Section Two: Answering the allegations against ‘Uthman I. Accusations of familial preference.

Moulana Ebrahim Rawat: Sayyiduna Uthman ibn Affan
February 18, 2020
Section Two: II. Accusations of innovation.
March 2, 2020

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Section Two: Answering the allegations against ‘Uthman.

 

I. Accusations of familial preference.

II. Accusations of innovation.

III. Accusations in dealing with those Sahabah who conflicted with him.

IV. Accusations against his personality.

 

I. Accusations of familial preference.

 

Conditions were quite calm and peaceful during the era of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and people became complacent living in ease under the shadow of the Rightly Guided Khalifas. The calls to fitnah and attempts in causing division by the Saba’iyyah and Bedouins were made at this time. They began attributing lies to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his governors. Whenever something negative would come to light, they brought about accusations and slanders against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Every accusation that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was wrongly accorded, was part of the plan of the Khawarij to either oust him or kill him. Imam al Tabari narrates from Saif ibn ‘Umar:

نريد أن نذكر له أشياء قد زرعناها في قلوب الناس، ثم نرجع إليهم فنزعم لهم أنا قررناه بها ، فلم يخرج منها ولم يتب ، ثم نخرج كأننا حجاج حتى نقدم فنحيط به فنخلعه فإن أبي قتلناه

We wished to mention to (‘Uthman) certain misdeeds that we have planted in the hearts of the people. Afterwards we shall go back to them and claim that we compelled him to confess these things, but that he did not abandon them or repent. Then we will set out in the guise of pilgrims until we reach Madinah. We will surround him and depose him, and if he refuses we will kill him.[1]

 

These accusations can be categorised into the following:

Accusations against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in giving preference to individuals of his family by appointing them to posts. This category of accusations also includes:

  1. His removing some senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum from leadership posts whilst appointing juniors,
  2. Recalling his uncle al Hakam after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had exiled him,
  3. Giving Marwan the proceeds of Fadak as well as one hundred thousand dirhams,
  4. Giving Ibn Abi Sarh one fifth of the booty of Ifriqiyyah.[2]

 

1. Allegation: He appointed his young relatives in place of Senior Sahabah

The first accusation in this category levelled against him is that he removed senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and replaced them with those beneath them in status and virtue of his own family with the likes of Sa’id ibn al ‘As, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir, Ibn Abi Sarh, and Muawiyah. These accusations need to be contextualised within the parameters of political prudence and prophetic precedence. Policies enforced by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Abu Bakr, and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.

An authentic narration outlines the incident of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam having appointed ‘Amr ibn al ‘As at the head of the army in the expedition of Dhat al Salasil. This was whilst within the ranks of the army were the likes of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. This preference of leadership had ‘Amr asking Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

من أحب الناس إليك ؟ قال : « عائشة » ، قال : من الرجال ؟ قال : « أبوها» ، قال : ثم من ؟ قال : « عمر بن الخطاب»

Who amongst people are dearest to you?

He said, “Aisha.”

He then asked, “Who amongst men?”

He said, “Her father”.

He said, “And who next?”

He said, “‘Umar.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam thus enumerated many men and did not mention ‘Amr amongst them.[3]

 

It has also been established that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not allow Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu any position of leadership knowing that he would not be able to withstand the gravities of leadership. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to him:

 

يا أبا ذر ، أراك ضعيفا ، وإني أحب لك ما أحب لنفسي لا تأمرن على اثنين ولا تولين مال يتيم

O Abu Dharr, I see that you are weak and I like for you what I like for myself. Do not rule over (even) two persons, and do not manage an orphan’s property.[4]

 

This was notwithstanding the renowned status and virtue held by Abu Dharr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said regarding him:

 

ما أقلت الغبراء ولا أظلت الخضراء من رجل أصدق من أبي ذر

There is no one more truthful, that the sky has shaded and the earth has carried, than Abu Dharr.[5]

 

In a similar vein Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu refused to remove Khalid ibn Walid radiya Llahu ‘anhu from his post even at the insistence of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He reasoned to keep him at his post due to his strength and tactical skill in the military setting. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu would say:

 

لا أشيم سيفًا سلّه الله على المشركين

I will not sheath a sword that Allah has drawn against the polytheists.[6]

 

‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu would appoint a man whilst disregarding another who held greater virtue and precedence amongst the Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This decision was made based on the formers ability in carrying out tasks, insight, and political acumen.

People would say to ‘Umar:

مالك لا تولي الأكابر من أصحاب رسول الله

Why do you not appoint the senior Companions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to posts?

 

He would reply:

إني لأتحرج أن أستعمل الرجل وأنا أجد أقوى منه

I find it difficult to appoint a man when I find another better suited to the task.

 

Another narrations records him saying:

ولو علمت أن أحدا من الناس أقوى عليه منّي – أمر الولاية – لکنت أقدّم فتضرب عنقي أحب إليّ من أنأليه

If I knew of anyone more suited to this post—of leadership—I would avail myself and love for my neck to be struck rather than taking on this duty.[7]

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his Khalifas that came after him were adherents to the following political philosophy:

 

التقي الضعيف له تقاء وللخليفة ضعفه ، والقوي الفاجر للخليفة قوته وفجوره على نفسه ، لأن التقي الضعيف تقواه لنفسه وضعفه للمسلمين والقوي الفاجر فجوره لنفسه وقوته للمسلمين

A pious weak man benefits himself by way of his piety though he represents weakness to the khalifah and the Muslims and strong sinner is by himself liable for his sin whilst his strength an asset to the khalifah and the Muslims.[8]

 

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu lived his political life according to this designation. Since Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and al Sheikhayn (Abu Bakr and ‘Umar) had adopted the same political ideology, which has been accepted by the ummah as the most suitable and definitive, how can condemnation be then the lot of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu? Is it not so that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and al Sheikhayn were his role models? Did he not have the executive rights of caliphate that were afforded to Abu Bakr and ‘Umar? What would the meaning of him being the leader be if he were barred from relieving one from a post while appointing another all the while taking into consideration the welfare of the Islamic empire; a responsibility of the khalifah which the masses are unaware of and do not understand! His statement at his inauguration to the office of caliphate reflects these sentiments. He said:

 

أما بعد ، إني مع ولست بمبتدع

I am a follower and not an innovator.[9]

 

It is astounding that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is considered culpable in appointing his family persons whilst ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is not censured by anyone when he had done the same. He appointed ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas over Basrah[10], ‘Ubaidullah ibn ‘Abbas over Yemen[11], Qutham ibn ‘Abbas over Makkah and Ta’if[12], Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr—his foster child—over Egypt[13], and Thumamah ibn ‘Abbas over Madinah[14].

Ibn Taymiyyah says in this regard:

 

اذا كان كذلك ظهرت حجة عثمان ، فعثمان يقول : إن بني أمية كان رسول الله يستعملهم في حياته ، واستعملهم بعده من لا يتهم فيهم ، أبو بكر الصديق رضي الله عنه وعمر رضي الله عنه ولا نعرف قبيلة من قبائل قريش فيها عمال لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أكثر من بني عبد شمس – بنو أمية – لأنهم كانوا كثيرين وكان فيهم شرف وسؤدد ، فاستعمل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في عزة الإسلام على أفضل الأرض « مكة » بعد افتتاحها سنة ثمان عتاب بن أسيد ابن أبي العاص ، وهو شاب في نحو العشرين من العمر ، واستعمل على نجران أبا سفيان بن حرب بن أمية ، واستعمل أيضا خالد بن سعید بن العاص – له صحبة – على صدقات بني مذحج وعلى صنعاء اليمن ، فلم يزل حتى مات رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم واستعمل عثمان بن سعيد بن العاص – له صحبة – على تيماء وخيبر وقرى عرينة  ، واستعمل أبان بن سعيد بن العاص – له صحبة – على بعض السرايا ، ثم استعمله على البحرين ، فلم يزل عليها بعد العلاء الحضرمي حتى توفي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم… فيقول عثمان : أنا لم أستعمل إلا من استعمله النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ومن جنسهم ومن قبيلتهم . وكذلك أبو بكر وعمر بعد ، فقد ولى أبو بكر يزيد بن أبي سفيان بن حرب – له صحبة – في فتوح الشام وأقره عمر ، ثم ولى عمر بعده أخاه معاوية . وهذا النقل في استعمال هؤلاء ثابت مشهور عنه بل متواتر عند أهل العلم

Since this is the case, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is in the clear. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is reported to have said, “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed individuals of the Banu Umayyah to leadership positions in his life and subsequently by those who cannot be accused of favoring them because of blood-ties; Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma appointed from them as well. We do not know of any tribe of Quraysh that had more people employed by the Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam than the Banu ‘Abd Shams, i.e. the Banu Umayyah, as they were numerous and they were known to be people of leadership and status. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed ‘Itab ibn Usayd ibn Abi al ‘As as governor of Makkah a year after the conquest when he was just twenty, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb ibn Umayyah over Najran, Khalid ibn Sa’id in charge of the zakat of Banu Madhij and over San’a, Yemen, and Aban ibn Sa’id in charge of some campaigns then as governor of Bahrain.” So ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu only appointed people of the same people and clan as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma had done. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan in charge of the conquests in Syria and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu left him in that post, then after Yazid died he appointed his brother Muawiyah. The narratives in appointing these people are established and famous; rather they reach the level of undeniability as attested to by the scholars.[15]

 

It is safe to say that the most prominent governors whom ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed from among his relatives are proven to have been qualified and capable in running the affairs of their constituents. Allah granted many conquests at their hands, and they treated the people justly and kindly. Some of them had been appointed as governors previously, during the reign of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.

Amongst these are:

 

  • Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Sham.

‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu had appointed him in place of his brother Yazid who had passed away in the ‘Amwas plague the year 18 A.H.[16]/639 A.D. He then appointed him over the entire area of Sham.[17] Prior to being appointed as governor by ‘Umar or ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma he was one of those whom Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam relied upon by taking him on a scribe of revelation as established in Sahih Muslim.[18]

The life of Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu in relation to his constituent’s remains an example of great leadership by virtue of which the people loved him. It has been established in an authentic narration from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who said:

 

خيار أئمتكم – حكامكم – الذين تحبونهم ويحبونكم وتصلون عليهم – تدعون لهم – ويصلون عليكم ، وشرار أئمتكم الذين تبغضونهم ويبغضونكم وتلعنونهم ويلعنونكم

The best of your leaders are those whom you love and who love you, whom you pray for and who pray for you. And the worst of your leaders are those whom you hate and who hate you, whom you curse and who curse you.[19]

 

  • ‘Abdullah ibn Sa’d ibn Abi Sarh radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Egypt.

Ibn Hisham says regarding him:

وقد حسن إسلامه بعد ذلك وولاه عمر بعض أعماله ثم ولاه عثمان

After this his reversion Islam was sincere, ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed him to a post and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu did the same.[20]

 

Ibn Hajar has related in his historical work from Ibn al Barqi[21] who sources from Layth ibn Sa’d who said:

 

كان ابن أبي سرح على الصعيد في زمن عمر ، ثم ضم إليه عثمان مصر كلها ، وكان محمودا في ولايته ، وغزا ثلاث غزوات : إفريقية وذات الصواري والأساود

Ibn Abi al Sarh was appointed over al Sa’id (Upper Egypt) during the era of ‘Umar. ‘Uthman then had him govern the whole of Egypt. His rule was exemplary. He launched three campaigns, in Ifriqiyyah, Dhat al Sawari, and al Asawid.[22]

 

He held a commendable position throughout his governorship, especially in the area of conquests. Many Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum fought under his flag in the campaign on Ifriqiyyah. Amongst these Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair, and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[23]

Imam al Dhahabi says regarding him:

 

ولم يتعد ولا فعل ما ينقم عليه ، وكان أحد عقلاء الرجال وأجوادهم ، وروى البغوي بإسناد صحيح عن يزيد بن أبي حبيب قال : خرج ابن أبي سرح إلى الرملة ، فلما كان الصبح قال : اللهم أجعل آخر عملي الصبح ، فتوضا ، ثم صلی ، فسلم عن يمينه ، ثم ذهب بسلم عن يساره ، فقبض الله روحه ، وذكره البخاري من هذا الوجه

He did not go beyond the bounds, nor did he do actions worthy of condemnation. He was a man of intelligence and generosity. Al Baghawi has related with an authentic chain of transmission from Yazid ibn Abi Habib[24] who said, “Ibn Abi al Sarh travelled to Ramlah[25]. At the time of the morning prayer he said, ‘O Allah, make the last action of mines the Fajr prayer.’ He thus performed ablution and performed the Fajr prayer. He made salam to his right and as he went to make salam to his left, Allah took away his soul.” Al Bukhari has narrated it in this manner.[26]

 

  • Al Walid ibn ‘Uqbah radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Kufah.

He was one of those who were appointed by Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. In the twelfth year of the hijrah (633 A.D) al Walid was the runner between the khalifah and Khalid ibn al Walid, responsible for carrying messages during the Battle of al Madhar.[27] Similarly, Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent him with reinforcements to his commander ‘Iyad ibn Ghanam[28]. ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu then appointed him to collect the zakat from the Banu Taghlib[29] and further as the governor over the Arabs of Jazirah.[30]

Al Walid was gallant, valiant, and fought in many battles. Al Sha’bi praised his military campaigns and his governorship when the campaigns of Maslamah ibn ‘Abdul Malik[31] were mentioned to him. He said:

 

کیف لو أدركتم الوليد وغزوه وأمارته ، إنه كان ليغزو فينتهي إلى كذا وكذا ، ما نقص ولا انتقص عليه أحد حتى عزل عن عمله

If only you had seen al Walid and his campaigns and his governorship, for he would go out on campaign and reach such and such a place, and he never fell short or was accused of falling short by anyone until he was dismissed from his post.[32]

 

Al Walid radiya Llahu ‘anhu was one of the most beloved of people to the people, and one of the kindest to them. Five years went by with no door at his house.[33]

With regard to the drinking of al Walid whilst he was appointed by ‘Uthman as governor over Kufah, even as proven, is not a stain against ‘Uthman. Rather it is one of the virtues of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he carried out the hadd (punishment) on him and dismissed him from his post in Kufah. Al Bukhari has narrated this incident under the chapter heading, ‘The Virtues of ‘Uthman’.[34]

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would say:

 

إنكم وما تعيرون به عثمان کالطاعن نفسه ليقتل ردءَهُ ما ذنب عثمان في رجل قد ضربه بفعله وعزله عن عمله! وما ذنب عثمان فيما صنع عن أمرنا!

When you criticize ‘Uthman, it is like someone who stabs himself in order to kill someone behind him. What fault is it of ‘Uthman if he carried out the hadd on a man because of his deeds and dismissed him from his post? What fault is it of ‘Uthman for what he did following our advice.[35]

 

Ibn Taymiyyah notes:

وهذا علي تبين له من عماله ما لم يكن يظنه فيهم ما لا يقدح في عثمان ولا غيره

We find ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu explaining that which he had no inkling of from his governors. This does not reflect badly on ‘Uthman nor on anyone else.[36]

 

Moreover, this did not happen only during the reign of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu there was a similar incident at the time ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, as it was stated that Qudamah ibn Maz’un—sahabi—drank alcohol when he was the governor for ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Bahrain. He carried out the hadd on him and dismissed him.[37]

 

  • Sa’id ibn al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed him as governor of Kufah after having dismissed al Walid. He was from the most eloquent of the Quraysh and amongst those who were selected to write the Qur’an. Ibn Abi Dawood states in al Masahif:

 

إن عربية القرآن أقيمت على لسان سعيد بن العاص ؛ لأنه كان أشبههم لهجه برسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

The Arabic of the Qur’an was based on the dialect of Sa’id ibn al ‘As, as it resembled the dialect of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam the most.[38]

 

After being placed as governor of Kufah, he launched a campaign on Tabaristan and conquered it. He also attacked Jurjan and in this army of his was Hudhayfah ibn al Yaman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and other Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[39]

He was famous for his kindness and generosity, to such an extent that if beggar asked him for something at a time when he did not have anything, he wrote down what he wanted to give him to later reference.[40] He fed the masses during a drought from the public treasury until it was empty.[41] Imam al Dhahabi states regarding him:

وكان أميرا شريفا ، جوادا ، ممدحا، حليما ، وقورا : ذا حزم وعقل ، يصلح للخلافة – الولاية

He was a noble and generous governor, praiseworthy, forbearing, dignified, decisive and wise, a man who was fit to be a governor.[42]

 

On the other hand, there are those who opine that after Sa’id ibn al ‘As was appointed as governor of Kufah certain acts of his came to light which led the people of Kufah to drive him out.[43] The answer to their contention is that the mere driving him out of Kufah does not constitute a blunder on his part that led them to such drastic measures. Those that know of Kufah and the conditions of its people will testify to their incessant complaints of their leaders with no shar’i justification and for the slightest of reasons. This led ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu to pass the following comment regarding them:

 

أعياني وأعضل بي أهل الكوفة ما يرضون أحدا ولا يرضى بهم ، ولا يصلحون ولا يصلح عليهم

I am very tired and no longer know what to do with the people of Kufah; they are not pleased with anyone and no one is pleased with them; they are not good to any governor and no governor could be good for them.[44]

 

According to another report he said:

 

أعياني أهل الكوفة ، فإن استعملت عليهم ليّنا استضعفوه ، وان استعملت عليهم شديدا شکوه

I am tired of the people of Kufah. If I appoint a lenient man over them they will take advantage of him, and if I appoint a strict man over them they will complain about him.[45]

 

In fact, he prayed against them and said:

اللهم إنهم قد لبَّسوا عليَّ فلبس عليهم

O Allah, they have made me confused so make them confused.[46]

 

  • ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir ibn Kurayz

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed him over Basrah. He conquered the entire Khurasan, the surrounds of Persia, Sijistan, Kirman, and other cities reaching Ghaznah.[47] Yazdegerd III, the last Sasanian King was killed during his reign.[48]

He is the one dug the channels of Basrah[49] and was the first to build cisterns at ‘Arafat and direct water to them[50]. He is the man who did so many good deeds and was so loved by the people that no one can deny it, as attested to by Ibn Taymiyyah.[51] Al Dhahabi said concerning him:

 

و كان من كبار أمراء العرب وشجعانهم وأجوادهم ، وكان فيه رفق وحلم

He was one of the great Arab leaders and one of the most courageous and generous, and he was kind and forbearing.[52]

 

Anyone who studies the books of history will come to the realisation that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not appoint his family members over all the cities and states. Only five of his governors were related to him. From these five he dismissed two, al Walid ibn ‘Uqbah and Sa’id ibn al ‘As. Thus there remained three governors who were related to him of his eighteen governors. Khalifah and Imam al Tabari—under the discussion of the year 34 A.H/654 A.D—have mentioned a complete list of his governors in their respective books. Hereunder is a reproduction of it:

  1. Abu Musa al Ash’ari, governor of Kufah.
  2. Al Qa’qa’ ibn ‘Amr—Sahabi—its military chief.
  3. Jabir ibn ‘Amr al Muzani[53], its tax chief.
  4. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir ibn Kurayz, governor of Basrah.
  5. ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Sarh, governor of Egypt.
  6. Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, governor of Syria.
  7. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Khalid ibn al Walid[54], governor of Hims.
  8. Habib ibn Maslamah—Sahabi—governor of Qinnasrin[55].
  9. Abu al A’war al Sulami—Sahabi—governor of Jordan.
  10. Hakim ibn Salamah[56], governor of Palestine.
  11. Al Ash’ath ibn Qais al Kindi—Sahabi—governor of Azerbaijan[57].
  12. Jarir ibn ‘Abdullah al Bajali—Sahabi—governor of Qarqisiya (ancient Circesium).
  13. ‘Utaybah ibn al Nahhas[58], governor of Hulwan[59].
  14. Malik ibn Habib[60], governor of Mah.[61]
  15. Al Nusayr al ‘Ijli[62], governor of Hamdhan[63].
  16. Al Sa’ib ibn al Aqra’[64], governor of Asbahan[65].
  17. Sa’id ibn Qais[66], governor Rayy[67]
  18. Salman ibn Rabi’ah, governor of Al Bab.
  19. Khunays ibn Hubaysh, governor of Masabadhan[68].

If ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had wanted to show favouritism to any of his relatives at the expense of the Muslims, his stepson Muhammad ibn Abi Hudhayfah would have been the most likely candidate for favouritism, but the khalifah refused to appoint anyone to any position for which he was not qualified. Which is why he said to him:

 

يا بني ! لو كنت رضا ثم سألتني العمل لأستعملتك ، ولكن لست هناك

O my son, had I approved and then you asked me for a post I would have appointed you. But you are not suited to it.[69]

 

That was not because he disliked him, nor was it because he held an aversion to him, otherwise he would not have helped him out at his own expense or provided him with a mount and supplies when he asked for his permission to go to Egypt.[70]

As for appointing young men, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had the best example in the Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He prepared an army to fight the Byzantines at the end of his life, and appointed Usamah ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhu in charge of it who was under the age of twenty. Further in this army were the senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum with the likes of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.[71]

When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away, Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu insisted that the army continue, but some of the Sahabah wanted to replace Usamah radiya Llahu ‘anhu with an older leader, and they asked ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu to speak to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu regarding it. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu became angry when he heard this suggestion and said to ‘Umar: O ‘Umar, the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed him and you are telling me to dismiss him?[72]

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu himself responded to this issue in front of a group of the Sahabah, when he said:

 

ولم أمستعمل إلا مجتمعا ، محتلما ، مرضيا ، وهؤلاء أهل عملهم فسلوهم عنهم ، وهؤلاء أهل بلدهم ، وقد ولی من قبلي أحدث منهم  وقيل في ذلك لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مما قيل لي في استعماله لأسامة ، أكذلك – قالوا : نعم يعيبون للناس مالا يفسرون

I have not appointed anyone but one who is mature, adult and qualified. These are the people for whom they worked, so ask them about them; these are the people of the city from which they came. Those who come before me appointed people who were younger than them. People said about Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam what they said about me when he appointed Usamah, is it not so?” They replied: “Yes.” The people do not know what they are talking about.[73]

 

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

ولم يول – أي عثمان – إلا رجلا سويا عدلا ، وقد ولی رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عتاب بن أسيد على مكة وهو ابن عشرين سنة

‘Uthman did not appoint anyone but men who were of good character and just, and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed ‘Itab ibn Usayd as governor of Makkah when he was twenty years old.[74]

 

Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha says:

 

إن الغوغاء من أهل الأمصار وأهل المياه وعبيد أهل المدينة اجتمعوا أن عاب الغوغاء على هذا المقتول بالأمس – عثمان – الأرب واستعمال من حدثت سنه ، وقد استعمل أسنانهم قبله

Indeed, the mob of the cities, the Bedouins, and the slaves of the residents of Madinah gathered against this man—’Uthman—who was unjustly killed yesterday. They censured him for appointing young men as governors whereas their like was appointed before.[75]

 

To conclude, many of the relatives of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had been appointed to posts of leadership during the eras of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. They were brave, capable, and worthy of leadership. Thus, the contentions of the careless cannot be counted against them as claims ought to be evaluated by way of examination and assessed with impartiality. The poet says has spoken true in the following couplet:

ولكن عين السخط تبدي المساويا

وعين الرضا عن كل عيب كليلة

The pleased eye cannot see any faults;

Whilst the displeased eye sees nothing but faults.

 

As for those who shed negative light on ‘Uthman for giving his relatives wealth, they can satisfy their contentions by understanding that the life of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in relation to his near ones was an embodiment of the Islamic teachings that encourage mercy and kindness. Consider the following Qur’anic injunctions:

 

قُلْ لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِيْ الْقُرْبَىٰ

Say, [O Muhammad], “I do not ask you for this message any payment [but] only good will through kinship.”[76]

 

وَآتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَىٰ حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِيْنَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيْلِ

And give the relative his right, and [also] the poor and the traveller.[77]

 

Similarly, his life was a practical manifestation of the life and teachings of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had seen and understood from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam what many others had not. He had gained insight into the faith to a far greater degree than the common layman. Amongst these insights into the life of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, was the deep affection the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had for his relatives which he exemplified by being good to them and showering them with kindness. For instance, he had given his uncle al ‘Abbas more than anyone else when the wealth of Bahrain came to him[78] and he had appointed ‘Ali, his cousin and son-in-law. For ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and for every believer the greatest role-model is Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Ibn Kathir says:

 

وقد كان عثمان رضي الله عنه كريم الأخلاق ذا حياء كثير ، وكرم غزير ، يؤثر أهله وأقاربه في الله ، تأليفا لقلوبهم من متاع الدنيا الفاني لعله يرغبهم في إيثار ما يبقى على ما يفنى ، كما كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يعطي أقواما ويدع أخرين إلى ما جعل في قلوبهم من الهدى والإيمان ، وقد تعنَّت عليه بسبب هذه الخصلة أقوام كما تعنَّت بعض الخوارج على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في الإيثار

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was of exemplary character, exceedingly modest, and exceptionally hospitable. He gave preference to his family and relatives for the sake of Allah. This was done in order to win them over and distance them from the transient possessions of this world by virtue of which they would give preference to the everlasting over the fleeting. This was similar to when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had given some whilst not giving others until their hearts were firm in guidance and faith. Some had gone to lengths to defame him due to this quality of his just as the Khawarij had made inflammatory comments against Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam due to his giving preference.[79]

 

Al Bukhari has recorded on the authority of Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who said:

 

بينما رسول الله لة يقسم غنيمة بالجعرانة إذ قال له رجل : أعدل فقال : شقيت إن لم أعدل

While Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was distributing the booty at al Ji’irranah[80], somebody said to him, “Be just in your distribution.”

 

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied, “I would be wretched if I did not act justly.”[81]

In another narration of Imam Muslim on the authority of ‘Abdullah ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhu who said:

 

قال رجل : إن هذه القسمة ما عدل فيها وما أريد فيها وجه الله ، قال : فقلت : والله لأخبرنَّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال : فأتيته فأخبرته بما قال : قال : فتغيّر وجهه حتى كان كالصَرف ثم قال : فمن يعدل إن لم يعدل الله ورسوله – ثم قال – يرحم الله موسى ، قد أوذي باكثر من هذا فصبر

A person said, “By Allah, in this distribution justice has not been observed, nor has Allah’s pleasure been sought.”

I said, “By Allah, I will inform Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

I went and informed him whereupon the colour of his face turned red.

He said, “If Allah and His Apostle did not act justly, who else would act justly. May Allah be merciful to Musa, for he was harmed with more than this, yet he kept patient.”[82]

 

The ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu justifies his kindness to his family and relatives addressing the shura council saying:

 

أنا أخبركم عني وعما وليت ، إن صاحبي اللذين كانا قبلي ظلما أنفسهما ومن كان منهما سبيل احتساباً ، وانّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يعطي فرابته وأنا في رهط أهل عيلة وقلة معاش ، فبسطت يدي في شيء من ذلك لما أقوم به فيه فإن رأيتم ذلك خطأ فردوه

I will tell you in regard to myself and my conduct in office that my two predecessors wronged both themselves and those who followed in their path. Indeed, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to bestow public funds upon his relatives, while my near kinsmen were impoverished and possessed few of life’s necessities. Thus, I laid my hands on some of that wealth because of my concern for them. Now if you regard that as an error, return the money.[83]

 

In this manner, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu brought into perspective the accusations levelled against him in giving preference to his family. In it he also explained that al Sheikhayn; Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma had deprived themselves and their families acting upon the greater virtue of aversion whilst anticipating reward from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. The Islamic Shari’ah, the law of the Muslims and their reference point has not determined any law that constitutes a path for the Muslim ruler other than that of absolute justice in dealing with his constituents. Thus, when the rights of the masses have been fulfilled and each one has received their fair share, there is leeway for the ruler to then spend in avenues he wishes for reasons he deems appropriate.

Authentic narrations have outlined the great amount of wealth that the Muslims had attained during the era of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Al Hassan al Basri, an eye witness to this, relates of the condition of the society during this period. He says:

 

ادركت عثمان على ما نقموا عليه ، قلّما يأتي على الناس يوم إلا وهم يقتسمون فيه خيرا يقال لهم : يا معشر المسلمين اغدوا على أعطياتكم فيأخذونها وافرة ، ثم يقال لهم أغدوا على السمن والعسل ، الأعطيات جارية ، والأرزاق دارة ، والعدو متقی ، وذات البين حسن ، والخير كثير …

I saw why people got upset with ‘Uthman. Hardly a day went by without provisions being shared out among the people, it would be said to them: O Muslims, come and take your stipends, and they would take a lot. Then it would be said to them:  Come and take purified butter and honey.  The stipends were regular, the provisions were plentiful, the enemy was defeated, relationships were good and there was plenty…[84]

 

‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu further states in his address that his kinsmen were impoverished and possessed few of life’s necessities. They were in need of assistance. This also suggests that he saw a variance between the economic conditions of his relatives and that of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. He deemed his relatives to be in much more of a need for assistance and aid. Ibn Taymiyyah explains the reason for this saying:

 

إن قبيلة عثمان كانت كبيرة وليست كقبيلة أبي بكر وعمر ، فكان يحتاج إلى إعطائهم وولايتهم أكثر من حاجة الخليفتين قبله ، وهذا مما تقل عن عثمان الاحتجاج به

The clan of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was big in size unlike the clans of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Thus assisting them and appointing them was needed to a greater degree in comparison to the previous two Khalifas. This gives a clearer meaning to the justification related from ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[85]

 

Further, it should be noted that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu was exceedingly kind and generous to his relatives and the general Muslim populous even before his ascent to the seat of caliphate. He says:

 

ولقد كنت أعطي العطية الكبيرة الرغيبة من صلب مالي زمان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبي بكر وعمر رضي الله عنهما وأنا يومئذ شحيح حريص . أفحين أتيت على أسنان أهل بيتي وفني عمري وودعت الذي لي في أهلي قال الملحدون ما قالوا!

I used to give large and much coveted gifts from my personal property in the time of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Abu Bakr, and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, and at that time I was avaricious and greedy. Now when I have attained the usual life-span of my family, when my life has reached its end and I have distributed my property among my relatives, do the heretics say such things?[86]

 

Consider the statement of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, “Thus, I laid my hands on some of that wealth because of my concern for them”. There is indication in this that he fulfilled the responsibility of caliphate and that of the Muslims with the aspiration of divine reward, not taking a stipend whilst his two predecessors would take a stipend from the public treasury that would suffice for them and their families; a matter of personal choice and judgment as the Imam forms part of al ‘Amilin ‘ala al Mal (administrator of the wealth), and as such is entitled to a stipend even though he may be wealthy.[87] Rather, some jurists such as al Hassan and Abu Thawr[88] hold the opinion that the relatives, being relatives of the Imam, will be entitled as well.[89]

Ibn Taymiyyah says:

 

وأما قولهم : وكان يؤثر أهله بالأموال الكثيرة من بيت المال حتى أنه دفع إلى أربعة نفر من فریش زوّجهم بناته أربعمائة ألف دينار ودفع إلى مروان ألف ألف دینار – مليون دينار – فالجواب أن يقال : أين النقل الثابت بهذا؟ نعم كان يعطي أقاربه ويعطي غير أقاربه أيضا ، وكان يحسن إلى جميع المسلمين وأما هذا القدر الكثير فيحتاج إلى نقل ثابت ، ثم يقال ثانياً : هذا من الكذب ألبيّن ، فإنه لا عثمان ولا غيره من الخلفاء الراشدين أعطوا أحداً ما يقارب هذا المبلغ

There are those who say that he would give preference to his family with greats sums of wealth from the public treasury to the extent of giving four individuals of the Quraysh, whom he had his daughters married to, four hundred thousand Dinar and giving Marwan a million Dinar. The answer to those who lay such claims is to ask for substantiation. Where are the narrations that prove it? Yes, he was particular in giving his relatives and others as well. He was good to all of the Muslims. These alleged amounts on the other hand need to be substantiated or else be counted as clear cut lies as neither ‘Uthman nor did any of the other Rightly Guided Khalifas give anyone such a great amount.[90]

 

2. Allegation: Allowing his uncle al Hakam ibn Abi al ‘As to return after he was banished

 

The second accusation made against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is that he permitted his uncle Al Hakam ibn Abi al ‘As to return to Makkah after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had him banished from Makkah to Ta’if.

The jurisprudic outline of banishment as known from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam does not necessitate it to be permanent and neither does the shari’ah support the indefinite exile of every banishment. Rather, the doors of seeking forgiveness remain open that would relieve one of such a predicament as unanimously agreed upon by the great scholars.[91]

One can say with absolute certainty that if Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had exiled anyone indefinitely, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu would not have disobeyed Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam by going against such a precedent. Also, the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum did not oppose his decision, whilst the piety of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his submission to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was above such an undertaking.

Simply put, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu permitted the return of Al Hakam on the word of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This is the reason he requested Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma to permit his return during their caliphate. Both these saints excused themselves from passing the judgment of his return citing the lack of witnesses as per the code of Islamic law.[92]

When ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu ascended to the seat of caliphate, he passed the judgment with regards to his uncle Al Hakam based on his knowledge[93]. Further, the decision of a khalifah in this manner is legally accurate as per Islamic law as understood from the principles of the shari’ah. Some of the leading scholars have adopted this opinion based on this and other similar instances[94]. Additionally, this ought to be considered within the ambit of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu being the Imam and a Rightly Guided khalifah whose ways are an extension of the ways of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as understood from the following narration:

 

عليكم بسنتي وسنة الخلفاء الراشدين المهديين من بعدي ، عضوا عليها بالنواجذ

Stay steadfast on to my Sunnah and on to the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided Khalifas. Hold on to it firmly.[95]

 

Ibn al ‘Arabi says in this regard:

 

وأما رد الحكم فلم يصح – أي ما زعم البغاة من أن عثمان خالف فيه مقتضى الشرع – وقال علماؤنا في جوابه : قد كان أذن له فيه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وقال – عثمان – لأبي بكر وعمر فقالا له : إن كان معك شاهد رددناه ، فلما ولي – الخلافة – قضى بعلمه في رده ، وما كان عثمان ليصل مهجور رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ولو كان أباه ولا لينقص حكمه

The contention of the rebels that the return of Al Hakam constitutes opposition of the shari’ah by ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu does not hold any weight. Our scholars have answered this by saying, “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had permitted him to end the banishment. It was for this reason that he approached Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma with his request. They countered that if he had a witness they would welcome him back. When he was appointed as the khalifah, he passed judgment based on his knowledge of the permission granted by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu would not have welcomed back one exiled indefinitely by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, be it his father and he would also never go against the judgment of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[96]

 

3. Allegation: Handing Fadak over to Marwan ibn al Hakam

 

The third accusation made against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is that handed over the land of Fadak to Marwan ibn al Hakam whilst further giving him a hundred thousand Dirhams from the wealth received from Ifriqiyyah. This is a lie and a fabrication levelled against him.[97]

Fadak is a small village close to Madinah Munawwarah which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had allotted to His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Thus, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam could do with it as he pleased. When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam left this worldly abode and Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was appointed as his successor, Fatimah al Zahra’ radiya Llahu ‘anha came to him asking him for her inheritance from her father in the order of releasing Fadak to her. Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu explained to her that he had heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying:

 

نحن معاشر الانبياء لا نورث ما تركنا صدقة

We the fraternity of Prophets do not leave behind any inheritance, what we leave is charity.[98]

 

When ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu became the khalifah, ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib and ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhuma came to him seeking a reversal on the Fadak issue. ‘Abbas considered it to be the property of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with him being a rightful heir, whilst the view of ‘Ali coincided with that of Fatimah; considering it her property. ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu refused to pass a judgment between them that went against the decision of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the actions of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He then made it over to them taking a strong covenant from them that they would manage the land just as Abu Bakr had done.

Imam al Bukhari relates on the authority of Malik ibn Aws radiya Llahu ‘anhu who said:

 

بينا أنا جالس في أهلي حين متع النهار إذا رسول عمر بن الخطاب يأتيني، فقال: أجب أمير المؤمنين، فانطلقت معه حتى أدخل على عمر فإذا هو جالس على رمال سرير ليس بينه وبينه فراش، متكئ على وسادة من أدم، فسلمت عليه ثم جلست، فقال: يا مالك إنه قدم علينا من قومك أهل أبيات، وقد أمرت فيهم برضخ فاقبضه فاقسمه بينهم، فقلت: يا أمير المؤمنين لو أمرت به غيري، قال: اقبضه أيها المرء، فبينا أنا جالس عنده أتاه حاجبه يرفأ فقال: هل لك في عثمان وعبد الرحمن بن عوف والزبير وسعد بن أبي وقاصٍ يستأذنون ؟ قال: نعم، فأذن لهم، فدخلوا، فسلموا وجلسوا، ثم جلس يرفأ يسيرًا، ثم قال: هل لك في عليٍّ وعباس قال: نعم، فأذن لهما، فدخلا، فسلما فجلسا، فقال عباس: يا أمير المؤمنين، اقضِ بيني وبين هذا، وهما يختصمان فيما أفاء الله على رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم من مال بني النضير، فقال الرهط عثمان وأصحابه: يا أمير المؤمنين اقضِ بينهما وأرح أحدهما من الآخر، قال عمر: تيدكم أنشدكم بالله الذي بإذنه تقوم السماء والأرض هل تعلمون أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: لا نورث ما تركنا صدقة. -يريد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نفسه – قال الرهط: قد قال ذلك، فأقبل عمر على علي وعباس فقال: أنشدكما الله، أتعلمان أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قد قال ذلك ؟ قالا: قد قال ذلك، قال عمر: فإني أحدثكم عن هذا الأمر إن الله قد خص رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم في هذا الفيء بشيء لم يعطه أحدًا غيره، ثم قرأ: وَمَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ… إلى قوله: قَدِيْرٌ فكانت هذه خالصة لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، والله ما احتازها دونكم ولا استأثر بها عليكم، قد أعطاكموها وبثها فيكم حتى بقي منها هذا المال، فكان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ينفق على أهل نفقة سنتهم من هذا المال ثم يأخذ ما بقي فيجعله مجعل مال الله فعمل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بذلك حياته، أنشدكم بالله هل تعلمون ذلك ؟ قالوا: نعم، ثم قال لعلي وعباس: أنشدكما بالله هل تعلمان ذلك ؟ قال عمر: ثم توفى الله نبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال أبو بكر: أنا ولي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقبضها أبو بكر، فعمل فيها بما عمل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، والله يعلم إنه فيها لصادق بار راشد تابع للحق، ثم توفى الله أبا بكر، فكنت أنا ولي أبي بكر، فقبضتها سنتين من إمارتي أعمل فيها بما عمل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وما عمل فيها أبو بكر، والله يعلم إني فيها لصادق بار راشد تابع للحق، ثم جئتماني تكلماني وكلمتكما واحدة وأمركما واحد، جئتني يا عباس تسألني نصيبك من ابن أخيك، وجاءني هذا – يريد عليًّا – يريد نصيب امرأته من أبيها، فقلت لكما: إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: لا نوَّرث ما تركنا صدقة. فلما بدا لي أن أدفعه إليكما قلت: إن شئتما دفعتها إليكما على أن عليكما عهد الله وميثاقه لتعملان فيها بما عمل فيها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وبما عمل فيها أبو بكر وبما عملت فيها منذ وليتها، فقلتما: ادفعها إلينا، فبذلك دفعتها إليكما، فأنشدكم بالله هل دفعتها إليهما بذلك ؟ قال الرهط: نعم، ثم أقبل على عليٍّ وعباس فقال: أنشدكما بالله هل دفعتها إليكما بذلك ؟ قالا: نعم، قال: فتلتمسان مني قضاء غير ذلك، فوالله الذي بإذنه تقوم السماء والأرض لا أقضي فيها قضاء غير ذلك، فإن عجزتما عنها فادفعاها إليَّ فإني أكفيكماها.

While I was at home, the sun rose high, the messenger of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab came to me and said, “The Amir of the believers has sent for you.” So, I went along with him till I entered the place where ‘Umar was sitting on a bedstead made of date-palm leaves and covered with no mattress, and he was leaning over a leather pillow. I greeted him and sat down.

He said, “O Malik! Some persons of your people who have families came to me and I have ordered that a gift should be given to them, so take it and distribute it among them.”

I said, “O Amir al Mu’minin! I wish that you order someone else to do it.”

He said, “O man! Take it.”

While I was sitting there with him, his doorman Yarfa’ came saying, “‘Uthman, ‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Al Zubair, and Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas are asking your permission; may I admit them?”

‘Umar said, “Yes”.

So they were admitted and they came in, greeted him, and sat down. After a while Yarfa’ came again and said, “May I admit ‘Ali and ‘Abbas?”

‘Umar said, “Yes.”

So, they were admitted, they came in, greeted him, and sat down. Then ‘Abbas said, “O Amir al Mu’minin! Judge between me and him (i.e. ‘Ali).”

They had a dispute regarding the property of Bani al Nadir which Allah had given to His Messenger as Fay’. The group, ‘Uthman and his companions said, “O Amir al Mu’minin! Judge between them and relieve both of them front each other.”

‘Umar said, “Be patient! I beseech you by Allah by Whose permission the Heaven and the Earth exist, do you know that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, ‘We do not leave inheritance, what we leave behind is charity’, and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam meant himself (by saying “we”)?”

The group said, “He said so.”

‘Umar then turned to ‘Ali and ‘Abbas and said, “I beseech you by Allah, do you know that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said so?”

They replied, “He said so.”

‘Umar then said, “So, I will converse with you about this matter. Allah bestowed on His Messenger with a unique portion of the Fay’ that was not given to anyone else.” ‘Umar then recited the verse:

وَمَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُوْلِهِ مِنْهُمْ فَمَا أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلَا رِكَابٍ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ عَلَىٰ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيْرٌ –

And what Allah restored [of property] to His Messenger from them – you did not spur for it [in an expedition] any horses or camels, but Allah gives His messengers power over whom He wills, and Allah is over all things competent.

‘Umar added “So this property was expressly given to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but, by Allah, neither did he hoard it to himself, nor did he favour himself with it to your exclusion, but he gave it to all of you and distributed it amongst you till this property remained out of it. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to spend the yearly expenses of his family out of this property and used to keep the rest of its revenue to be spent on Allah’s Cause. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam kept on doing this during all his lifetime. I ask you by Allah do you know this?”

They replied in the affirmative. ‘Umar then said to ‘Ali and ‘Abbas. “I ask you by Allah, do you know this?”

‘Umar added, “When Allah had taken His Prophet unto Him, Abu Bakr said, ‘I am the successor of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam so, Abu Bakr took over that property and managed it in the same way as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to do, and Allah knows that he was true, pious and rightly guided, and he was a follower of what was right. Then Allah took Abu Bakr unto Him and I became Abu Bakr’s successor, and I kept that property in my possession for the first two years of my caliphate, managing it in the same way as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to do and as Abu Bakr used to do, and Allah knows that I have been true, pious, rightly guided, and a follower of what is right. Now you both (i.e. ‘Ali and ‘Abbas) came to talk to me, bearing the same claim and presenting the same case; you, ‘Abbas, came to me asking for your share from your nephew’s property, and this man, i.e. ‘Ali, came to me asking for his wife’s share from her father’s property. I told you both that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, ‘We do not leave inheritance, what we leave behind is charity.’ When I thought it right that I should hand over this property to you, I said to you, ‘I am ready to hand over this property to you if you wish, on the condition that you would take Allah’s pledge and convention that you would manage it in the same way as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to, and as Abu Bakr used to do, and as I have done since I was in charge of it.’ So, both of you said (to me), ‘Hand it over to us,’ and on that condition I handed it over to you. So, I ask you by Allah, did I hand it over to them on this condition?”

The group said, “Yes.”

Then ‘Umar faced ‘Ali and ‘Abbas saying, “I ask you by Allah, did I hand it over to you on this condition?”

They said, “Yes.”

He said, “Do you now seek a different decision? By Allah, by Whose leave both the Heaven and the Earth exist, I will never give any decision other than that (I have already given). And if you are unable to manage it, then return it to me, and I will do the job on your behalf.”[99]

 

This is an authentic narration regarding the issue of Fadak during the era of al Siddiq and al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. When ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu ascended to the office of caliphate, his manner of governance broadly, and his manner of dealing with the charitable estates of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam specifically was like that of his predecessors. This refutes the fabricated accusation of him handing over the land of Fadak to Marwan ibn al Hakam. This was a lie fabricated by those who wished to defame ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. We know this since there are clear texts that prove the oversight of the land by ‘Ali and ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu as a charitable estate by the permission of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. There is no authentic chain that establishes ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu having taken the responsibility of its oversight back from them. If, for arguments sake, he had, where are the protests of ‘Ali, ‘Abbas, and their children? Where is the evidence of them having lodged complaints against ‘Uthman, which would have been evident if he had indeed taken it from them and handed it to his cousin Marwan. Is it comprehendible that ‘Abbas and ‘Ali would take their disagreement regarding Fadak to ‘Umar and then they and the Banu Hashim remain silent against ‘Uthman had he taken it from them?

‘Abdur Razzaq narrated in Al Musannaf on the authority of al Zuhri who said:

 

أن فدك كانت بيد علي ، ثم بید حسن ثم بيد حسين ، ثم بيد علي بن حسين ، ثم بید حسن بن حسن ، ثم بید زید بن حسن ، وقال معمر : ثم بيد عبد الله بن حسن ، ثم أخذها هؤلاء – يعني بني العباس –

Fadak was in the oversight of ‘Ali, then it went to Hassan, then to Hussain, then to ‘Ali ibn Hussain, then to Hassan ibn Hassan, then to Zaid ibn Hassan. Ma’mar says, “Then it was in the possession of ‘Abdullah ibn Hassan. After that it was taken by these, i.e. the Banu al ‘Abbas.[100]

 

4. Allegation: Gifting Marwan one-fifth of the Booty

 

The issue of the one hundred thousand Dirhams allegedly given by ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Marwan, is unsubstantiated as a gift to him and requires further elucidation. In reality, ‘Abdullah ibn Sa’d ibn Abi al Sarh marched on and conquered Ifriqiyyah. He attained much spoils from this conquest which he distributed amongst his army. He removed the khums of gold which amounted to five hundred thousand Dinar and sent it to the khalifah. There remained other commodities, the khums of which proved impossible to send to the center of caliphate. Marwan thus purchased this for an amount of one hundred thousand Dirhams. Majority of the payment was in cash. When he arrived in a delegation to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu with news of the conquest, ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu handed him a small amount in lieu of bringing the good news as the general Muslim populous were anxious of news of this battle due to it being at a great distance.[101]

What has been said of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu having given ‘Abdullah ibn Sa’d ibn Abi al Sarh a fifth of the khums from the spoils of the conquest of Ifriqiyyah. This is true and correct. However, he had taken it back from him upon the displeasure of the people. ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu himself spoke to this critique in front of a large number of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He said:

 

وقالوا إني أعطيت ابن أبي سرح ما أفاء الله ، وإني إنما نفلته خمس ما أفاء الله عليه من الخمس ، فكان مائة ألف ، وقد أنفذ مثل ذلك أبو بكر وعمر  رضي الله عنهما فزعم الجند أنهم يكرهون ذلك ، فرددته عليهم وليس ذلك لهم ، أكذلك ؟ قالوا : نعم

The dissidents say that I gave to Ibn Abi Sarh the booty that Allah bestowed upon him. But in fact out of the booty that Allah gave, I only turned over to him one-fifth out of the khums. The amount was one hundred thousand Dirhams, and Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma did the same thing. The army claimed to find this reprehensible, and so I have restored it to them, though it was not really theirs. Is that the case? They said, “Yes”.[102]

 

There can be no case made against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu for what he had done as giving financial rewards to the brave and great warriors in order to boost morale has been established in the sunnah. Also, the khalifah has the prerogative to stipulate and give to whomsoever he wishes if he deems it appropriate. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was the best role model for ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had stipulated and given many people in order to bring them closer to Islam. The Khalifas to come after also had done the same for those whom they deemed well suited.[103]

Yahya ibn Adam al Qurashi[104] has mentioned in his book Al Kharaj, that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu had allocated the land between Al Jurf[105] and Qanat[106] to Al Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu had allocated Yanbu’ to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[107]

Abu Yusuf considered land to be equivalent to wealth. He was of the view that the Imam had the prerogative to allocate funds from the public treasury to those who would prove to be assets to the Islamic cause and spend in causes that he deemed to be in the interest of the Muslims.[108]

 

NEXT⇒ Section Two: II. Accusations of innovation.


[1] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 346.

[2] All of these accusations against ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu have been recorded by the early historians in their books. This includes the likes of Abu Mikhnaf, al Waqidi, Ibn Qutaybah, al Yaqubi, al Tabari, Ibn A’tham, al Mas’udi, Ibn Kathir, and others.

[3] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 5 pg. 113.

[4] Sahih Muslim, vol. 12 pg. 210.

[5] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 3 pg. 163; Sunan al Tirmidhi, vol. 5 pg. 334. This narration is corroborated by the narration of Abu Dharr himself as recorded in Al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 342 with the wording:

ما تقل الغبراء ولا تظل الخضراء من ذي لهجة أصدق ولا أوفي من أبي ذر شبیه عیسی ابن مريم

There is no one more truthful in speech, nor in fulfilling of promises, that the sky has covered and the earth has carried, than Abu Dharr, the likeness of ‘Isa ibn Maryam…

Al Hakim says, “Authentic according to the stipulation of Muslim. He has not recorded it.” Al Dhahabi has concurred with him. Al Albani has authenticated it in Al Silsilah al Sahihah: 2343 and Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi: 2990, vol. 3 pg. 229.

[6] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 3 pg. 279.

[7] Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 257 and 305; Al Muttaqi al Hindi: Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 5 pg. 738.

[8] Ibn Taymiyyah: Al Siyasah al Shari’ah, pgs. 18-24.

[9] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 322.

[10] Khalifah: Al Tarikh, pg. 200.

[11] Ibid, pg. 200.

[12] Ibid, pg. 201.

[13] Ibid, pg. 201.

[14] Ibid, pg.201.

[15] Ibn Taymiyyah: Al Minhaj, vol. 3 pg. 175-176.

[16] Khalifah: Al Tarikh, pg. 138.

[17] Ibn al ‘Arabi: Al ‘Awasim, pg. 84.

[18] Sahih Muslim, vol. 16 pg. 62.

[19] Ibid, vol. 12 pg. 244.

[20] Ibn Hisham: Al Sirah, vol. 3 pg. 563.

[21] He is Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abdur Rahim, Abu ‘Abdullah ibn al Barqi al Misri. Imam, muhaddith, and reliable historian. He is known as ibn al Barqi or as al Barqi as he would trade to Barqah (Cyrenaica).

  • Ibn Yunus says, “Reliable, a narrator of the historical battles.”

He has authored Al Du’afa’ fi al Hadith and a book on the genre of Islamic History and Biographical Literature. He passed away the year 249 A.H./863 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 7 pg. 301; Al Dhahabi: Al Tadhkirah, vol. 2 pg. 569; Siyar A’lam an-Nubala, vol. 13 pg. 46; Ibn Farhun: Al Dibaj, pg. 233; and Ibn Hajar: Al Tahdhib, vol. 9 pg. 263.

[22] Ibn Hajar: Al Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 317.

[23] Khalifah: Al Tarikh, pg. 159.

[24] He is Yazid ibn Abi Habib Abu Raja’ al Misri. He is known as Suwaid al Azdi, from amongst the Tabi’in.

  • Ibn Sa’d says, “He was reliable, forbearing, and intelligent. He was the Mufti of the Egyptian people in his era.”
  • Ibn Hibban has recorded him in al Thiqat.
  • Al ‘Ijli says, “Egyptian, Tabi’i, reliable.”
  • Abu Zur’ah says, “Reliable.”

He passed away the year 128 A.H./745 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 7 pg. 513; Al Bukhari: Al Tarikh al Saghir, vol. 2 pg. 11; Al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, pg. 478; Ibn Abi Hatim: Al Jarh wa al Ta’dil, vol. 9 pg. 267; and Ibn Hajar: Al Tahdhib, vol. 11 pg. 319.

[25] A city in Palestine. See, Yaqut: Mujam al Buldan, vol. 3 pg. 69.

[26] Ibn Hajar: Al Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 318.

[27] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 3 pg. 351. Al Madhar is an area to the south of Basrah where the battle took place between the Muslims and the Persians.

[28] A sahabi. See, Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 3 pg. 377.

[29] Ibn Qutaybah: Al Ma’arif, pg. 139.

[30] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 271.

[31] He is Maslamah ibn ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan. One of the brave leaders and conquerors. He marched on Constantinople during the era of his brother Sulaiman (d. 102 A.H/720 A.D). His brother Yazid appointed him over Iraq and Khurasan. During the era of Hisham ibn ‘Abdul Malik he launched campaigns against the lands of Turkey and Sindh.

  • Imam al Dhahabi says regarding him, “He was better suited for the caliphate compared to his brothers.”

He passed away the year 120 A.H/738 A.D. His life has been recorded by Khalifah: Al Tarikh, pg. 301; Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 6 pg. 429; Al Dhahabi: Tarikh al Islam, vol. 4 pg. 302; and Siyar A’lam an-Nubala, vol. 5 pg. 341.

[32] Al Maliqi: Al Tamhid wa al Bayan, pg. 40.

[33] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 271.

[34] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 4 pg. 202.

[35] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 277.

[36] Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 3 pg. 187.

[37] Ibn al ‘Arabi: Al ‘Awasim Min al Qawasim, pg. 93.

[38] Ibn Hajar: Al Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 48.

[39] Ibn ‘Abdul Barr: Al Isti’ab, vol. 2 pg. 9.

[40] Ibn Hajar: Al Isabah, vol. 2 pg. 49.

[41] Al Dhahabi: Siyar A’lam an-Nubala’, vol. 3 pg. 447.

[42] Ibid, vol. 3 pg. 445.

[43] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pgs. 331-332.

[44] Al Fasawi: Al Ma’rifah wa al Tarikh, vol. 2 pg. 754.

[45] Ibn al Jawzi: Manaqib Amir al Mu’minin ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, pg. 118; Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 3 pg. 89.

[46] Ibn Taymiyyah: Al Minhaj, vol. 3 pg. 188.

[47] Ibn al Athir: Usd al Ghabah, vol. 3 pg. 288.

[48] Ibn Hajar: Al Isabah, vol. 3 pg. 61.

[49] Ibn ‘Abdul Barr: Al Isti’ab, vol. 2 pg. 360.

[50] Ibn Qutaybah: Al Ma’arif, pg. 140.

[51] Ibn Taymiyyah: Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 3 pg. 18.

[52] Al Dhahabi: Siyar A’lam an-Nubala’, vol. 3 pg. 18.

[53] He is Jabir ibn ‘Amr al Muzani. Al Tabari has mentioned him under the happenings of the year 21 A.H/641 A.D as the tax collector for ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu of the irrigations of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, vol. 4 pg. 139. He has also mentioned him under the happenings of the year 30 A.H/650 A.D when ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed him upon the tax of al Sawad, vol. 4 pg. 422.

[54] He is ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Khalid ibn al Walid al Makhzumi. Al Tabari has mentioned him under the happenings of the year 13 A.H/634 A.D. He was, with his father, in the Battle of Yarmuk as a leader of one of the cavalry squadrons aged 18. He also mentioned him under the happenings of the year 33 A.H/653 A.D as the governor of Hims, appointed by Muawiyah during the era of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, vol. 4 pg. 321. He also mentions him under the happenings of the year 36 A.H/656 A.D amongst those who fought alongside Muawiyah at Siffin, vol. 4 pg. 573. He also mentions him under the happenings of the year 37 A.H/657 A.D amongst those who was present at the arbitration between ‘Ali and Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, vol. 5 pg. 54.

[55] A city of Syria 25 km south west of Aleppo. See, Yaqut: Mujam al Buldan, vol. 4 pg. 404.

[56] He is Hakim ibn Salamah al Hizami. Al Tabari has mentioned him under the happenings of the year 34 A.H/653 A.D when ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had appointed him as governor of Al Mawsil, vol. 4 pg. 331. He then mentions him under the happenings of the year 36 A.H/656 A.D. when Talhah and al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma marched on Basrah. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent him to them to ascertain if they were in agreement with al Qa’qa’ ibn ‘Amr in reconciling and that they ought to withdraw ‘Ali and his group came and they all considered the matter, vol. 4 pg. 496.

[57] Amongst the Muslim lands formerly a soviet republic. See, Yaqut: Mujam al Buldan, vol. 1 pg. 128.

[58] He is ‘Utaybah ibn al Nahhas al ‘Ijli. Al Tabari has mentioned him under the happenings of the year 11 A.H/632 A.D during the caliphate of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He was amongst those who al ‘Ala’ al Hadrami radiya Llahu ‘anhu assigned to fight the apostates of Bahrain, vol. 3 pg. 310. He also mentions him under the happenings of the year 12 A.H/633 A.D as one of the leaders in the army of Khalid radiya Llahu ‘anhu on the border of al Hirah, vol. 3 pg. 310. He also mentions him under the happenings of the year 34 A.H/654 A.D when ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had appointed him as governor of Hulwan, vol. 4 pg. 331. He also mentions him under the happenings of the year 45 A.H/665 A.D when al Mughirah ibn Shu’bah radiya Llahu ‘anhu had offered him to oversee Kufah until he returns from Amir al Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, an offer which he accepted, vol. 5 pg. 217.

[59] An ancient town on the Zagros Mountains in western Iran. See, Yaqut: Mujam al Buldan, vol. 2 pg. 290.

[60] He is Malik ibn Habib al Yarbu’i. Al Tabari mentions him under the happenings of the year 16 A.H/637 A.D in the left or right battalion—doubt of the narrator—in the army that was dispatched by Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhu to the people of Jazirah as per the command of Amir al Mu’minin ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu, vol. 4 pg. 38. He also mentions him under the happenings of the year 3 A.H. 654 A.D. when ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed him as governor of Mah, vol. 4 pg. 330. He was also the messenger of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Talhah and al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma right before the Battle of Jamal the year 36 A.H/656 A.D, vol. 4 pg. 505.

[61] A city in Sham on the banks of the Mediterranean Sea. See, Al Humairi: Al Rawd al Mi’tar fi Khayr al Aqtar, pg. 486.

[62] He is Nusayr ibn Thawr al ‘Ijli. Al Tabari has mentioned him under the happenings of the year 13 A.H/634 A.D as one of those stationed by Muthanna ibn Harithah at the Battle of Buwayb against the Sassanid Empire, vol. 3 pg. 461 and according to one narration he was stationed at al Tala’i’, vol. 3 pg. 465. He also mentions him under the happenings of the year 21 A.H/641 A.D prior to the Battle of Nahawand when Hudhayfah radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed him over the cavalry at Marj, a fortress in Iraq, vol. 4 pg. 127. In the same year Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala delivered a conquest of a fortress in Persia at his hands which was thus attributed to him, vol. 4 pg. 134. He then mentions him under the happenings of the year 34 A.H/654 A.D. when ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed him as governor of Hamdhan, vol. 4 pg. 330.

[63] A mountainous area in Iran. A land plentiful with water, orchards, and crops. See Yaqut: Mujam al Buldan, vol. 5 pg. 410; and Al Humairi: Al Rawd al Mi’tar fi Khayr al Aqtar, pg. 519.

[64] He is al Sa’ib ibn al Aqra’, mawla of Thaqif ibn Mulaykah. Al Tabari has mentioned him under the happenings of the year 21 A.H/641 A.D. when ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu had instructed him to divide the booty of the Muslim army at Nahawand. He was a man well versed in mathematics, vol. 4 pg. 116 and he was known as Sahib al Aqbad, vol. 4 pg. 133. He then mentions him under the happenings of the year 34 A.H/654 A.D. when ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed as governor of Asbahan.

[65] A region of Persia. See, Yaqut: Mujam al Buldan, vol. 4 pg. 421.

[66] He is Sa’id ibn Qais al Hamdani al Sabi’i. Al Tabari has mentioned him under the happenings of the year 21 A.H as being in the army of No’man ibn Muqarrin who was dispatched by ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu to fight the Sassanid at Nahawand, vol. 4 pg. 129. He also mentions him under the happenings of the year 34 A.H/654 A.D. when ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu had appointed him as governor of Rayy. He also mentions him under the happenings of the year 36 A.H/656 A.D amongst the emissaries sent by ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu calling him to submission and unity, vol. 4 pg. 513. He fought alongside ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu at the Battle of Siffin, vol. 4 pg. 574. He also mentions him under the happenings of the year 39 A.H/659 A.D when ‘Ali sent him after the supporters of Muawiyah when the news reached him of their attack and looting of Anbar, vol. 4 pg. 134.

[67] A region in Persia close to Khorasan and Tabaristan. See, Al Humairi: Al Rawd al Mi’tar fi Khayr al Aqtar, pg. 278.

[68] A city in Iraq. See, Yaqut: Mujam al Buldan, vol. 5 pg. 41.

[69] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 399.

[70] Ibid, vol. 4 pg. 399.

[71] Ibn Hisham: Sirah al Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, vol. 4 pg. 328; Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 3 pg. 226.

[72] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 2 pg. 226.

[73] Ibid, vol. 4 pg. 347.

[74] Ibn al Kathir in Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 187.

[75] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 448.

[76] Surah al Shura: 23.

[77] Surah al Isra’: 26.

[78] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 4 pg. 65.

[79] Ibn al Kathir in Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 201.

[80] A place between Ta’if and Makkah, though closer to Makkah. See, Yaqut: Mujam al Buldan, vol. 2 pg. 142.

[81] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 4 pg. 56.

[82] Sahih Muslim, vol. 7 pg. 158.

[83] Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 64.

[84] Al Baladhuri: Ansab al Ashraf, vol. 4 pg. 594; Ibn al Kathir in Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 232.

[85] Ibn Taymiyyah: Minhaj al Sunnah, vol. 3 pg. 237.

[86] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 348.

[87] Ibn Taymiyyah: Al Minhaj, vol. 3 pg. 237.

[88] He is Ibrahim ibn Khalid ibn Abi al Yaman, Abu Thawr al Kalbi al Baghdadi. Jurist and companion of Al Shafi’i.

  • Ibn Hibban says, “He was one of the leaders of the world in his jurisprudic ability, knowledge, piety, and nobility. He was a prolific author.”
  • Al Hakim says, “He was the most reliable of Baghdad and their jurist in his time. He was also one of the erudite scholars of hadith.”
  • Al Nasa’i, Maslamah ibn al Qasim al -Andalusi, and Ibn ‘Abdul Barr have deemed him reliable.

He passed away the year 240 A.H/854 A.D. His life has been recorded by Al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 6 pg. 65; Al Shirazi: Tabaqat al Fuqaha’, pgs. 92, 101, and 102; and Ibn Hajar: Al Tahdhib, vol. 1 pg. 118.

[89] Ibn Taymiyyah: Al Minhaj, vol. 3 pg. 187.

[90] Ibid, vol. 3 pg. 190.

[91] Ibn Hazm: Al Fasl fi al Milal, vol. 4 pg. 154; Ibn Taymiyyah: Al Minhaj, vol. 3 pg. 196.

[92] Ibn al ‘Arabi: Al ‘Awasim, pg. 77.

[93] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 3 pg. 90.

[94] This is the view of Ahmed, al Shafi’i, Abu Yusuf, Abu Thawr, and al Muzani. See, Al Mughni, vol. 9 pg. 53; and Al Fath, vol. 4 pg. 254-255.

[95] Abu Dawood, vol. 4 pg. 201; Al Tirmidhi: Kitab al ‘Ilm: 2678; vol. 7 pg. 319. It has been authenticated by al Albani in Sahih Sunan Abi Dawood, vol. 3 pg. 871; 3851.

[96] Ibn al ‘Arabi: Al ‘Awasim, pg. 77.

[97] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 3 pg. 91.

[98] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 8 pg. 4.

[99] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 4 pgs. 42–44.

[100] ‘Abdur Razzaq: Al Musannaf, vol. 5 pg. 471.

[101] Al Haythami: Al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah, pg. 175.

[102] Al Tabari: Tarikh al Rusul, vol. 4 pg. 347.

[103] Abu Yusuf: Kitab al Kharaj, pg. 62.

[104] He is Yahya ibn Adam ibn Sulaiman al Qurashi al Umawi, Abu Zakariyya al Kufi. One of the reliable and trustworthy scholars and at whom mastery in narrating hadith ended in his era.

  • ‘Uthman al Darami says narrating from Ibn Ma’in, “Reliable.”
  • Abu Hatim says, “He had deep knowledge and was reliable.”
  • Yaqub ibn Shaybah says, “Reliable, narrated many hadith.”
  • Al ‘Ijli says, “He was reliable. He had attained knowledge and was trustworthy and cognisant in hadith.”
  • Ibn Hibban has mentioned him in Al Thiqat and said, “He was reliable and had a deep understanding.”

It is likely that he had authored other books besides Al Kharaj due to Imam al Nawawi saying, “He is from those scholars who had authored works.” Further al Dhahabi has remembered him in Al Tadhkirah as “Author of works.” Not mentioning any other book besides Al Kharaj though. He passed away the year 203 A.H/878 A.D. His life has been recorded by Ibn Sa’d: Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 5 pg. 281; Al ‘Ijli: Tarikh al Thiqat, pg. 478; Al Darami: Al Tarikh, pg. 227; and Ibn Hajar: Al Tahdhib, vol. 11 pg. 175.

[105] A location three miles from Madinah in the direction of Sham. The wealth of the people of Madinah was stored here. See, Yaqut: Mujam al Buldan, vol. 2 pg. 128. Al Jurf is currently irrigated land in Madinah.

[106] A valley of Madinah Munawwarah, Ibid, vol. 4 pg. 401.

[107] Al Qurashi: Al Kharaj, pgs. 77-78.

[108] Abu Yusuf: Kitab al Kharaj, pg. 60.

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