Section Three: The Relationship between ‘Umar and Hassan and Hussain.

Chapter 3: Section 2 – Theme Three, Four and Five
February 7, 2019
Section Four: Bequests and Extra Matters in ‘Umar’s Last Days and Matters After his Demise
February 7, 2019

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Section Three

The Relationship between ‘Umar and Hassan and Hussain.


We now like to paint before you a little picture of the relationship between Sayyidina ‘Umar on one hand and Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum on the other. Every sensible and intelligent person will realise the beauty of the relationship they enjoyed through these narrations. Just as Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma shared an amicable relationship, similarly, there existed a harmonious bond between the latter and the former’s children.


Theme One

Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma relates the virtues of Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. An incident of this nature is documented in Sahih al Bukhari, the book of virtues:


سأله رجل عن المحرم يقتل الذباب فقال أهل العراق يسألون عن قتل الذباب و قد قتلوا ابن بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و قال النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم هما ريحنتاي من الدنيا

A man (from Iraq) asked him about a person in ihram killing a fly. He commented, “The people of Iraq are asking about killing a fly, whereas they have killed the son of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughter (i.e. Hussain) and the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had declared, ‘They (Hassan and Hussain) are my sweet smelling flowers of this world.’”[1]


Theme Two

This incident speaks of how Sayyidina ‘Umar requested Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma to visit him and the manner he appreciated and respected him. Hafiz Ibn ‘Asakir writes in his Tarikh:


عن سفيان عن يحيى بن سعيد قال أمر عمر حسينا أن يأتيه في بعض الحاجة فذهب فلقي عبد الله بن عمر فقال له حسين من أين جئت فقال استأذنت على عمر فلم يؤذن لي فرجع الحسين فلقيه عمر فقال ما منعك يا حسين أن تأتيني فقال قد أتيتك و لكن أخبرني عبد الله أنه لم يؤذن له عليك فرجعت فقال و أنت عندي مثله كررها و هل أنبتت الشعر على الرأس غيركم

From Sufyan―from Yahya ibn Sa’id who reports:

‘Umar requested Hussain to come to him for some need of his. So he went but met ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar en route.

Hussain asked him, “Where are you coming from?”

He explained, “I sought permission to see ‘Umar, but was not granted the same.”

Hearing this, Hussain also returned.

Thereafter, ‘Umar met him and asked, “Hussain, what stopped you from coming to me?”

He explained, “I did come but ‘Abdullah informed me that he was not given permission to see you, so I also returned.”

‘Umar sighed, “Does he hold the same position as you in my sight?” he repeated this few times and then continued, “All the bounties we enjoy is through your blessings.”[2]


Theme Three

The senior historians have reported this incident which depicts the level of respect and veneration in Sayyidina ‘Umar’s heart for Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Al Dhahabi reports:


حماد بن زيد عن معمر عن الزهري أن عمر كسا أبناء الصحابة و لم يكن في ذلك ما يصلح للحسن و الحسين فبعث إلى اليمن فأتي بكسوة لهما فقال الآن طابت نفسي

Hammad ibn Zaid reports―from Ma’mar―from al Zuhri:

‘Umar gave garments to the sons of the Sahabah. However, there was no garment appropriate in size for Hassan and Hussain. So, he sent orders to Yemen (to tailor make garments to fit them) and consequently garments their size were brought. (After they wore the garments) he remarked, “Now I am happy.”[3]


Theme Four

Sayyidina ‘Umar attended to the monetary rights of Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Previously, in chapter two of the Faruqi section, the discussion relating to the fulfilment of Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu rights was mentioned and Sayyidina Hassan’s and Sayyidina Hussain’s radiya Llahu ‘anhuma stipends were also mentioned by the way. Now we wish to concentrate specifically on their monetary rights.

Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu considered fulfilling the rights of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam relatives his compulsory mission; his duty and a religious obligation. Without fulfilling the rights of the deserving, his justice remained imperfect. The muhaddithin and impartial unprejudiced historians have recorded the amount Sayyidina ‘Umar stipulated for Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum. We would like to present a few of these quotations. The onus is upon the readers to draw conclusions.


Report One

عن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه أن عمر ألحق الحسن والحسين بأبيهما و فرض لهما في خمسة آلاف خمسة آلاف

Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah narrates from his father, Muhammad al Baqir rahimahu Llah, “‘Umar stipulated for Hassan and Hussain a stipend equal to the stipend received by their father, ‘Ali. They used to receive 5000 dirhams (silver coins) per annum (which was the amount stipulated for those Sahabah who participated in the Battle of Badr).[4]


Report Two

Imam al Tahawi writes:


و فرض للحسن و الحسين رضي الله عنهما خمسة آلاف خمسة آلاف ألحقهما بأبيهما لقرابتهما من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إلخ

He stipulated for Hassan and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma five thousand dirhams each, and joined them with their father, due to their kinship to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[5]


Report Three

The famous historian Hafiz Ibn ‘Asakir records in his Tarikh:


إن عمر بن الخطاب لما دون الديوان و فرض العطاء ألحق الحسن و الحسين بفريضة أبيهما مع أهل بدر لقرابتهما من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم ففرض لكل واحد منهما خمسة آلاف درهم

Certainly, when ‘Umar ibn al Khattab prepared the register and stipulated stipends, he linked Hassan and Hussain with their father’s stipend with the participants of Badr due to their relationship with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Accordingly, he stipulated 5000 dirhams for each of them.[6]


Report Four

The Shia mention a miracle of Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu which we will quote verbatim from their books. We learn from this that Sayyidina Hassan ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu participated in the jihad expeditions during the era of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The Shia scholar ‘Abbas al Qummi has recorded this in his book Tatimmat al Muntaha fi Waqai’ Ayyam al Khulafa in the incidents of Mu’tadid bi Allah’s khilafah.


مسجدے ست در بلدۂ (اصبہان) معروف بلسان الارض در طرف شرقی مزار تخت فولاد نزدیک بہ قبر فاضل ہندی اہل آنجا میگویند کو موضع زمین با حضرت امام حسن مجتبى علیہ السلام تکلم کردہ در زمانیکہ آنحضرت در ایام خلافت عمر بن الخطاب با لشکر اسلام بجہت فتوحات بایں مکان تشریف آوردہ و أزیں جہت اورا لسان الارض میگویند

There is a masjid in Isfahan which is known as Lisan al Ard. It is situated close to the grave of Fadil Hindi, on the eastern side. The people of that area narrate that during the era of ‘Umar, Hassan reached this place with the Muslim army, conquering place after place. The area where the masjid is located, conversed with Hassan. That is why the people call it Lisan al Ard (the tongue of the earth). [7]


Report Five

The senior Shia narrate yet another ‘amazing’ incident. Remember, their books have testified to its authenticity. We are simply presenting it as a proof against them. This narrative proves that one of Sayyidina Hussain’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu wives was gifted to him during the khilafah of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The lands of the non-Arabs were being conquered and this slave girl was gifted to Sayyidina Hussain on the consultaion of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. She gave birth to Imam Zayn al ‘Abidin (‘Ali ibn al Hussain).

Imam Muhammad al Baqir’s narration regarding ‘Ali ibn al Hussain’s birth appears in Usul al Kafi:


عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام لما قدمت بنت يزدجرد على عمر أشرف لها عذارى المدينة و أشرق المسجد بضوئها لما دخلته فلما نظر إليها عمر غطت وجهها و قالت أفيزوج بادا هرمز فقال عمر أتشمتني هذه و هم بها فقال له أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام ليس ذلك لك خيرها رجلا من المسلمين و أحسبها بفيئه فخيرها فجاءت حتى وضعت يدها على رأس الحسين عليه السلام فقال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام ما اسمك فقال جهان شاه فقال لها أمير المؤمنين بل شهربانويه ثم قال للحسين يا أبا عبد الله ليلدن لك منها خير أهل الأرض فولدت علي بن الحسين

On the authority of Abu Jafar rahimahu Llah:

When the daughter of Yazdegerd was brought to ‘Umar, the young girls of Madinah came out to see her. The masjid lit up with her brilliance as she entered. When ‘Umar looked at her, she covered her face and said, “Woe to Hurmuz, due to him we are facing this humiliation.”

‘Umar shouted, “Is she swearing me?” And he wanted to get up and hit her, but Amir al Mu’minin radiya Llahu ‘anhu stopped him saying, “You have no right to do this!”

He continued, “Give her the choice of selecting a man from the Muslims and let her be in lieu of his share from the booty.”

Accordingly, he let her choose. She walked about until she placed her hand on Hussain’s head radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Amir al Mu’minin asked, “What is your name?”

“Jahanshah,” she replied.

“No, rather it is Shahrbanuyah,” he told her.

He then told Hussain, “O Abu ‘Abdullah, the best of the inhabitants of the earth will be born to you from her.” And she gave birth to ‘Ali ibn al Hussain.[8]


Mulla Khalil Qazwini has translated Imam Muhammad al Baqir’s report in Persian in his book al Safi fi Sharh Usul al Kafi in the following words:


یعنی روائتیست از امام محمد باقر علیہ السلام کہ گفت چوں آوردہ شد دختر یزدجرد نزد عمر بہ با مہا رفتند دختران مدینہ براۓ تماشاۓ حسن و جمال او چوں آوازۂ آں را شنیدہ بودند و روشن شد مسجد مدینہ بتابش روۓ او چوں داخل مسجد شد پس چوں نظر کرد بسوۓ او عمر پوشانید روۓ خودرا و گفت بدروزگاربادا ہرمز کہ بہ بدی تدبیر او باعث ایں شد پس عمر گفت آیا دشنام می دہد مرا ایں دختر؟ و قصد آزار کرد با او پس گفت اورا امیر المومنین علیہ السلام نیست آن دشنام براۓ تو بلکہ براۓ دیگر ست مخیر کن اورا کہ برگزنید مردے را از مسلمانان و حساب کن اورا بحصۂ غنیمت آں مرد باعتبار خمس پس مخیر کرد اورا عمر پس آمد تا نہاد دست خودرا بر سر امام حسین پس گفت امیر المومنین چیست نام تو پس گفت جہان شاہ پس گفت اورا امیر المومنین علیہ السلام بلکہ نام تو شہر بانویہ ست بعد ازاں گفت امام حسین را ای ابو عبد اللہ ہر آئینہ خواہد زائید البتہ براۓ تو ازاد پسرے کہ بہتر از اہل زمین است در زمان خود پس زائید امام زید العابدین را[9]


The famous scholar, master of the lineage of the Shia, Ibn ‘Inabah (Jamal al Din) has included this matter briefly in his book ‘Umdat al Talib fi Ansab Al Abi Talib:


فالمشهور أنها شاه زنان بنت كسرى يزدجرد بن شهريار … و قيل إن اسمها شهر بانو قيل نهبت في فتح المدائن فنفلها عمر بن الخطاب من الحسين عليه السلام

It is well-known that she is Shah Zanan bint Kisra Yazdegerd ibn Shahryar. It is said that her name is Shahrbanu. It is suggested that she was captured during the conquest of Mada’in and ‘Umar ibn al Khattab gave her as a gift to Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[10]


It should be remembered that Zayn al ‘Abidin’s mother being captured during the conquest of the Persian lands in the Faruqi khilafah and gifting her to Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu has been documented with all its detail by the celebrated Shia historian Muhammad Taqi Sipihr in his Nasikh al Tawarikh (vol. 10 pg. 3, 4, section one, in the biography of Zayn al ‘Abidin). The scholars may refer to the book for further details. We have provided the reference.



The scholars should be aware that the meaning of the sentence:


بد روزگار بادا ہرمز را


Has been elucidated upon in al Safi fi Sharh Usul al Kafi in the following words:


ہرمز پدر خسر و پرویز ست مراد ایں جا دشنام خسروپرویز ست کہ مومن نشدہ و نامہ رسول اللہ را پارہ پارہ کردہ تا کار با ینجار سید

Hurmuz is Khusroe Parwez’s father. Here Khusroe Parwez is being badmouthed who did not embrace Islam and faced a very evil end due to him tearing up the letter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[11]


Summary of this Chapter

  1. Sayyidina ‘Umar and his children held Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum in high esteem.
  2. They visited each other and paid attention to each other’s dignity and honour.
  3. At times, Sayyidina ‘Umar would gift Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum
  4. During the Faruqi khilafah, they would receive stipends and allowances annually which they gladly accepted.
  5. Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu joined the Muslims armies mobilised by the Faruqi khilafah.
  6. According to the research of the Shia mujtahidin and scholars, Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu was gifted a slave-girl by Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu from the spoils of war which he happily accepted. He married her and Zayn al ‘Abidin was born from her.


These points prove beyond doubt that:

  • The Faruqi khilafah was correct and was not usurped. All the military expeditions were acceptable and taking from the booty was permissible. Sayyidina ‘Ali and his sons radiya Llahu ‘anhum took their monetary dues from Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. There existed no religious or political dispute between them. These historical facts are substantiations to all these conclusions.


NEXT⇒ Section Four

[1] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 1 pg. 530, book on virtues, merits of Hassan and Hussain.

[2] Ibn Badran: Talkhis Ibn ‘Asakir, vol. 4 pg. 321, biography of Hussain; Sirat ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, pg. 164, Egypt print; Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, vol. 3 pg. 161 – 162, below the statement: may Allah favour that man for straightening crookedness, Beirut print; Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 1 pg. 141, Hussain ibn ‘Ali; Kitab Tarikh al Thiqat, pg. 119 – 120, chapter on Hussain, Beirut print; al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah, pg. 177, maqsad 5; Tarikh al Madinah al Munawwarah, vol. 3 pg. 799, Cairo print, Egypt.

[3] Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 3 pg. 191, biography of Hussain; Talkhis Ibn ‘Asakir, vol. 4 pg. 322, biography of Hussain; Sirat ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, pg. 97, Egypt print; Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 7 pg. 106, with reference to Ibn Sa’d, first edition; al Bidayah, vol. 8 pg. 207; al Riyad al Nadirah, vol. 2 pg. 28 – 29, Egypt print.

[4] Abu ‘Ubaid Qasim ibn Salam: Kitab al Amwal, pg. 224, chapter on stipulation of stipends from the Fay’, Egypt print.

[5] Sharh Ma’ani al Athar, vol. 2 pg. 181, book on the recipients of Fay’ and distribution of booty, Delhi print.

[6] Tahdhib Ibn ‘Asakir, vol. 4 pg. 321 – 322, discussion on Hussain, vol. 4 pg. 212, discussion on Imam ‘Ali; al Sunan al Kubra with al Jawhar al Naqi, vol. 6 pg. 350, book on distribution of Fay’ and booty.

[7] Tatimmat al Muntaha, pg. 272-390, under the khilafah of Mu’tadid bi Allah

[8] Usul al Kafi, pg. 296, chapter on proof, the birth of ‘Ali ibn al Hussain, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow.

[9] Al Safi fi Sharh Usul al Kafi, vol. 3 pg. 204 – 205, section two, chapter on proof, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow.

[10] ‘Umdat al Talib fi Ansab Al Abi Talib, pg. 192, section two regarding the issue of Hussain the martyr, new edition.

[11] Al Safi fi Sharh Usul al Kafi, vol. 3 pg. 204 – 205, section two, book of proof, birth of ‘Ali ibn al Hussain, Nawl Kashawr print, Lucknow.