Introduction

Answering the Allegation that Sayyiduna Talhah radiya Llahu `anhu Intented to marry the wives of the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam after his demise – NEW UPLOAD!!!
August 15, 2023
Preface
August 29, 2023

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Introduction to the Second Edition

 

Praise be to Allah, as is fitting for the His majesty and His great sovereignty. Peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, who conveyed the message on behalf of his Lord through his tongue. And peace and blessings be upon his family, his Companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the Day of Judgment.

The first edition of this book sold out in less than two years, indicating the readers’ interest in its subject matter. Therefore, I found it beneficial to add some historical information that reinforces our publishing goals.

What encouraged us to add to and republish this work, was our acquisition of Dr. Wilhelm Hoenerbach’s research, Excerpts from the book of Apostasy by Abu Yazid Wathimah ibn Moosa ibn al Furat (d. 237 AH), taken from the book al Isabah by Ibn Hajar. This was published in 1951 AD.

Our colleague, Dr. ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad Nasir al Saif, a professor in the Department of History, College of Arts, King Saud University, kindly gifted us a copy of it. May Allah reward him with all that is good on our behalf.

This research made it easier for us to benefit more from Ibn Hajar’s book, al Isabah. Dr. al Saif drew our attention to the sources of some other useful information that we found in his research, “Those who remained steadfast on Islam in the region of Banu Hanifah during Musaylimah’s apostasy”, published in the King Saud University Journal, Volume 10, Arts (1), pp. 121–142 (1418 AH/1998 AD).

I ask Allah to guide everyone to what is good for Islam and Muslims, and our final invocation is that all praise is due to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.

 

Written in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

At the end of Dhul Hijjah in the year 1419 AH

By Dr. Mahdi Rizqullah Ahmed.

 

Introduction to the First Edition

 

Praise be to Allah, we praise Him, seek His help and ask for His forgiveness. We seek refuge with Allah from the evil of ourselves and from the evil of our actions. Whom Allah guides, there is no one to misguide him, and whom He lets go astray, there is no one to guide him. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone, He has no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.

This book—when looking at it comprehensively—addresses important aspects of the Fitnah of Apostasy that occurred during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu following the death of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. These aspects are:

  • Who are those who remained steadfast in Islam during this crisis?
  • What was their role in extinguishing it?
  • Did all the Arabs apostatize as some writers say?
  • Or did most of the Arabs apostatize as others say?

This comprehensive outlook highlights important historical facts derived from some credible sources and references regarding the history of this period, indicating that Muslim tribes, leaders, and individuals outside Madinah, Makkah, and Ta’if did not all or mostly apostatize from Islam, as some writers tried to make us understand.

The Islamic state relied on strong pillars of tribes, leaders, and individuals who spread across the Arabian Peninsula, remained steadfast on their Islam, and played important and principal roles in ending the Fitnah of Apostasy of some tribes, leaders, and individuals who apostatized from Islam or refused to submit to the authority of the Islamic state.

This comprehensive view will correct the understanding of some writers who have dealt with this aspect of the Fitnah of Apostasy with a sort of generalization, inaccuracy, lack of objectivity, ill-intention, or a partiality.

Indeed, such an approach by some Muslim writers puts them in a legally prohibited area, which is accusing some of the Sahabah of apostasy following the death of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and describing the best of generations—the generation of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—as a generation of a Fitnah that included most Muslims, amongst whom were the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. This contradicts the saying of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

خير القرون قرني ثم الذين يلونهم ثم الذين يلونهم

The best generations are my generation, then those who follow them, then those who follow them.[1]

 

Moreover, such an approach to the history of this period gives the enemies of Islam arguments that they use to attack Islam. When an Arab Muslim writes that the Arabs apostatized after the death of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, it gives the impression that Islam was weak among the Arabs, that their conversion to Islam was merely an outward conversion, and that their obedience to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—and after him to Abu Bakr—was due to fear, and not due to desire, conviction, and firm belief.

The researcher does not deny the existence of hypocrites in the Islamic community, both inside and outside Madinah, during the lifetime of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, as detailed in the Noble Qur’an, especially in Surah al Munafiqun and Surah al Tawbah. The latter is also known as al Fadihah (The Exposer) or al Kashifah (The Uncoverer) because it exposes the state of the hypocrites, about whom the verse of Allah Almighty was revealed:

 

وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُم مِّنَ الْأَعْرَابِ مُنَافِقُوْنَ ۖ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِيْنَةِ ۖ مَرَدُوْا عَلَى النِّفَاقِ لَا تَعْلَمُهُمْ ۖ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ ۚ سَنُعَذِّبُهُم مَّرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّوْنَ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ عَظِيْمٍ

And among those around you of the bedouins are hypocrites, and also from the people of Madinah. They persist in hypocrisy, you do not know them, We know them. We will punish them twice; then they will be returned to a great punishment.[2]

 

These hypocrites would take advantage of any circumstance they deemed suitable for inciting Fitnah. And they were also exploited by some individuals with personal ambitions, whose signs of mischief appeared during the lifetime of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Such as al Aswad al ‘Ansi, who rebelled against the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam after the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year after hijrah, as mentioned in the Sahihayn[3] that al Aswad al ‘Ansi was not even known to be a Muslim in the first place for it to be said that he had apostatized from Islam. Similarly, Musaylimah al Kadhdhab, who said:

 

إن جعل لي محمد الأمر من بعده تبعته

If Muhammad leaves me in charge after him, I would follow him.[4]

 

And Sajah al Tamimiyyah was a Christian and never converted to Islam in the first place.[5]

Therefore, if the likes of these individuals managed to deceive some of the simple-minded people, who are found in every society, that cannot be used as evidence that most Arabs had apostatized.

 

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[1] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3650; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 3535.

[2] Surah al Tawbah: 101.

[3] Sahih al Bukhari, Kitab al Maghazi, Hadith: 4374; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2274.

[4] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4373; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2273.

[5] See: Ibn Kathir: Al Bidayah wa an-Nihayah, 6/360.

BACK Return to Table of contents

 

Introduction to the Second Edition

 

Praise be to Allah, as is fitting for the His majesty and His great sovereignty. Peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, who conveyed the message on behalf of his Lord through his tongue. And peace and blessings be upon his family, his Companions, and those who follow them in righteousness until the Day of Judgment.

The first edition of this book sold out in less than two years, indicating the readers’ interest in its subject matter. Therefore, I found it beneficial to add some historical information that reinforces our publishing goals.

What encouraged us to add to and republish this work, was our acquisition of Dr. Wilhelm Hoenerbach’s research, Excerpts from the book of Apostasy by Abu Yazid Wathimah ibn Moosa ibn al Furat (d. 237 AH), taken from the book al Isabah by Ibn Hajar. This was published in 1951 AD.

Our colleague, Dr. ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad Nasir al Saif, a professor in the Department of History, College of Arts, King Saud University, kindly gifted us a copy of it. May Allah reward him with all that is good on our behalf.

This research made it easier for us to benefit more from Ibn Hajar’s book, al Isabah. Dr. al Saif drew our attention to the sources of some other useful information that we found in his research, “Those who remained steadfast on Islam in the region of Banu Hanifah during Musaylimah’s apostasy”, published in the King Saud University Journal, Volume 10, Arts (1), pp. 121–142 (1418 AH/1998 AD).

I ask Allah to guide everyone to what is good for Islam and Muslims, and our final invocation is that all praise is due to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.

 

Written in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

At the end of Dhul Hijjah in the year 1419 AH

By Dr. Mahdi Rizqullah Ahmed.

 

Introduction to the First Edition

 

Praise be to Allah, we praise Him, seek His help and ask for His forgiveness. We seek refuge with Allah from the evil of ourselves and from the evil of our actions. Whom Allah guides, there is no one to misguide him, and whom He lets go astray, there is no one to guide him. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone, He has no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.

This book—when looking at it comprehensively—addresses important aspects of the Fitnah of Apostasy that occurred during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr as-Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu following the death of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. These aspects are:

  • Who are those who remained steadfast in Islam during this crisis?
  • What was their role in extinguishing it?
  • Did all the Arabs apostatize as some writers say?
  • Or did most of the Arabs apostatize as others say?

This comprehensive outlook highlights important historical facts derived from some credible sources and references regarding the history of this period, indicating that Muslim tribes, leaders, and individuals outside Madinah, Makkah, and Ta’if did not all or mostly apostatize from Islam, as some writers tried to make us understand.

The Islamic state relied on strong pillars of tribes, leaders, and individuals who spread across the Arabian Peninsula, remained steadfast on their Islam, and played important and principal roles in ending the Fitnah of Apostasy of some tribes, leaders, and individuals who apostatized from Islam or refused to submit to the authority of the Islamic state.

This comprehensive view will correct the understanding of some writers who have dealt with this aspect of the Fitnah of Apostasy with a sort of generalization, inaccuracy, lack of objectivity, ill-intention, or a partiality.

Indeed, such an approach by some Muslim writers puts them in a legally prohibited area, which is accusing some of the Sahabah of apostasy following the death of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and describing the best of generations—the generation of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—as a generation of a Fitnah that included most Muslims, amongst whom were the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. This contradicts the saying of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

خير القرون قرني ثم الذين يلونهم ثم الذين يلونهم

The best generations are my generation, then those who follow them, then those who follow them.[1]

 

Moreover, such an approach to the history of this period gives the enemies of Islam arguments that they use to attack Islam. When an Arab Muslim writes that the Arabs apostatized after the death of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, it gives the impression that Islam was weak among the Arabs, that their conversion to Islam was merely an outward conversion, and that their obedience to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—and after him to Abu Bakr—was due to fear, and not due to desire, conviction, and firm belief.

The researcher does not deny the existence of hypocrites in the Islamic community, both inside and outside Madinah, during the lifetime of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, as detailed in the Noble Qur’an, especially in Surah al Munafiqun and Surah al Tawbah. The latter is also known as al Fadihah (The Exposer) or al Kashifah (The Uncoverer) because it exposes the state of the hypocrites, about whom the verse of Allah Almighty was revealed:

 

وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُم مِّنَ الْأَعْرَابِ مُنَافِقُوْنَ ۖ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِيْنَةِ ۖ مَرَدُوْا عَلَى النِّفَاقِ لَا تَعْلَمُهُمْ ۖ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ ۚ سَنُعَذِّبُهُم مَّرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّوْنَ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ عَظِيْمٍ

And among those around you of the bedouins are hypocrites, and also from the people of Madinah. They persist in hypocrisy, you do not know them, We know them. We will punish them twice; then they will be returned to a great punishment.[2]

 

These hypocrites would take advantage of any circumstance they deemed suitable for inciting Fitnah. And they were also exploited by some individuals with personal ambitions, whose signs of mischief appeared during the lifetime of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Such as al Aswad al ‘Ansi, who rebelled against the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam after the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year after hijrah, as mentioned in the Sahihayn[3] that al Aswad al ‘Ansi was not even known to be a Muslim in the first place for it to be said that he had apostatized from Islam. Similarly, Musaylimah al Kadhdhab, who said:

 

إن جعل لي محمد الأمر من بعده تبعته

If Muhammad leaves me in charge after him, I would follow him.[4]

 

And Sajah al Tamimiyyah was a Christian and never converted to Islam in the first place.[5]

Therefore, if the likes of these individuals managed to deceive some of the simple-minded people, who are found in every society, that cannot be used as evidence that most Arabs had apostatized.

 

NEXT⇒ Preface


[1] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3650; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 3535.

[2] Surah al Tawbah: 101.

[3] Sahih al Bukhari, Kitab al Maghazi, Hadith: 4374; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2274.

[4] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4373; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2273.

[5] See: Ibn Kathir: Al Bidayah wa an-Nihayah, 6/360.