Section Four: Bequests and Extra Matters in ‘Umar’s Last Days and Matters After his Demise

Section Three: The Relationship between ‘Umar and Hassan and Hussain.
February 7, 2019
Chapter Four: Section One – The relationship Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu had with Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam honourable uncle Sayyidina ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu will be discussed with incidents of their mutual faith and trust.
February 7, 2019

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Section Four

Bequests and Extra Matters in ‘Umar’s Last Days and Matters After his Demise

 

This is the last section of chapter three. The incidents which discuss the final days of Sayyidina ‘Umar and Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib’s radiya Llahu ‘anhuma participation will be gathered here. These reports will be presented in a certain pattern under various headings. Rather than listing the conclusions and deductions after every heading, all these will be enumerated at the end. After viewing them, every sensible man will attest to the harmonious relationship enjoyed by these two luminaries and every just person will most definitely testify to the friendly bond they shared.

 

1. The Prophecy of ‘Umar’s Death in a Dream

‘Allamah Abu Bakr ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair al Humaidi in his Musnad Humaidi and Imam Ahmed in his Musnad Ahmed have related a story which describes a dream Sayyidina ‘Umar had which was interpreted by Sayyidina ‘Ali’s wife Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umais radiya Llahu ‘anhum as an indication to his imminent death and an attack on him by a non-Arab. The text reads:

 

إن عمر بن الخطاب قام على المنبر يوم الجمعة فحمد الله و أثنى عليه ثم ذكر رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و ذكر أبا بكر رضي الله عنه ثم قال رأيت رؤيا لا أراها إلا لحضور أجلي رأيت كأن ديكا نقرني نقرتين قال و ذكر لي أنه ديك أحمر فقصصتها على أسماء بنت عميس … فقالت يقتلك رجل من العجم … قال فخطب الناس يوم الجمعة و أصيب يوم الأربعاء

‘Umar ibn al Khattab stood on the pulpit on the day of Jumu’ah. He praised Allah and glorified Him and then spoke about Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam followed by Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He then said, “I saw a dream. I feel that my death is imminent. I saw as if a rooster pecked me twice. I remember it being a red rooster. So I related the dream to Asma’ bint ‘Umais who told me that a non-Arab man will kill me.”

The narrator says: He addressed the people on Friday and was attacked the next Wednesday.[1]

 

2. ‘Ali’s and Ibn ‘Abbas’s testimony to ‘Umar’s Islam, Hijrah, Khilafah, and Trustworthiness

Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was leading the morning prayer when Sayyidina Mughirah ibn Shu’bah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Majusi (Magian) non-Arab slave (Abu Lu’lu’ Fayruz) attacked him with an intent to kill him. This happened in the last days of Dhu al Hijjah 23 A.H. Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was immediately taken from the Masjid to his home. He lived for three days after the assault, and passed away on the 1st of Muharram 24 A.H.

During these three days, the noble Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum came in to visit the khalifah at different times. Once, Sayyidina ‘Ali and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were in his presence, when Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu out of overwhelming concern for the Akhirah, began to express worry for himself. To comfort him and bring relief to his heart, Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas spoke a few words of consolation which were endorsed by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The narration reads:

 

قال حدثنا يوسف عن أبيه عن أبي حنيفة عن الهيثم قال دخل ابن عباس رضي الله تعالى عنهما على عمر حين أصيب فقال أبشر فوالله لقد كان إسلامك عزا و لقد كان هجرتك فتحا و ولايتك عدلا و لقد صحبت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم حتى توفي و هو عنك راض ثم صحبت أبا بكر فتوفي و هو عنك راض و لقد وليت فما اختلف في ولايتك اثنان قال عمر أتشهد بذلك قال فكع ابن عباس فقال علي نعم نشهد بذلك

Yusuf narrated to us―from his father―from Abu Hanifah―from al Haytham who said:

Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma entered the presence of ‘Umar after he had been attacked and announced, “Rejoice for by Allah your Islam was honour, your hijrah was a victory, and your khilafah was justice. And indeed, you accompanied Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam until he passed away while being pleased with you. You then proved a loyal companion to Abu Bakr until he passed on while being happy with you. Then, you were appointed khilafah. Not even two disputed over (the correctness of) your khilafah.”

‘Umar said, “Will you bear witness to this?”

Ibn ‘Abbas kept silent so ‘Ali affirmed, “Definitely, we will testify to this!”[2]

 

The readers should also be aware that ‘Allamah al Zujaji has related this incident of Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas coming to Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhum during his last moments and giving him the glad tidings of Jannat with different wording through his sanad from Maymun ibn Mahran from Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.[3]

Another amazing aspect is that just as Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu attested to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam pleasure with Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the latter testified to Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam pleasure with the former. It appears in Sahih al Bukhari:

قال عمر رضي الله عنه توفي رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و هو عنه راض

‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu stated, “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away while being pleased with him (‘Ali).”[4]

 

3. After the brutal attack, ‘Ali’s expression of complete compassion

 

عن أيوب السختياني عن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه قال لما طعن عمر رضي الله عنه بعث إلى حلقة من أهل بدر كانوا يجلسون بين القبر و المنبر فقال يقول لكم عمر أنشدكم الله أكان ذلك عن رضا منكم فتلكأ القوم فقال علي ابن أبي طالب فقال لا وددنا إنا زدنا في عمره من أعمارنا

From Ayub al Sakhtiyani―from Jafar ibn Muhammad―from his father who narrates:

When ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was stabbed, he sent for the circle of the participants of Badr who would sit between the grave and pulpit. He said, “Umar asks you: I swear to you by Allah, are you pleased with this occurrence?”

The people hesitated, so ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib stood up promptly and announced, “No! We desired that we add to your life from our lives.”[5]

 

4. ‘Ali sounds glad tidings of Jannat to ‘Umar and Hassan endorses

 

عن أبي مطر قال سمعت عليا يقول دخلت على عمر بن الخطاب حين طعن و جاءه أبو لؤلؤ و هو يبكي فقلت ما يبكيك يا أمير المؤمنين قال أبكاني خبر السماء أيذهب بي إلى الجنة أم إلى النار فقلت له أبشر بالجنة فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول ما لا أحصيه سيدا كهول أهل الجنة أبو بكر و عمر و أنعما فقال شاهد أنت لي يا علي بالجنة قلت نعم و أنت يا حسن فاشهد على أبيك أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال إن عمر من أهل الجنة

Abu Matar reports that he heard ‘Ali saying:

I entered upon ‘Umar ibn al Khattab after he had been stabbed by Abu Lu’lu’. He was crying, so I asked, “What makes you weep, O Amir al Mu’minin?”

He replied, “The news of the sky makes me weep. Will I be escorted to Jannat or Hell?”

I said to him, “Rejoice with glad tidings of Jannat! For I have indeed heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam proclaim on numerous occasions which I cannot enumerate, ‘The leaders of the middle-aged class in Jannat will be Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, and the most favoured.’”

‘Umar asked, “O ‘Ali, will you testify that I am going Jannat?”

“Yes,” I replied, “And you, O Hassan, bear witness over your father that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam guaranteed that ‘Umar is from the dwellers of Jannat.”[6]

 

5. Nomination of the Assembly and ‘Ali’s Inclusion

When Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was at the final stage of his life and realised that death was looming, he made many bequests and advised those close and distant. There is a very famous bequest he made at that time which both Sunni and Shia scholars have documented. It deals with the Islamic khilafah and the goodwill of Muslims.

He selected a six men committee from the senior Muslims and commanded that whichever individual is unanimously selected by all should be appointed as the khilafah and Amir al Mu’minin. The decision was to be made in three days. The six men committee comprised of Sayyidina ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Sayyidina Zubair, Sayyidina Talhah, Sayyidina ‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Awf, and Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

He also expounded on the reason and wisdom behind selecting these individuals; Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pleased with them when he left this world. Owing to this, he favoured them over everyone besides them. Sayyidina ‘Ali al Murtada radiya Llahu ‘anhu was included in this selection as is explicitly mentioned in all sources.

We now wish to present a serving from the large platter of transmissions the muhaddithin and historians have prepared to satiate the tastebuds of the readers. At the end, a quotation will be brought from Sheikh al Tusi’s al Amali for the benefit of the Shia. Although the texts have slight variations, the gist of all the narrations are the same.

 

 

Musnad Humaidi

Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu states:

 

و إني قد جعلت هذا الأمر بعدي إلى هؤلاء الستة الذين قبض رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و هو عنهم راض و هم عثمان و علي و الزبير و طلحة و عبد الرحمن بن عوف و سعد بن أبي وقاص فمن استخلف فهو الخليفة

I have indeed handed over this matter after me to these six, with whom Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pleased when he passed away. And they are ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, Zubair, Talhah, ‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Awf, and Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas. Whoever of them is chosen will be the khalifah.[7]

 

6. Corroboration from the Shia

Let us quote from books regarded reliable and authentic by the Shia. It is hoped that the unprejudiced will find great satisfaction with this matter. Sheikh al Ta’ifah al Tusi reports via his sanad in his al Amali and Sheikh al Saduq ibn Babawayh al Qummi quotes it in his book ‘Ilal al Sharai’:

 

عن أبي الطفيل عامر بن واثلة الكناني قال احتضر عمر بن الخطاب جعلها شورى بين علي بن أبي طالب و عثمان بن عفان و طلحة و الزبير و سعد بن أبي وقاص و عبد الرحمن بن عوف رضي الله عنهم و عبد الله بن عمر فيمن يشاور و لا يولى

Abu al Tufayl ‘Amir ibn Wathilah al Kannani reports:

When ‘Umar ibn al Khattab was in his last moments, he assigned it to a council between ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan, Talhah, Zubair, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, and ‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Awf radiya Llahu ‘anhum; and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar was to present his opinion without being appointed as khalifah.[8]

 

7. A Special Bequest to ‘Ali and Arrangements for Salah

It is recorded among the bequests of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d:

 

ثم دعا عليا فأوصاه ثم أمر صهيبا أن يصلي بالناس

He then called ‘Ali and made a special bequest to him. Thereafter, he ordered that Suhayb lead the people in salah.[9]

 

Some narrations mention that one of the last bequests of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was that he commanded the six on oath to fear Allah and stressed upon them to maintain justice and fairness.[10]

 

8. Words of Appreciation from ‘Ali for ‘Umar

As Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu breathed his last, the cloud of grief, sadness, sorrow, and pain covered the entire Muslim Ummah. The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum grew restless and anxious. All the distinguished personalities were grief-stricken by this great tragedy. At that time, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu expressed his grief, voiced his love, and pronounced the greatness of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu in various ways. He appreciated his trustworthiness and honesty and honoured him.

From the countless statements of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, we wish to select only a few. The readers will be able to discern the amiable relationship they shared and the trust they had upon one another.

 

عن ابن عباس قال إني لواقف في قوم فدعوا الله لعمر بن الخطاب و قد وضع على سريره إذا رجل من خلفي قد وضع مرفقه على منكبي يقول يرحمك الله أن كنت لأرجو أن يجعلك مع صاحبيك لأني كثير ما كنت أسمع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يقول كنت و أبو بكر و عمر و فعلت و أبو بكر و عمر و انطلقت و أبو بكر و عمر أن كنت لأرجو أن يجعلك الله معهما فالتفت فإذا علي بن أبي طالب

Ibn ‘Abbas says:

I was standing among a group who were supplicating to Allah for ‘Umar ibn al Khattab after he was placed on his bier when suddenly a man from behind me placed his elbow upon my shoulder and uttered, “May Allah have mercy on you. I have great hope that Allah will unite you with your two companions (Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Abu Bakr) since I have heard Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam declaring on many occasions, ‘It was I, Abu Bakr, and ‘Umar. I did, and so did Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. I walked with Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.’ I have burning optimism that Allah will join you with them.” I turned around, and it was ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib.[11][12]

 

9. ‘Ali Expresses His Envy over ‘Umar’s Book of Deeds

After Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed away, he was bathed and shrouded. His blessed janazah was brought forward for Salat al Janazah. At that time, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu bore witness to the iman and Islam of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu in front of all the Muslims ahead of the rows and expressed his aspiration.

This priceless testimony of Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu religiousness and truthfulness has not been reported from any other Sahabi, in the manner pronounced by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He articulated the chastity and flawlessness of the entire life of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu in one brief sentence, thus voicing his full conviction and faith in the man.

Scores of muhaddithin, Fuqaha’, and historians―both Sunni and Shi’i―have reported this narration through their respective chains of transmission. A slideshow of some of these traditions will be staged for the readers in a unique pattern.

 

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a. Abu Yusuf’s Kitab al Athar

 

قال حدثنا يوسف عن أبيه عن أبي حنيفة عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي عن علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه أنه قال لعمر و هو مسجى ما أحد أحب إلي أن ألقى الله تعالى بمثل صحيفته من هذا المسجى

Yusuf narrated to us―from his father―from Abu Hanifah―from Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn ‘Ali―from ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he announced concerning ‘Umar who was shrouded:

There is no one with whose book of deeds I will be more pleased to meet Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala than this shrouded man.[13]

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b. Imam Muhammad ibn al Hassan’s Kitab al Athar

 

قال الإمام محمد أخبرنا أبو حنيفة قال حدثنا أبو جعفر محمد بن علي قال جاء علي بن أبي طالب إلى عمر بن الخطاب حين طعن فقال رحمك الله فوالله ما في الأرض أحد كنت ألقى الله بصحيفته أحب إلي منك

Imam Muhammad reports―Abu Hanifah informed us saying―Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn ‘Ali narrated to us saying:

‘Ali ibn Abi Talib came to ‘Umar ibn al Khattab after he was stabbed and submitted, “May Allah be merciful to you. By Allah, there is no one on the face of the earth with whose book of deeds I am happier to meet Allah than yours.”[14]

 

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c. Testimony of Imam Muhammad al Baqir

Qadi Abu Mu’ayyad Muhammad ibn Mahmud al Khawarizmi (d. 665 A.H.) has backed this Murtadwi statement with a number of isnads in his book Jami’ Masanid al Imam al A’zam. This is one narration reported on the strength of Imam Muhammad al Baqir:

 

حدثنا أبو حنيفة عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي بن الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب رضوان الله عليهم أجمعين قال أتيته فسلمت عليه و قعدت إليه … فقلت له يرحمك الله هل شهد علي موت عمر فقال سبحان الله أوليس القائل ما أحد من الناس أحب إلي من أن ألقى الله بصحيفته من هذا المسجى ثم زوجه بنته لولا أنه رآه أهلا ما كان يزوجها إياه و كانت أشرف نساء العلمين جدها رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و أبوها علي ذو الشرف المنيف و المنقبة في الإسلام و أمها فاطمت بنت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و أخوها الحسن و الحسين سيدا شباب أهل الجنة و جدتها خديجة

Abu Hanifah narrated to us―from Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhum who said:

I approached him, greeted him, and sat by him. I then submitted, “May Allah have mercy on you. Was ‘Ali present at ‘Umar’s funeral?”

He said, “Glorified is Allah! Is he not the one who declared: ‘There is no person more beloved to me to meet Allah with his book of deeds than this shrouded man.’ He then married his daughter to him. If he did not deem him worthy, he would not have married her to him. Moreover, she was the noblest women of the world. Her grandfather is Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; her father is ‘Ali―possessor of sublime nobility and merit in Islam; her mother is Fatimah the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; her brothers are Hassan and Hussain, the leaders of the youth of Jannat; and her grandmother is Khadijah.[15]

 

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d. Musnad Ahmed

Imam Ahmed reports this statement via various chains of transmission.

 

أبو معشر نجيح المديني مولى بني هاشم عن نافع عن ابن عمر قال وضع عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه بين المنبر و القبر فجاء علي رضي الله عنه حتى قام بين يدي الصفوف فقال هو هذا ثلاث مرات ثم قال رحمة الله عليك ما من خلق الله تعالى أحب إلي من أن ألقاه بصحيفته بعد صحيفة النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم من هذا المسجى

Abu Ma’shar Najih al Madini, the freed slave of the Banu Hashim―from Nafi’―from Ibn ‘Umar who relates:

‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu was laid down between the pulpit and grave. Subsequently, ‘Ali rahimahu Llah arrived and stood ahead of the rows and declared, “Here he is!” thrice. He continued, “May Allah’s mercy enshroud you! There is no creation of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala more cherished to me to meet Him with his good deeds after the good deeds of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam than this shrouded man.”[16]

 

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e. Musnad Ahmed

يونس بن أبي يعقوب عن عون بن أبي جحيفة عن أبيه قال كنت عند عمر و هو مسجى ثوبه قد قضى نحبه فجاء علي رضي الله عنه فكشف الثوب عن وجهه ثم قال رحمة الله عليك أبا حفص فوالله ما بقي بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أحد أحب إلي أن ألقى الله تعالى بصحيفته منك

Yunus ibn Abi Ya’qub―from ‘Awn ibn Abi Juhaifah―from his father who reports:

I was by ‘Umar who was shrouded in material after he had just passed away. Just then, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu came and uncovered his face and then stated, “Allah’s mercy be upon you, Abu Hafs! By Allah, there remains none after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam more pleasing to me to meet Allah with his book of deeds than you.”[17]

 

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f. Tabaqat ibn Sa’d

This declaration of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is reported in twelve traditions in Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d. Five of these isnads lead up to Imam Jafar al Sadiq and Muhammad al Baqir. Three reports are only from Muhammad al Baqir. One leads upto Zaid ibn ‘Ali and another to Muhammad ibn al Hanafiyyah. The other traditions are reported from others besides these Hashimites. Despite the slight variations of the different reports, the same statement of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is transmitted. We are sufficing on quoting one narration from Muhammad al Baqir. The others can be checked in the original book, the reference of which we have provided for the scholars.

 

أخبرنا أنس بن عياض الليثي عن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه أن عليا لما غسل عمر بن الخطاب و كفن و حمل على سريره وقف عليه فأثنى عليه و قال والله ما على الأرض رجل أحب إلي أن ألقى الله بصحيفته من هذا المسجى بالثوب

Anas ibn ‘Iyad al Laythi informed us―from Jafar ibn Muhammad―from his father:

After ‘Umar ibn al Khattab was washed and shrouded and placed on his bier, ‘Ali stood over him. He praised him and said, “By Allah, there is no man on earth more beloved to me to meet Allah with his book of deeds than this man wrapped with a shroud.”[18]

 

Notification

Let the scholars be aware that this narration is documented in Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 1 pg. 520, chapter on ‘Umar’s virtues. However, there is slight difference in wording and it is attached to the narration of togetherness. In a like manner, this narration appears in Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, chapter on ‘Umar’s merits, but is fixed with another narration, i.e. Allah will unite you with your two companions.

 

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g. Al Mustadrak

Al Hakim reports via his chain:

 

سفيان بن عيينة عن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه عن جابر بن عبد الله أن عليا دخل على عمر و هو مسجى فقال صلى الله عليك ثم قال ما من الناس أحد أحب إلي أن ألقى الله بما في صحيفته من هذا المسجى

Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah―from Jafar ibn Muhammad―from his father―from Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah:

‘Ali entered ‘Umar’s presence whereas he was wrapped in a shroud. He submitted, “May Allah send salutations upon you.” He then stated, “There is no person more beloved to me to meet Allah with what is in his book of deeds than this man wrapped in shroud.”[19]

 

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The Musajja Narration with the Shia

The respected readers will be pleased to hear that the narration which we have quoted from various books has been deemed authentic by the Shia scholars and mujtahidin. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu publicly expressed his sentiments of envy and admiration for Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu at his funeral, so that his feelings towards him may be realised by all those present.

 

a. Ma’ani al Akhbar

Sheikh al Saduq Ibn Babawayh al Qummi reports via his sanad:

 

نظر إلى الثاني و هو مسجى بثوبه ما أحد أحب إلي أن ألقي الله بصحيفة من هذا المسجى

He gazed at the second (khalifah) while he lay wrapped in a shroud, “There is none more beloved to me to meet Allah with his good deeds than this shrouded man.”[20]

 

b. Kitab al Shafi

 

روى جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه عن جابر بن عبد الله لما غسل عمر و كفن دخل علي عليه السلام فقال صلى الله عليه ما على الأرض أحد أحب إلي أن ألقى الله بصحيفته من هذا المسجى بين أظهركم

Jafar ibn Muhammad narrates―from his father―from Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah:

After ‘Umar was washed and shrouded, ‘Ali entered and submitted, “May Allah send salutations upon him. There is no one on earth more beloved to me to meet Allah with his book of deeds than this man wrapped before you.”[21]

 

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Clarification

The readers should know that the Shia mujtahidin and scholars like Sheikh al Saduq, Sayed Murtada ‘Alam al Huda, Sheikh Abu Jafar al Tusi, and their like have not labelled the musajja narration baseless or fabricated. On the other hand, respecting their inherent habit, they forwarded interpretations and explanations to it and labelled it a khabar wahid, and consequently passed the verdict of it being non beneficial and indefinite, whereas a khabar wahid being mufid zann (giving the benefit of strong belief) is an accepted principle. Moreover, the scores of muhaddithin that have reported it, their numbers reach the level of mash-hur in meaning. To interpret and deny everything stems from hatred and opposition. Justice demands that prejudice be dumped and impartially be adopted when pondering over the issue. Furthermore, the spear of Taqiyyah is poked everywhere, even here, as a last resort.

 

10. ‘Ali’s Presence at ‘Umar’s Burial

This is the last heading of section four. After Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Salat al Janazah was performed, and he was about to be buried, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu with other friends descended into his grave to lower his blessed body. He took full advantage of this last opportunity to fulfil the rights of his bosom friend and laid him to rest in his final resting place.

To get a better understanding of this incident, read these snippets of the scholars and historians.

 

a. Ibn Jarir al Tabari records in the events of year 23 A.H. in the chapter discussing the incident of shura:

 

و نزل في قبره يعني في قبر عمر الخمسة يعني أهل الشورى ألخ

He descended into ‘Umar’s grave as one of five of the council.[22]

 

b. Ibn Athir al Jazari writes in al Kamil, chapter on the discussion of ‘Umar’s martyrdom:

 

نزل في قبره (عمر) عثمان و علي و الزبيرو عبد الرحمن بن عوف و سعد بن أبي وقاص و عبد الله بن عمر

‘Uthman, ‘Ali, Zubair, ‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Awf, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar descended into ‘Umar’s grave.[23]

 

c. Hafiz Ibn Kathir writes in al Bidayah:

 

نزل في قبره مع ابنه عبد الله أهل الشورى سوى طلحة فإنه كان غائبا

With his son, ‘Abdullah, the men of the council descended into his grave besides Talhah since he was absent.[24]

 

Summary of Section Four

Here are a list of important points to summarise section four.

  1. Some of the narrations presented have excellent isnads and are worthy of being called silsilat al dhahab (golden chains). For example, the isnads of Kitab al Athar of Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad. These Imams narrate from the Imams (of the Ahlul Bayt). This shows that they benefitted academically from each other. This is clear indication to their strong bond.
  2. Sayyidina ‘Umar asked the interpretation of his dream from Sayyidina ‘Ali’s wife, Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umais radiya Llahu ‘anhum, which suggested his imminent death. This shows their mutual love.
  3. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu testified that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pleased with Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu when he left this world. This is a testimony of his perfect iman.
  4. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu confirmed the undisputed Faruqi khilafah, i.e. that this khilafah was neither usurped nor appropriated, and there existed no dispute over Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointment as khalifah.
  5. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu expressed his desire to sacrifice his life for Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu and also sounded the happy tidings of him being the leader of the dwellers of Jannat from the tongue of nubuwwah.
  6. Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu selected Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu as one of the members of the assembly to choose the khalifah after him which points to the degree of faith he had in him. He also included his own son, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, in the council, with clear instructions that he is only to give his counsel but not to be given a position of authority. This is an unmatched example of his innocence from ulterior motives and personal benefits.
  7. Sayyidina ‘Umar favoured Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma with special pieces of advice which highlights the sincerity and goodwill they cherished for each other.
  8. Sayyidina ‘Ali had high aspirations in Sayyidina ‘Umar’s perpetual union with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhum which Allah manifested.
  9. Sayyidina ‘Ali expressed his desire to meet Allah with a book of deeds like Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. This is a testimonial of his religiousness, and a wonderful proof for his good deeds and chastity.
  10. It is evident from the narrations that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was around at Sayyidina ‘Umar’s ghusl and kafn and participated in his Salat al Janazah and burial. In fact, he descended into his grave to lay him to rest, thus fulfilling the right of the intimate friendship they shared.

All of these incidents and anecdotes establish beyond doubt that their relationship was extremely sincere and remained perpetually strong. The reality is that these eminent men were not separated from each other but remained in close proximity to each other. Their hearts were united, not divided. Instead of turning away from each other, they embraced each other. Their hearts were open to each other, not closed. They were loving to each other, not hateful. They did not usurp each other’s rights, but fulfilled them. And Allah is witness over what we declare!

 

NEXT⇒ Chapter Four


[1] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 1 pg. 15, musnadat ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Egypt print; Musnad Humaidi, vol. 1 pg. 17, ahadith of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Majlis ‘Ilmi print, Karachi and Dabhel.

[2] Imam Abu Yusuf: Kitab al Athar, pg. 207, Hadith: 925, Hyderabad Dakkan; Sirat ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, pg. 193, Egypt print; Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, vol. 3 pg. 215 – 216, discussion on the reports on ‘Umar’s death and the statements made at this time, Beirut print; Adab al Mufrad, pg. 167, chapter on walking to the man of a gathering.

[3] Kitab al Amali, pg. 105, Egypt print, first edition.

[4] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 1 pg. 525, chapter on ‘Ali’s merits, Nur Muhammadi print, Delhi.

[5] Hilyat al Auliya’, vol. 3 pg. 199, discussion on Jafar al Sadiq, Egypt print; Musannaf ‘Abdul Razzaq, vol. 6 pg. 51 – 52 and vol. 10 pg. 357, Beirut print.

[6] Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 6 pg. 364, chapter on ‘Umar’s virtues, section on his demise, with reference to Ibn ‘Asakir, old print, Dakkan.

[7] Musnad Humaidi, vol. 1 pg. 17, under the ahadith of ‘Umar, Majlis ‘Ilmi print, Karachi; sahih al Bukhari, vol. 1 pg. 524, chapter on the merits of ‘Uthman and the incident of the bay’ah and ‘Umar’s martyrdom, Nur Muhammadi print, Delhi; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 1 pg. 20, Masanid ‘Umar ibn al Khattab; Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 3 pg. 246, chapter on ‘Umar, section one, Europe print; Musnad Abi Ya’la, pg. 27, Masanid ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, quoted from Pir Guth (Sindh); al sunan al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 150, book on the rebels, chapter on who assigns the matter to consultation; Ansab al Ashraf, vol. 5 pg. 18, chapter on the matter of shura and bay’ah to ‘Uthman, new edition, Takhti Kalan; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 137, 138, Egypt print, first edition.

[8] Al Amali, vol. 2 pg. 167 – 169, Najaf Ashraf print, Iraq; ‘Ilal al Shara’i’, pg. 171, chapter 134, Najaf Ashraf print, Iraq; Tarikh Ya’qubi, vol. 2 pg. 160, the occurrences around ‘Umar’s death, Beirut print; Muruj al Dhahab, vol. 2 pg. 312, discussion on the khilafah of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab.

[9] Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 3 pg. 246.

[10] Al Baladhuri.

[11] Sahih al Bukhari, vol. 1 pg. 519, 520, chapter on the virtues of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, Nur Muhammadi print, Delhi; Sahih Muslim, vol. 2 pg. 274, chapter on ‘Umar’s merits, Delhi print; Sunan Ibn Majah, pg. 10, chapter on virtues, Delhi print; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 1 pg. 112, musnadat of ‘Ali, Egypt print, with selection of al Kanz; Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 6 pg. 365, Hadith: 5717, old Dakkan print.

[12] Caution: For the benefit of the scholars, we would like to notify that the narration which we have quoted from scores of muhaddithin has been reported by al Hakim Nishapuri from Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma in al Mustadrak. After reproducing the narration, he asserts, “This hadith is sahih according to the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim, but they have not reported it.” (Al Mustadrak, vol. 3, pg. 68, book on recognising the Sahabah). He claims that they have not reported it. This humble servant, author of the book says, “How could al Hakim have said this whereas al Bukhari has reported this narration with variation in wording in the chapter on the merits of ‘Umar in his al Sahih (vol. 1 pg. 519 – 520). This was negligence on his part. May Allah forgive him and us. Glory be the One who does not forgot, does not err, is not negligent, and does not blunder.”

[13] Kitab al Athar, pg. 215, Hadith: 952, Egypt print, Lajnat Ihya’ Ma’arif al Nu’maniyyah, Dakkan.

[14] Kitab al Athar, pg. 146, chapter on the merits of the Sahabah, Anwar Muhammadi print, Lucknow, old edition.

[15] Jami’ Masanid al Imam al A’zam, vol. 1 pg. 204, chapter on ‘Umar’s virtues, Da’irat al Ma’arif print, Dakkan.

[16] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 1 pg. 109, musnadat ‘Ali, with selection of Kanz al ‘Ummal.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 3 pg. 269 – 270, chapter on ‘Umar’s life, Leiden print, Europe; Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 12 pg. 37 – 38, book on virtues, Karachi print.

[19] Al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 93 – 94, with Talkhis of al Dhahabi. Al Dhahabi has not criticised this narration.

[20] Ma’ani al Akhbar, pg. 117, chapter 245, old Iran print.

[21] Kitab al Shafi, pg. 171, 177, with Talkhis al Shafi, pg. 428, old Iran print.

[22] Tarikh al Tabari, vol. 5 pg. 38, Egypt print.

[23] Al Kamil, vol. 3 pg. 28.

[24] Al Bidayah, vol. 7 pg. 145, Egypt print.

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