Baghdad is not permitted to be met due to the Hanabilah—who would bar meeting him.

He then said, “If you had heard from him it would have been better for you in comparison to all that you heard from everyone besides him.”[31]

 

C. The Science of Qira’ah

Imam al Tabari was an expert in the in science of Qira’ah. He attained his knowledge by the masters of the field in ‘Iraq, Sham, and Egypt.[32] He kept himself within the ambit of the famous modes of recitation, relying on the chain of transmissions, his pure perception, and upon his deep insight into language and grammar.

He gathered his knowledge of this field and codified it into a book titled, Al Qira’at wa Tanzil al Qur’an. He recorded the differences of the Qurra’, the names of the various Qurra’ within the Islamic cities, and outlined the mode of each recitation together with its explanation and the preference of each reciter. He then selected, in his opinion, the correct mode based on proofs that stem from his expertise into language and tafsir.[33]

Al Hassan ibn ‘Ali al Ahwazi states in his book Al Iqna’ fi Ihda ‘Ashar Qira’ah, that Abu Jafar al Tabari was a scholar of grammar, language, and the scales of poetry. He then says:

 

وله في القراءات كتاب جليل ذكر فيه جميع القراءات من المشهور والشواذ وعلل ذلك وشرحه ، واختار منها قراءة لم يخرج بها عن المشهور

He has authored a significant book in Qira’at wherein he has recorded all the famous and obscure modes of recitation. He has commentated on each and expounded on any impairments therein. He has selected from those such modes that are well within the recognised famous modes.[34]

 

D. Fiqh

Imam al Tabari payed special attention to the science of fiqh, making efforts to acquire it from a young age. His travels in seeking knowledge was a catalyst for his profound understanding of the opinions held by the jurists and authorities in Islamic law (mujtahidin), the judgments passed by the judges and legal experts that were his contemporaries and those prior to his era. This left him with a deep insight into fiqh with a comprehensive awareness of the positions of consensus and a familiarity of the differences held in injunctions. He thus became a authority in Islamic law, i.e. he developed enough mass in Islamic law to attract other seekers of the same.

Abu Bakr ibn Kamil[35] says:

لم أر بعد أبي جعفر أجمع للعلم وكتب العلماء ومعرفة اختلاف الفقهاء وتمكنه من العلوم منه

I have not seen anyone after Abu Jafar who was more knowledgeable, had a greater understanding of the books of the scholars and the differences of the jurists, and held such deep insight into the sciences.[36]

 

Imam al Tabari studied the fiqh of the various recognised schools of thought. Ibn al Nadim says, “He studied the Zahiri fiqh at the hands of Dawood al Zahiri[37], the Shafi’i fiqh from al Hassan ibn Muhammad al Za’farani, the Maliki fiqh from Yunus ibn ‘Abdul A’la, and the fiqh of the people of Iraq from Muhammad ibn Muqatil al Razi[38] in Ray.[39]

He took to Shafi’i fiqh and gained a comparatively deeper insight into it, resulting in him passing legal verdicts according to the Shafi’i school of thought. He says regarding himself:

 

أظهرت فقه الشافعي ، وأفتيت به ببغداد عشر سنين ، وتلقنه مني ابن بشار الأحول أستاذ أبي العباس بن سريج

I took to Shafi’i fiqh and passed legal verdicts in accordance with it for a period of 10 years in Baghdad. Ibn Basshar al Ahwal[40], the teacher of Abu al ‘Abbas ibn Suraij[41], studied it under my tutelage.[42]

 

However, his deep insight and vast knowledge of fiqh qualified him to be an independent authority in Islamic law. Consequently, he initiated a school of thought of his own; an Imam with followers. He authored a book that outlined his school of thought and included the proofs he relied on.

Al Suyuti says:

وكان أولا شافعيا ثم انفرد بمذهب مستقل وأقاويل واختيارات ، وله أتباع ومقلدون ، وله في الأصول والفروع كتب كثيرة

He adhered to the Shafi’i school of thought initially. Thereafter, he initiated an independent school of thought with his own opinions. He had followers that adhered to him and he had authored many books in legal principles and verdicts.[43]

 

The school of thought of Imam al Tabari gained prominence in Baghdad with many adherents and supporters. Many scholars studied his opinions and wrote books on them. Amongst the more famous is Abu al Farj al Mu’afi ibn Zakariyya al Naharwani[44]. He was known as al Jariri; an attribution to the school of thought of Abu Jafar. His mazhab spread and his books were memorised.

Amongst his adherents is Ahmed ibn Yahya al Munajjam[45], Abu Bakr ibn Kamil and others[46]. Ahmed ibn Yahya al Munajjam has authored the book Al Madkhal ila Mazhab al Tabari.

However, the followers of Imam al Tabari did not grow exponentially, as was the case with the other schools of thought. The result of this was that this school of thought was short lived, not gaining any traction past the 5th century Hijri.[47]

Imam al Tabari produced many works in the science of fiqh which is a definitive indication to his prominence and talent in this field. Amongst these works are, Latif al Qawl fi Ahkam Sharai’ al Islam which is thought to be one of his best works. It outlines his entire mazhab and the its proofs. It is also considered to be the amongst the greatest books authored on the principles of a school of thought.

Abu Bakr ibn Ramik[48] says:

ما عمل كتاب في مذهب أجود من كتاب (( اللطيف)) ، لأبي جعفر

No book has been authored in any mazhab that surpasses Al Latif of Abu Jafar.[49]

 

Another book of note is, Ikhtilaf al Fuqaha. He mentioned in it the opinions of some of the jurists like Malik, Abu Hanifah, and Muhammad ibn al Hassan al Shaybani.[50] Yaqut[51] has named this work Ikhtilaf al Amsar fi Ahkam Sharai’ al Islam.[52]

 

E. History

On the subject of history, Imam al Tabari has authored a book titled, Tarikh al Rusul wa al Muluk, a historical work distinguished by its comprehensiveness and immense size in comparison to other notable works by Muslim historians. He has secured a large number of narrations and records therein from principle sources that have been lost. It has thus assumed a principle source in the post-Tabari era for historians such as Mas’udi, Ibn al Athir[53], and Ibn Khaldun.

Al Qasim ibn ‘Aqil al Warraq narrates that Abu Jafar said to his students:

 

أتنشطون لتاريخ العالم إلى وقتنا هذا – فقالوا : كم يكون قدره – فذكر نحو مما ذكر في التفسير – أي ثلاثون ألف ورقة – فأجابوه يمثل ذلك – أي قالوا : هذا مما يفني الأعمار قبل تمامه – فقال : إنا لله ، مائت الهمم ، فاختصره في نحو ما اختصر التفسير

“Are you’ll ready to write down a universal history up to the current era?”

They enquired as to how lengthy it would be.

He mentioned it would be similar to what he had mentioned regarding the tafsir, i.e. 30,000 pages.

They said as they had said regarding the tafsir, “This would take a long time and cannot be completed in one lifetime.”

He said, “To Allah do we belong! It seems as though aspirations have died.”

 He therefore made it concise as he had done with the tafsir.[54]

 

It should be noted that the book under discussion received much attention from the scholars and historians alike throughout the ages. Yaqut mentions that Abu al Hassan ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed al Mughallis[55], a respected scholar, would say:

 

ما عمل أحد في تاريخ الزمان وحصر الكلام فيه مثل ما عمله أبو جعفر

No one has produced a work of universal history in a comprehensive manner as done by Abu Jafar.[56]

 

Ibn Khallikan has lauded the historical knowledge of Imam al Tabari stating him to be a master polymath. He mentions that amongst the fields in which he excelled was history. Ibn Khallikan states:

وكان ثقة في نقله ، وتاريخه أصح التواريخ وأثبتها

He was reliable in narrating history. His Tarikh is the most authentic and accurate.[57]

 

Yes, praising his reliability in narrating is on spot, however; saying that his Tarikh is the most authentic and accurate is problematic. The methodology of Imam al Tabari is one of impartiality. He produced a work that gathers narrations and accounts without delving into explaining or examining any of it leaving the reader with differing accounts. The reader would than determine the correct version of events based on the strength and weakness of the narrators. Furthermore, the same yardstick would be used to determine the authenticity of narrations presented.

Therefore, authenticity in this context—as stated by Ibn Khallikan—will be taken to mean authenticity in narrating and sourcing the principle narrator. This is the only suitable explanation as Al Tabari, at times, produces opposing accounts of a single incident.

 

F. Linguistics

Imam al Tabari excelled in the fields of linguistics. He was well-versed in grammar, morphology, rhetoric, literature, poetry, and the scales of poetry. His discussions on grammar, morphology, and rhetoric in his Tafsir is indicative of this.

He was also a poet and has been included by Al Qafti[58] in his book Al Muhammadun min al Shu’ara’. He has also reproduced some of his poetry in the same book.[59]

‘Abdul ‘Aziz al Tabari recollects his memorising of poetry in the following words:

 

وكان يحفظ من الشعر للجاهلية والإسلام ما لا يجهله إلا جاهل به

He would memorise pre-Islamic and Islamic poetry. This fact would be unknown to only one unfamiliar to him.[60]

 

Abu ‘Amr al Zahid[61] says:

 

سمعت ثعلبا يقول : قرأ علي أبو جعفر الطبري شعر الشعراء قبل أن يكثر الناس عندي بمدة طويلة

I head Tha’labi saying, “Abu Jafar recited poetry of the poets to me long before people flocked to me.”[62]

 

Abu Bakr ibn Mujahid[63] says:

 

قال أبو العباس – ثعلب – يوما : من بقي عند كم – يعني في الجانب الشرقي ببغداد من النحويين – فقلت : ما بقي أحد ، مات الشيوخ،  فقال : حتى خلا جانبكم – قلت : نعم ، إلا أن يكون الطبري الفقيه ، فقال لي : ابن جرير  قلت : نعم ، قال : ذاك من حذاق الكوفيين . قال أبو بكر : وهذا من أبي العباس كثير ، لأنه شديد النفس ، شرس الأخلاق ، و كان قليل الشهادة لأحد بالحذق في علمه

Abu al ‘Abbas — Tha’lab — said one day, “Who remains by you?”  meaning grammarians in the east of Baghdad.

I replied, “No one remains. The greats have passed on.”

He said, “So, it remains deserted?”

I said, “Yes, except for Al Tabari, the jurist.”

He inquired, “Ibn Jarir?”

I said, “Yes.”

He commented, “He is one of the most sagacious Kufi (grammarians).”

Abu Bakr says, “This was an admiration of the highest form from Abu al ‘Abbas as he was extremely critical and cantankerous. He would seldom attest to the sagaciousness of any person’s knowledge.”[64]

 

G. Sciences of Philosophy, Logic, Dialectics, Mathematics, Algebra, and Medicine

Imam al Tabari had taken great strides in acquiring the various sciences prevalent in his era. Though he did not attain brilliance in every such science, he was certainly versed to a certain degree in them. His achievements in the fields of Islamic scholastic theology and dialects is apparent from his dismantling of the ideas he did not agree with. This can be seen quite clearly in his works Al Tafsir and Ikhtilaf al Fuqaha’.

‘Abdul ‘Aziz al Tabari says in this regard:

 

وكان له قدم في علم الجدل ، بدل على ذلك مناقضائه في كتبه على المعارضين المعاني ما أتى به

He was well versed in dialects as is apparent from the arguments he has constructed against his opposition.[65]

 

He was, similarly, well versed in philosophy. His student Abu Bakr ibn Kamil mentions that he studied the book Firdaws al Hikmah[66] from the author[67]; ‘Ali ibn Sahl al Tabari[68].

As for mathematics, algebra, medicine, and logic, ‘Abdul ‘Aziz al Tabari relates that he had studied these sciences and had garnered a large amount of medicinal knowledge. His texts in Al Wasaya are clear in relating this.[69]

‘Abdul ‘Aziz al Tabari commenting on his firm grasp over the afore mentioned sciences notes that one reading his works would think him to be an authority in that particular subject under review. He says:

 

وكان كالقارئ الذي لا يعرف إلا القرآن ، وكالمحدث الذي لا يعرف إلا الحديث ، و كالفقيه الذي لا يعرف إلا الفقه ، وكالنحوي الذي لا يعرف إلا النحو ، وکالحاسب الذي لا يعرف إلا الحساب ، و كان … جامعا للعلوم ، وإذا جمعت بين كتبه وكتب غيره وجدت لكه فضلا على غيرها

He was like a reciter who did not know anything besides the Qur’an, like a muhaddith who did not know anything besides hadith, like a jurist who did not know anything besides fiqh, like a grammarian who did not know anything besides grammar, like a mathematician who did not know anything besides mathematics, he was… a polymath. Comparing his works to the works of others, his works produced appear superior.[70]

 

II. His reliability and the praise of scholars for him.

A large number of erudite scholars; masters in hadith, fiqh, literature, and history have praised Imam Abu Jafar. They have extolled his high rank, his faith, piety, sincerity, honesty, and nobility. Hereunder are a small number of quotations from scholars who have applauded him and his talents:

 

Abu al ‘Abbas ibn Suraij:

محمد بن جرير الطبري فقيه العالم

Muhammad Jarir al Tabari; jurist of the world.[71]

Imam ibn Khuzaimah:

وما أعلم على أديم الأرض – يعني في عصره – أعلم من محمد بن جرير ، ولقد ظلمته الحنابلة

I do not know of anyone more knowledgeable than Muhammad ibn Jarir, in his era. The Hanabilah had oppressed him.[72]

 

Abu Bakr ibn Kamil al Qadi:

لم أر بعد ابن جرير أجمع للعلم وكتب العلماء ومعرفة اختلاف الفقهاء وتمكنه من العلوم منه

I have not seen anyone after Ibn Jarir who was more knowledgeable, had a greater understanding of the books of the scholars and the differences of the jurists, and held such deep insight into the sciences.[73]

 

Al Khatib al Baghdadi:

 

وكان الطبري أحد أئمة العلماء يحكم يقوله ويرجع إلى رأيه بمعرفته وفضله . وكان قد جمع من العلوم ما لم يشاركه فيه أحد من أهل عصره ، و كان حافظا لكتاب الله ، عارفا بالقراءات ، فقيها في أحكام القرآن ، عالم بالسنن وطرقها ، وصححها وسقيمها ، ناسخها ومنسوخها ، عارفا بأقوال الصحابة والتابعين ومن بعدهم من الخالفين في الأحكام ومسائل الحلال والحرام ، عارفا بايام الناس وأخبارهم

Al Tabari was one of the leading scholars. His opinions were decisive and his views held in high esteem due to his precedence. He had acquired knowledge, surpassing one and all in his era. He had memorized the Book of Allah and was well acquainted with the different modes of recital. A jurist of the Qur’anic injunctions, scholar of hadith its chains of transmission, authentic and weak, abrogating and abrogated. He was fully aware of the opinions of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, Tabi’in, and those that came after them in the injunctions, laws, permissible, and impermissible. He also had insight into the accounts and tales of the earlier societies.[74]

 

Al Isfirayini[75]:

 

ولم يكن في جميع ما نسب إليه شيء من أصول التفسير من وقت الصحابة إلى يومنا هذا من تلوث بشيء من مذاهب القدرية والخوارج الروافض – ثم يعدد المفسرين من أهل السنة فيقول – إلى أن انتهت النوبة إلى محمد بن جرير واقرانه

The principles of tafsir from the time of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum up to this day and the material therein are not muddied by other sects such as the Qadriyyah, Khawarij, and Rawafid. [After listing the commentators of the Ahlus Sunnah he says,] and so excellence in this field ends with Muhammad ibn Jarir and his contemporaries.[76]

 

Ibn Khallikan:

 

إن الإمام ابن جرير كان إماما في فنون كثيرة منها التفسير والحديث والفقه والتاريخ وغير ذلك

Imam ibn Jarir was a leading scholar in many sciences such as tafsir, hadith, fiqh, history, and others.[77]

 

Taj al Din al Subki[78]:

و هو الإمام الجليل المجتهد أحد أئمة الدنيا علما ودينا

He is the great Imam, independent authority, and one of the leading scholars of the world in knowledge and practice.[79]

 

Al Hafiz al Dhahabi:

كان ثقة صادقا حافظا رأسا في التفسير ، إماما في الفقه والإجماع والاختلاف ، علامة في التاريخ وأيام الناس ، عارفا بالقراءات وباللغة وغير ذلك

He was reliable, honest, a hafidh, and a giant in tafsir. An Imam in fiqh; in issues of consensus and contention. A erudite scholar of history and well versed in the modes of recital, linguistics and other sciences.[80]

 

 

NEXT⇒ Section Three: The Smear Campaign of Rafd Against Him.


[1] He is Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Muhammad, Abu al Farj ibn Abi Yaqub al Nadim. Author of the book Al Fihrist; one of the earliest biographical books. He was a papermaker who would sell books. He was also a Shia, Mu’tazili. He passed away the year 438 A.H/1047 A.D. His life has been recorded by Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 6 pg. 408; Ibn Hajar: Lisan al Mizan, vol. 5 pg. 72.

[2] Ibn al Nadim: Al Fihrist, pgs. 326-327.

[3] He is ‘Abdur rahman ibn ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al Jawzi al Qurashi al Baghdadi, Abu al Farj. Historian, scholar of hadith, orator. He has left behind many books. Amongst them are: Talqih Fuhum Ahl al Athar fi Mukhtasar al Siyar wa al Akhbar, Manaqib ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz, Shudhudh al ‘Uqud fi Tarikh al ‘Uhud, Al Du’afa’ wa al Matrukin, Al Nasikh wa al Mansukh, Sawlah al ‘Aql ‘ala al Hawa, Talbis Iblis, and Funun al Afnan fi ‘Uyun ‘Ulum al Qur’an. He passed away the year 597 A.H/1201 A.D. His life has been recorded by Abu Shamah: Al Dhayl ‘ala al Rawdatayn, pg. 21; Ibn Khallikan: Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 3 pg. 140; Ibn al Kathir: Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 13 pg. 28.

[4] Ibn al Jawzi: Al Muntazam, vol. 6 pg. 171.

[5] Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 2 pg. 163.

[6] He is Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Khuzaimah al Sulami. Hafidh, Hujjah, Faqih. Sheikh al Islam and the Imam of Nisapur in his era.

  • Al Dhahabi says, “He took to the sciences of hadith and fiqh in his early years till he attained proficiency and deep knowledge therein by which similitudes would be given.”

Amongst his books are, Al Tawhid wa Ithbat Sifah al Rabb, Mukhtasar al Mukhtasar which is known as Sahih ibn Khuzaimah, and Fiqh Hadith Barirah. He passed away the year 311 A.H/924 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim in Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil vol. 7 pg. 196; Al Sahmi: Tarikh Jurjan. Pg. 413; Al Dhahabi: Tadhkirah al Huffaz, vol. 2 pg. 720; Siyar A’lam an-Nubala’, vol. 14 pg. 365; Al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 2 pg. 130.

[7] Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 2 pg. 164.

[8] He is Ahmed ibn Muhammad al Isfirayini, Abu Hamid. From amongst the renowned Shafi’i jurists.

  • Sheikh Abu Ishaq says, “Mastery in the religious and secular sciences ended with him in Baghdad. He had disciples throughout the lands and his circle of learning boasted three hundred jurists.”
  • Al Khatib says, “He was reliable.”

People would say that if al Shafi’i had seen him, he would have been impressed by him. He has written, Al Rawnaq fi al Lughah and has commentaries as well as footnotes on books of jurisprudence and its principles. He passed away the year 406 A.H/1016 A.D. His life has been recorded by Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 4 pg. 368; Al Shirazi: Tabaqat al Fuqaha, pg. 123; Ibn Khallikan: Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 1 pg. 72 and Al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 2 pg. 24.

[9] Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 12 pg. 169; Al Dhahabi: Tadhkirah al Huffaz, vol. 2 pg. 712.

[10] He is ‘Abdur rahman ibn Abu Bakr Jalal al Din al Suyuti. Imam, Hafidh, historian, and linguist. The books he has written amount to six hundred or so. The leaders and affluent would visit him presenting him with money and gifts, which he would return. The Sultan requested his presence on numerous occasions but he did not accede his request. He further sent many gifts to him which he returned. From amongst his great many books are, Al Ahadith al Munifah, Is’af al Mubatta’ fi Rijal al Muwatta’, Durr al Sahabah fi man Dakhal Misr min al Sahabah, Al Shamarikh fi ‘ilm al Tarikh, Ma Rawah al Asatin fi ‘Adm al Maji’ ila al Sultan, Mufhamat al Aqran fi Mubhamat al Qur’an, Nuzhah al Julasa’ fi Ash’ar al Nisa’, and Mushtaha al ‘Uqul fi Muntaha al Nuqul. He passed away the year 911 A.H/1505 A.D. His life has been recorded by Al Sakhawi: Al Daw’ al Lami’, vol. 4 pg. 65; Ibn Iyas: Badai’ al Zuhur, vol. 1 pg. 226; Ibn al ‘Imad: Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 8 pg. 51.

[11] Al Suyuti: Tabaqat al Mufassirin, pg. 30.

[12] He is Yahya ibn Sharaf al Hawrani al Nawawi, Abu Zakariyya. Al ‘Allamah. Faqih, and Muhaddith. Qutub al Din al Nawawi, Abu Zakariyya. Erudite scholar, jurist, and muhaddith.

  • Qutub al Din al Yunini says, “He was a unique force of knowledge, piety, worship, and abstinence in his era.”

He has authored, Al Taqrib wa al Taysir, Khulasah al Ahkam, Al Arba’un Hadith al Nawawaiyyah, Tahdhib al Asma’ wa al Lughat, and Manaqib al Shafi’i. He passed away the year 676 A.H/1277 A.D. His life has recorded by Ibn Taghribirdi: Al Nujum al Zahirah, vol. 7 pg. 278; Ibn ‘Attiyah al Shubrakhiti: Al Futuhat al Wahbiyyah bi Sharh Al Arba’in Hadith al Nawawaiyyah, pg. 2; and Muqaddimah Sahih Muslim.

[13] Tahdhib al Asma’ wa al Sifat, vol. 1 pg. 78.

[14] ‘Ilm al Riwayah is studying the chain of narration whilst ‘Ilm al Dirayah pertains to the study of the narration.

[15] Al Suyuti: Tabaqat al Mufassirin, pg. 20.

[16] He is Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Ahmed, Shams al Din al Dawoodi al Maliki, al Misri. One of the great scholars of hadith in his era. He has written, Tabaqat al Mufassirin and Dhayl Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah. He passed away the year 945 A.H/1538 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn al ‘Imad: Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 8 pg. 264 and Haji Khalifah: Kashf al Zunun, vol. 2 pg. 1107.

[17] Al Dawoodi: Tabaqat al Mufassirin, vol. 6 pg. 111.

[18] I did not find his profile amongst the available sources.

[19] Al Dawoodi: Tabaqat al Mufassirin, vol. 6 pg. 113.

[20] Ibn Taymiyyah: Majmu’ al Fatawa, vol. 6 pg. 389.

[21] See, Al Dhahabi: Siyar A’lam an-Nubala’, vol. 14 pgs. 270-273; Al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 3 pg. 121. The book has been printed under the auspices of Jami’ah al Imam Muhammad ibn Sa’ud, Riyadh in 4 volumes. Mahmud Muhammad Shakir has worked on the citation and extraction of the narrations.

[22] Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 2 pg. 163.

[23] He is Yahya ibn Muhammad ibn Sa’id, Abu Muhammad al Baghdadi. From amongst the leading huffaz of hadith.

  • Al Dhahabi says, “Ibn Sa’id has substantial solid opinions regarding narrators and impairments which shows his vast knowledge.”
  • Abu ‘Ali al Nisapuri says, “Amongst the contemporaries of Ibn Sa’id in Iraq there was no one of his understanding. We believe that understanding trumps memory. He is of a higher standing than Ibn Abi Dawood in understanding and memory.”

He has written, Al Sunan which is in order of the injunctions and Musnad Abu Bakr al Siddiq. He passed away the year 318 A.H. / 930 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn al Nadim: Al Fihrist, pg. 325; Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 14 pg. 321; Al Dhahabi: Tadhkirah al Huffaz, vol. 2 pg. 776; Siyar A’lam an-Nubala’, vol. 14 pg. 501.

[24] Al Dhahabi: Tadhkirah al Huffaz, vol. 2 pg. 715.

[25] Al Nawawi: Tahdhib al Asma’ wa al Lughat, vol. 1 pg. 78.

[26] He is Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Khallikan al Irbili, Abu al ‘Abbas. Historian and linguist. He took on the judicial chair of Sham as well as lecturing in many of the institutes of Dimashq during the period of al Malik al Zahir. He passed away the year 681 A.H/1282 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn Shakir al Kutubi: Fawat al Wafayat, vol. 1 pg. 55; by Ibn Taghribirdi: Al Nujum al Zahirah, vol. 7 pg. 353.

[27] Ibn Khallikan: Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 4 pg. 191.

[28] He is ‘Umar ibn Ahmed ibn Ibrahim ibn ‘Abdwayh ibn Sadus al Hudhali al ‘Abduwi al Nisapuri, Abu Hazim. From amongst the huffaz of hadith.

  • Al Khatib says, “He was reliable, honest, and a hafidh.”
  • Al Dhahabi says, “He wrote narrations of high transmission and low. He gathered, extracted, and drew differences in the science of hadith.”

He passed away the year 417 A.H/1026 A.D. His life has been recorded Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 11 pg. 272; Ibn al Jawzi: Al Muntazam, vol. 8 pg. 27; Al Dhahabi: Tadhkirah al Huffaz, vol. 3 pg. 1072.

[29] A city in Khurasan. See al Humairi: Al Rawd al Mi’tar fi Khabr al Aqtar.

[30] He is Hussain ibn ‘Ali al Tamimi, Abu Ahmed. He was known as Hussainik. From the people of hadith. He heard from Abu al ‘Abbas al Siraj and others. Al Hakim and others narrate from him.

  • Abu Bakr al Barqani says, “Hussainik was a proof, reliable, and a great personality.

He passed away the year 375 A.H. /985 A.D. His life has been recorded by Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 8 pg. 67; Ibn al Kathir in Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 11 pg. 304.

[31] Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 2 pg. 164.

[32] See, pgs. 169-167.

[33] Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 18 pg. pgs. 45- 65.

[34] Ibid, vol. 18 pg. 65.

[35] He is Ahmed ibn Kamil ibn Shajarah ibn Mansur al Qadi al Baghdadi. His teknonym is Abu Bakr. He is one of the students of Abu Jafar al Tabari. He was a scholar of the battles, injunctions, sciences of the Qur’an, grammar, poetry, and the history of the narrators of hadith. He was the judge of Kufah. He has written, Al Qira’at, Mujiz al Ta’wil ‘an Hukm al Tanzil, Al Tarikh, Ummahat al Mu’minin, and Akhbar al Qudat. He passed away the year 350 A.H/961 A.D. His life has been recorded by Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 1 pg. 357; Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 4 pg. 104; Al Qafti: Inba’ al Ruwat ‘ala Anba’ al Nuhat, vol. 1 pgs. 132-133; Al Qurashi: Kitab al Kharaj, vol. 1 pg. 90.

[36] Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 8 pg. 75.

[37] He is Dawood ibn ‘Ali ibn Khalf al Asbahani, Abu Sulaiman. Famously known as Al Zahiri. One of the Imam’s of ijtihad. The Zahiriyyah school of thought is attributed to him. They are known as such as they take the Zahir (literal) meanings of the Qur’an and ahadith, not delving into explanations, opinion, and or deductive analogy. He has written many books in fiqh and others in principles of fiqh. Amongst them are, Al Khayr al Mujib li al ‘ilm, Al Khusus wa al ‘Umum, Al Mufassar wa al Mujmal, Al Ijma’, and Ibtal al Qiyas. He passed away the year 270 A.H/884 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn al Nadim: Al Fihrist, pg. 33; Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 8 pg. 369; Al Shirazi: Tabaqat al Mufassirin, pg. 92; Al Dhahabi: Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol.13 pg. 97; Tadhkirah al Huffaz, vol. 2 pg. 572.

[38] He is Muhammad ibn Muqatil al Razi. He heard from the great muhaddithin and was a jurist of note. He passed away the year 248 A.H/862 A.D. His life has been recorded by Al Qurashi: Kitab al Kharaj, vol. 2 pg. 134; Ibn Hajar: Lisan al Mizan, vol. 5 pg. 388; Al Tahdhib, vol. 9 pg. 469.

[39] Ibn al Nadim: Al Fihrist, pg. 326. Between Ray and Nisapur is the distance of approximately 860 km. See, Yaqut: Mujam al Buldan, vol. 3 pg. 116.

[40] He is ‘Uthman ibn Sa’id ibn Basshar, Abu al Qasim al Ahwal al Anmati. He was one of the jurists of the Shafi’i mazhab. He passed away the year 288 A.H/900 A.D. His life has been recorded by Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 11 pg. 292; Al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 3 pg. 123.

[41] He is Ahmed ibn ‘Umar ibn Suraij al Baghdadi, Abu al ‘Abbas. A Shafi’i jurist of his era. He was appointed as judge of Shiraz. Ibn Khallikan has recorded that it used to be said regarding him in his time period, ‘Verily Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sent ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz at the turn of the century to celebrate every sunnah practice and destroy every innovation. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala favoured the turn of the second century by Imam al Shafi’i who celebrated every sunnah and supress every innovation. And Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala favoured the turn of the third century by you. You gave strength to every sunnah and weakened every innovation. He has written many books. Amongst them are, Al Taqrib bayn al Muzani wa al Shafi’i, Al Wadai’ li Mansus al Sharai’, and Al Radd ‘ala Muhammad ibn al Hussain. He passed away the year 306 A.H/918 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn al Nadim: Al Fihrist, pg. 299; Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 4 pg. 287; Ibn Khallikan: Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 6 pg. 66; Al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 2 pg. 87.

[42] Ibn ‘Asakir: Tarikh Dimashq, vol. 15 pg. 167; Al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 3 pg. 123.

[43] Al Suyuti: Tabaqat al Mufassirin, pg. 30.

[44] Al Mu’afi ibn Zakariyya ibn Yahya al Jariri al Naharwani, Abu al Farj. Judge, linguist, and jurist. He is known as al Jariri as he was adherent to the mazhab of Ibn Jarir al Tabari.

  • Ibn al Nadim says, “He was unique in his era as an adherent to the mazhab of Abu Jafar. He memorized his books and was a polymath. Extremely intelligent, had an amazing memory, and was witty.”

He has written amongst other books, Al Jalis wa al Anis, Al Hudud wa al ‘Uqud, Al Radd ‘ala Abi Yahya al Balkhi fi Iftirad al Ima’, Al Muhawarah, and Al Bayan al Mujiz ‘an ‘ulum al Qur’an al Mu’jiz. He passed away the year 390 A.H/1000 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn al Nadim: Al Fihrist, pg. 328; Ibn al Kathir in Al Bidayah, vol. 11 pg. 328; Al Zabidi: Taj al ‘Urus min Jawahir al Qamus, vol. 3 pg. 359.

[45] He is Abu al Hassan Ahmed ibn Yahya ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Mansur al Munajjam al Nadim. Linguist, poet, and jurist. From amongst the companions of Abu Jafar al Tabari and one who had attained a deep understanding of his mazhab. He has written amongst other books, Al Ijma’ fi al Fiqh ‘ala mazhab ibn Jarir al Tabari, Al Madkhal ila Mazhab al Tabari wa Nusrah Mazhabih, and Kitab al Awqat. He passed away the year 300 A.H/912 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn al Nadim: Al Fihrist, pg. 205; Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 5 pg. 215; Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 2 pgs. 28-29; Ibn Hajar: Lisan al Mizan, vol. 1 pg. 324.

[46] Ibn al Nadim: Al Fihrist, pgs. 327-328.

[47] Ibn Farhun: Al Dibaj al Mazhab, vol. 1 pg. 62.

[48] I did not find his profile amongst the readily available sources.

[49] Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 18 pg. 73.

[50] He is Muhammad ibn al Hassan ibn Farqad Abu ‘Abdullah al Shaybani al Kufi. The jurist of Iraq.

  • Imam al Shafi’i says, “I have not seen any man with greater knowledge pertaining to the permissible and impermissible, the abrogating and abrogated, and the deeper impairments than Muhammad ibn al Hassan. If I wish, I could say that the Qur’an had been revealed in the dialect of Muhammad ibn al Hassan due to his eloquence.”
  • Al Dhahabi says, “He took on the position of chief justice for Al Rashid after Qadi Abu Yusuf. Together with his deep insight into fiqh, similitudes were drawn by his intelligence.”
  • Imam Ahmed was once asked, “Where have you attained these intricate injunctions?” He replied, “From the books of Muhammad ibn al Hassan.”

The quality and detail of the works he produced are indicative of his high rank. Amongst his books are, Al Jami’ al Kabir al Jami’ al Saghir, Al Asl, Al Athar, and Al Siyar al Kabir which is thought to be the first work produced on international relations. This has led many researchers, domestic and foreign, to celebrate Imam Muhammad as the father of International Law preceding even Hugo Grotius and others. In celebration and recognition of this fact, a group of distinguished scholars and specialists in international law established the ‘Al Shaybani Society for International Law’ in Göttingen, Germany. Imam Muhammad and Al Kisa’i both passed away on the same day having left with Al Rashid to Ray. It has been narrated that Al Rashid was shaken by their deaths and said, ‘I have buried jurisprudence and grammar in Ray.’ This was in the year, 189 A.H/804 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn Ma’in: Al Tarikh, vol. 2 pg. 511; Ibn Abi Hatim in Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil vol. 7 pg. 227; Ibn al Nadim: Al Fihrist, pg. 287; Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 2 pg. 172; Al Shirazi: Tabaqat al Fuqaha, pg. 135; and Ibn Khallikan: Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 4 pg. 184.

[51] He is Yaqut ibn ‘Abdullah al Rumi al Hamawi, Abu ‘Abdullah. Historian, linguist, geographer and scholar familiar with the shaping of territories. The author of Tarikh Irbil mentions that he initially lived in Khawarizm but left after what occurred between the Tatar and Sultan Muhammad ibn Tekish Khawarizmi Shah. Amongst his works are, Mujam al Udaba’, Mujam al Buldan, Mujam al Shu’ara’, Al Mabda’ wa al Ma’al, Kitab al Duwal, and Al Muqtadab. He passed away the year 626 A.H/1229 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn al Mustawfa’: Tarikh Irbil, vol. 1 pg. 319; Ibn Khallikan: Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 6 pg. 127; Al Yafi’i: Mir’at al Jinan, vol. 4 pg. 59.

[52] Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 18 pg. 72.  This book has been published with the annotations of Dr Frederik Kirn by Zincoghraph Al Taraki, Egypt.

[53] He is ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul Karim ibn ‘Abdul Wahid al Shaybani al Jazri, ‘Iz al Din ibn al Athir, Abu al Hassan. He was a scholar of history, genealogy, and language. Amongst his books are, Al Kamil fi al Tarikh, Usd al Ghabah fi Ma’rifah al Sahabah, and Al Lubab fi Tahdhib al Ansab. One should not confuse him with Ibn al Athir the muhaddith. He passed away the year 630 A.H/1233 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn Khallikan: Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 3 pg. 348; and Al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 5 pg. 127.

[54] Al Dhahabi: Tadhkirah al Huffaz, vol. 2 pg. 712.

[55] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn al Mughallis al Baghdadi, Abu al Hassan. A jurist of the Zahiri school of thought. Amongst his books are, Ahkam al Qur’an, Al Talaq, and Al Wala’. He passed away the year 324 A.H/936 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn al Nadim: Al Fihrist, pg. 306; Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 9 pg. 385; Al Shirazi: Tabaqat al Fuqaha, pg. 150; and Abu al Fida’: Al Mukhtasar fi Akhbar al Bashar, vol. 2 pg. 90.

[56] Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 18 pgs. 68 – 69.

[57] Ibn Khallikan: Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 4 pg. 191.

[58] He is ‘Ali ibn Yusuf ibn Ibrahim al Shaybani al Qafti, Abu al Hassan. Vizier, historian, and author. He took on the position of judge for Malik al Zahir at Aleppo. Malik ‘Abdul ‘Aziz later made him a vizier in the year 633 A.H/1235 A.D. Amongst his books are, Ikhbar al ‘Ulama’ bi Akhbar al Hukama’, Inbah al Ruwat ‘ala Anbah al Nuhat, Akhbar Misr, Tarikh al Yemen, Akhbar al Musannifin wa ma Sannafuhu, Islah Khalal al Sihah li al Jawhari, and Al Muhammadun min al Shu’ara’. He passed away the year 646 A.H/1248 A.D. His life has been recorded by Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 15 pg. 145/204; Ibn al Quti: Al Hawadith al Jami’ah wa al Tajarib al Nafi’ah fi al Mi’ah al Sabi’ah, pg. 237; Al Adfuy: Al Tali’ al Sa’id al Jami’ li Asma’ al Fudala’ wa al Ruwat bi al Sa’id, pg. 237.

[59] Al Qafti: Al Muhammadun min al Shu’ara’, vol. 1 pg. 223.

[60] Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 18 pg. 60.

[61] He is Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Hamdan Abu ‘Amr Al Zahid al Nisapuri. He is famed as the muhaddith of Nisapur. He was a scholar of hadith, grammar, and Qira’at.

  • Al Dhahabi says, “An ascetic, reliable.”

He has written the book, Al Fawa’id. He passed away the year 378 A.H/988 A.D. His life has been recorded by Al Dhahabi: Mizan al I’tidal, vol. 3 pg. 457; Al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 2 pg. 107; Al Suyuti: Bughyah al al Wu’ah, pg. 9.

[62] Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 18 pg. 60.

[63] He is Ahmed ibn Musa ibn al ‘Abbas ibn Mujahid al Tamimi al Baghdadi. Famously known as Ibn Mujahid, Abu Bakr, reciter, scholar of hadith and grammar.

  • Al Khatib says, “He was the leader of the Qurra’ in his era and surpassed all those in his time period.”

Amongst his books are, Qira’ah al Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Al Qira’at al Kabir, Qira’ah Ibn ‘Amr, Qira’ah ‘Asim, Qira’ah Hamzah, Qira’ah Nafi’, Qira’ah al Kisa’i, Kitab al Ya’at, and Kitab al Ha’at. He passed away the year 324 A.H/936 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn al Nadim: Al Fihrist, pg. 47; Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 5 pg. 144; Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 5 pg. 65; Al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 2 pg. 102.

[64] Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 18 pg. 60.

[65] Ibid, vol. 18 pg. 60.

[66] Al Baghdadi mentions this in Hadiyyah al ‘Arifin fi Asma’ al Muallifin wa Athar al Musannifin, vol. 5 pg. 669.

[67] ‘Ali ibn Sahl al Tabari, Abu al Hassan. Physician and professor of medicine. He was a Jew who became a Muslim at the hands of Al Mu’tasim al ‘Abbasi. He was alive before the year 227 A.H/841 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn Abi Usaybi’ah: ‘Uyun al Anba’ fi Tabaqat al Atibba’, pg. 414; Al Qafti: Tarikh al Hukama’, pg. 128.

[68] Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 18 pg. 92.

[69] Ibid, vol. 18 pg. 61.

[70] Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 18 pg. 61.

[71] Al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 3 pg. 123

[72] Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 2 pg. 166.

[73] Yaqut: Mujam al Udaba’, vol. 18 pg. 75.

[74] Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 2 pg. 163.

[75] He is not to be confused with Abu Hamid al Isfirayini. He is known as Abu al Muzaffar Shahfur ibn Tahir. Author of Al Tabsir fi al Din. He passed away the year 471 A.H/1078 A.D.

[76] Al Isfirayini: Al Tabsir fi al Din wa Tamyiz Furqah al Najiyah ‘an al Halikin, pg. 172.

[77] Ibn Khallikan: Wafayat al A’yan, vol. 4 pg. 191.

[78] He is ‘Abdul Wahhab ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdul Kafi al Subki al Misri, Abu Nasr. Jurist, historian, and judge. He faced great difficulties and challenges when he was judge. Amongst his books are Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah al Kubra’, Muʻid al Niʻam wa Mubid al Niqam, Tawshih al Tashih, and Al Ashbah wa al Naza’ir. He passed away the year 771 A.H/1370 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn Hajar: Al Durar al Kaminah, vol. 2 pg. 425; Al Suyuti: Husn al Muhadarah, vol. 1 pg. 182.

[79] Al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 3 pg. 120.

[80] Al Dhahabi: Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 14 pg. 270.

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