Section Six – The Implications of Reviling and Excommunicating the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum

Section Five – The Stance of the Rawafid About the Sahabah
November 25, 2021
Chapter Eight – Tashih (authentication) and Tad’if (deeming weak) between the Ahlus Sunnah and the Rawafid – Section One: Tashih and Tad’if according to the Ahlus Sunnah
November 30, 2021

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Section Six

The Implications of Reviling and Excommunicating the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum

 

The pious predecessors were wary of the dangers of disparaging the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and they warned against the disparagers and their motives. Because they knew that that would lead to incorrect implications which are diametrically opposed to the Din. Hence, some of them said a few but concise words regarding this matter. Hereunder we will quote some of these statements and thereafter we will explicate the necessary implications of disparaging the Sahabah.

Imam Malik has said the following regarding the people who revile the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum:

 

إنما هؤلاء أقوام أرادوا القدح في النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، فلم يمكنهم ذلك، فقدحوا في أصحابه، حتى يقال: رجل سوء، ولو كان رجلا صالحا لكان أصحابه صالحين

These people primarily intended to disparage Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, but were unable to do so. Hence, they denigrated his Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum so that it be said, “An evil person, had he been good his Companions would have been good.”[1]

 

And Imam Ahmed has said:

إذا رأيت رجلا يذكر أحدا من الصحابة بسوء فاتهمه على الإسلام

If you see a person mentioning anyone of the Sahabah with evil, then become suspicious of him with regards to Islam.[2]

 

And Abu Zur’ah al Razi says:

 

إذا رأيت الرجل ينتقص أحداً من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فاعلم أنه زنديق، وذلك أن الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم عندنا حق، والقرآن حق، وإنما أدى إلينا هذا القرآن والسنة أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وإنما يريدون أن يجرحوا شهودنا ليبطلوا الكتاب والسنة، والجرح بهم أولى، وهم زنادقة

If you see a person denigrating anyone of the Sahabah of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, then know that he is a heretic. For Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam according to us is true, and the Qur’an is true; and it is the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who have conveyed them to us. So, these people intend to impugn our witnesses so that thereby they can prove the Qur’an and the Sunnah to be baseless. Hence, they are more deserving of being impugned and they are heretics.[3]

 

And Abu Nuaim mentions:

 

فلا يتتبع هفوات أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وزللهم ويحفظ عليهم ما يكون منهم في حال الغضب والموجدة إلا مفتون القلب في دينه

So, none would search for the mistakes of the Sahabah of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and their errors, and record against them what transpired from them whilst angry and disconcerted but a person with a heart that is trialled in the Din.[4]

 

He also says:

لا يبسط لسانه فيهم إلا من سوء طويته في النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وصحابته والإسلام والمسلمين

Only a person whose internal is evil will let free his tongue to criticize Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, his Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, Islam, and the Muslims.[5]

 

It should be noted that the warning of the scholars is general and includes all the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Ponder over the words of the Imam of the Ahlus Sunnah, ‘anyone of the Sahabah with evil’ and the words of Abu Zur’ah, ‘denigrating anyone’. So, they have warned against anyone who merely denigrates them or mentions them with evil, and that is of a lesser degree than reviling and excommunicating. Also, the warning is about denigrating one of them and not all of them. So, what can be said about those who revile all or most of them?

 

Some of the Implications of Reviling

 

1. Holding the view of the Kufr of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum or their Fisq, with the exception of a few, results in doubting the Qur’an and the Prophetic Hadith. Because impugning the transmitters entails discrediting the transmitted. For how can we rely upon a Book whose transmitters are imposters and apostates, we seek the refuge of Allah (from such a statement). The same can be said regarding the Prophetic Hadith, i.e., if the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum are impugned and their integrity is compromised then all the transmissions will be inconsistent to Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and, thus, they will not be of evidence material.

This is something expressed by one of the heretics, as cited by al Khatib al Baghdadi from Abu Dawood al Sijistani:

 

لما جاء الرشيد بشاكر رأس الزنادقة ليضرب عنقه قال أخبرني لم تعلمون المتعلم منكم أول ما تعلمونه الرفض والقدر قال إما قولنا بالرفض فانا نريد الطعن على الناقلة فإذا بطلت الناقلة أوشك ان نبطل المنقول

When Rashid came with Shakir, a leading heretic to slay him, he said, “Tell me, why is the first thing you teach a student from you the disavowal (i.e. of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum?”

He said, “We intend to criticize the transmitting group, for if it is rendered useless, we will succeed in invalidating the transmitted.”[6]

 

Therefore, we say that belief in the Qur’an necessitates that a person believes in whatever appears in it. And as you have learnt, it states that they were the best of people, that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will not humiliate them, and that he was pleased with them… Hence, whoever does not believe this about them has belied what comes in the Qur’an and has contradicted himself in his claim.

 

2. This view implies that this Ummah, (we seek the refuge of Allah), is the worst nation produced for mankind, and the worst in it are its forerunners. This means that majority of the first generation—the best generation—were disbelievers or imposters and hence their generation was the worst.[7] Grave indeed is what comes out of their mouths.

 

3. This stance also necessitates one of two things, either attributing ignorance to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, Pure is He from what they say, or that the texts which contain praise for them are futile. To explain, if Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, free is He from what they say, did not know that they would disbelieve and, thus, praised them and promised them a good reward, then this is ignorance, which is impossible for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. And if He knew that they were going to disbelieve, then promising them a good reward and his pleasure is futile, and futility likewise cannot possibly be attributed to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.[8]

This likewise entails questioning the wisdom of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. For he chose them for the companionship of his Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and they strove with him, supported him, stood by his side and he even got his daughter married to them—two daughters of his daughters he married to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu—and he married the daughters of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. So how did Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala choose for his Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam such helpers and family by law regarding whom he knew that they would disbelieve?

 

4. Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made extraordinary efforts for a period of twenty-three years in naturing the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, till eventually with the grace of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala that society which was exemplary in its conduct, its sacrifices, its asceticism, and piety came into being. Hence, he was the greatest reformer known in history.

But the Rafidah who claim to subscribe to Islam and adhere to the teachings of the Nabi of Islam present an opposite depiction of this society. A depiction which destroys all the efforts Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made in the spheres of reformation and education and establishes for him such a failure that no reformer, or experienced tutor ever experienced. This is despite him not being delegated by Allah, aided from the heavens, and being a recipient of divine revelation, as was the case with Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. It is a dark and disfigured depiction of denial of bounty, aversion, treachery, concealing of the truth, worshipping of the self, love for aggrandization, deploying every means, conspiracies, distortions, accusations, and considering the aforementioned permissible to fulfil lowly objectives. It is an ugly and distasteful depiction which not only stirs despondency regarding the outcome of the Islamic reformational efforts, but also brings about despondency regarding the ability of humanity at large, its eventual outcome and its future.[9]

The Rafidah aver that the immense efforts invested by Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not produce but three, four, or seven people (as per their narrations) who remained steadfast upon Islam after his demise. As for everyone else besides them, they severed their relation with Islam, we seek the refuge of Allah, immediately after his demise and they thereby confirmed that the companionship of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was a failure and had no positive effect whatsoever.

This claim leads to despair regarding the reformation of humanity and results in the loss of confidence in the Islamic Methodology, its ability to nurture, and refine character. It also results in scepticism regarding the Nubuwwah of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This is because if the Din failed in presenting to the world a substantial amount of successful and constructive exemplary individuals and an ideal society in the era of its caller and the first bearer of its message, then how would his followers be able to achieve anything after a lengthy period has passed after the era of Nubuwwah?

And if those who believed in this call were unable to remain steadfast upon the straight path and did not remain loyal to their Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam after his departure to his Lord, subsequent to which only three, or four, or seven individuals remained upon the straight path that he left; then how can we accept that this Din is capable of purifying the souls and reforming conduct? And how can it be entertained that it has the capacity to rescue humanity from its barbarism and misfortune and raise it to the epitome of its existence?

Instead, it would be averred: If the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was truthful in Nubuwwah, his teachings would have an effect and there would definitely be those who would believe in him from the depths of their hearts. He would, thus, at least procure a few hundred people who would remain steadfast after bringing faith in him. So, if majority of his Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, with the exception of just a few, were hypocrites and apostates, as they allege, then who has remained with Islam? And who has actually benefitted from the Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? And how can he then be a Mercy to the Worlds?[10]

 

NEXT⇒ Chapter Eight – Tashih (authentication) and Tad’if (deeming weak) between the Ahlus Sunnah and the Rawafid – Section One: Tashih and Tad’if according to the Ahlus Sunnah


[1] Al Sarim al Maslul, 1/581.

[2] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 8/139.

[3] Al Kifayah fi ‘Ilm al Riwayah, p. 49; Fath al Mughith, 3/109.

[4] Tathbit al Imamah wa Tartib al Khilafah, 1/175.

[5] Ibid., 1/216.

[6] Tarikh Baghdad, 4/308.

[7] See: al Sarim al Maslul, 1/590.

[8] Ithaf Dhawi al Najabah (published by Dar al Ansar), of Muhammad ibn al ‘Arabi al Tabbani, p. 75

[9] Khomeini is one of those who has unequivocally levelled these allegations. Hence, in a speech he delivered on 15th Sha’ban 1400 A.H, on the occasion of the celebration of the birth of the alleged Mahdi, he said the following:

 

الأنبياء جميعا جاءوا من أجل إرساء قواعد العدالة في العالم لكنهم لم ينجحوا… وحتى النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام خاتم الأنبياء الذي جاء لإصلاح البشرية وتنفيذ العدالة لم ينجح في ذلك في عهده… وإن الشخص الذي سينجح في ذلك ويرسي قواعد العدالة في أنحاء العالم، ويقوم الانحرافات هو الإمام المهدي المنتظر.

All the Ambiya’ ‘alayh al Salam came in order to entrench the laws of justice in the world, but they were unsuccessful…Even Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam the seal of the Ambiya’ ‘alayh al Salam came to reform humanity and execute justice but was unsuccessful in his era…And the person who will be successful in that, will embed the laws of justice in the various corners of the world, and reform all deviances will be the awaited Mahdi…

 

This is how all the Ambiya’ ‘alayh al Salam failed, amongst them being Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam according to this Rafidi, whereas his revolution is considered to be the most successful of them and the most just.

[10] See: Suratan Mutadaddatan ‘ind Ahl al Sunna wa al Shia al Imamiyyah, p. 55; I’tiqad Ahlus Sunnah fi al Sahabah, p. 66, of professor Muhammad ‘Abdullah al Wuhaybi.

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