Introduction

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Introduction

All praise is for Allah. We praise Him, seek help from Him, and beseech Him for His forgiveness. We seek His refuge from the evils of ourselves and from our bad deeds. No one can misguide the one whom Allah has guided and no can guide the one whom Allah has misguided.

I testify that there is no deity besides Allah; He is alone and has no partner. I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلَا تَمُوْتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُوْنَ

O you who have believed, fear Allah as He should be feared and do not die except as Muslims [in submission to Him].[1]

 

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوْا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِيْ خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَّاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيْرًا وَنِسَاءً وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ الَّذِيْ تَسَاءَلُوْنَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ إِنَّ اللهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيْبًا

O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women. And fear Allah, through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over you, an Observer.[2]

 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللهَ وَقُوْلُوْا قَوْلًا سَدِيْدًا  يُصْلِحْ لَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوْبَكُمْ وَمَن يُّطِعِ اللهَ وَرَسُوْلَهُ فَقَدْ فَازَ فَوْزًا عَظِيْمًا

O you who have believed, fear Allah and speak words of appropriate justice.[3] He will [then] amend for you your deeds and forgive you your sins. And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has certainly attained a great attainment.[4][5]

 

Now to our topic:

After Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala favoured me by making me a student of higher studies, on the master’s level, of ‘Aqidah, belief, and contemporary schools therein; I preferred that the topic of my thesis for this level be Nasb and the Nawasib, a doctrinal study in light of the position of the Ahlus Sunnah. This was after I had sought goodness from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.

This is because studying any innovative denomination which has surfaced in the early stages of the history of this Ummah, knowing the causes of its inception, studying its doctrinal views, identifying its link with other Islamic denominations, and thereafter ascertaining the position of the Ahlus Sunnah regarding it is of utmost importance. In order to identify the areas of deviance and their causes, and answer and refute the misconceptions of the deviants, which is pivotal.

In addition, many of the other leanings, like Irjaʾ, I’tizal, and Tashayyu’ have been thoroughly studied and analysed. Nasb, however, remains neglected since the bygone eras without any light being shed on it; it has always remained distant from academic research which could reveal its unknown aspects.

 

The Reason for Choosing the Topic

  1. According to my knowledge, there is no dedicated study on this topic. Thus it is important that the veils be raised from a leaning regarding which very little is known.
  2. The concept of Nasb is a convoluted one; The Ahlus Sunnah use it for a specific meaning and their opponents use it for another completely different meaning. Hence this calls upon the researchers to clarify and elucidate its true implications.
  3. It falls part of defending the integrity of some of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and plays a significant role in debunking the attacks which tarnish their reputation, (together with stating the position of the Ahlus Sunnah regarding them).
  4. It has a very strong link with stating the rights of the Ahlul Bayt and the refutation of those who fall short of fulfilling them by clearly elucidating the position of the Ahlus Sunnah regarding them.
  5. Some denominations have always accused the Ahlus Sunnah of It thus makes it compulsory upon the researchers to debunk these accusations and render them baseless.
  6. Understanding this concept will help in protecting the probity of some scholars who have been accused of it falsely, like al Asmaʾi and Ibn Taymiyah amongst others.
  7. It will set the parameters of the speech which is permissible regarding the Ahlul Bayt, in terms of the Shar’i viewpoint, and of that which falls under the ambit of

There is no doubt that the unclarity of these aspects on the one hand, and the lack of understanding regarding the various methods of debate and argumentation on the other, have led to some people accusing Ibn Taymiyah of Nasb due to some things which appear in his monumental work Minhaj al Sunnah al Nabawiyyah.

 

The Objectives of the Study

  1. Dedicating an in-depth study to the topic of Nasb and This will enrich the Islamic library with an academic study which will shed light upon one of the innovative leanings.
  2. Defending the position of the Ahlus Sunnah and exonerating them from what is attributed to them.
  3. Bringing to the fore the efforts the Ahlus Sunnah have made in refuting the
  4. Combatting the opponents by debunking their arguments and falsifying their claims.

 

The Structure of the Study

The Introduction: This entails the reasons for choosing the topic, the objectives of the study, its structure, and the method of preparation.

Prologue: A brief discussion regarding the Sahabah and the Ahlul Bayt and their status according to the Ahlus Sunnah.

Chapter 1: The concept of Nasb, its history and the position of the Umayyad and the Abbasids rulers in its regard; therein there are three sub-headings:

  1. The concept of Nasb between the Ahlus Sunnah and the Twelver Shia. This will include two discussions:
  2. The concept of Nasb according to the Ahlus Sunnah.
  3. The concept of Nasb according to the Twelver Shia.
  4. The history of Nasb and the contributions of the Ahlus Sunnah in combatting them. This will include four discussions:
  5. Its inception.
  6. The causes of its inception.
  7. The areas of
  8. The efforts of the Ahlus Sunnah in combatting them.
  9. The position of the Umayyad and Abbasid rulers with regard to Nasb and the This will include two discussions:
  10. The position of the Umayyad Rulers.
  11. The position of the Abbasid rulers.

Chapter 2: The Nawasib in the past and the Nawasib in the present. Hereunder there will be two sub-headings:

  1. The Nawasib in ancient times, between reality and mere claims. Under this there will be two discussions
  2. Those regarding who Nasb is established.
  3. Those who were accused of Nasb, but regarding who it is not established.
  4. Nasb and other Islamic denominations. Under this there will be three discussions:
  5. The link between Nasb and
  6. The link between Nasb and Tashayyu’.
  7. The link between Nasb and I’tizal.
  8. The Nawasib in the present, between denial and approval. This will include two discussions:
  9. The deniers of their existence.
  10. The affirmers of their existence.

Chapter 3: The views of the Nawasib and their refutation. Herein there are two subheadings:

  1. The views of the Nawasib and their refutation, which will include three discussions:
  2. The views of the Nawasib regarding the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.
  3. The views of the Nawasib regarding the Ahlul Bayt radiya Llahu ‘anhum.
  4. The views of the Nawasib regarding ‘Ali and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.
  5. Their status. This will entail two discussions:
  6. Their status according to the Twelver Shia.
  7. Their status according to the Ahlus Sunnah.

Conclusion: The crux of the study.

Bibliography: Includes a bibliography of the verses of the Qurʾan, the hadiths, scholars, and various denominations.

 

The procedure of the study

  1. I have given the reference of the Surah and the verse number for all the verses of the Qurʾan which appear in the core text.
  2. The hadith which appear in the text are referenced in the following way:

a. If a hadith appears in the Sahihayn or one of them, I have sufficed on attributing it to its source due to the Ummah unanimously accepting their narrations as authentic.

b. Any hadith which appears in a source other than the Sahihayn, I have only referenced it from the reliable collections of hadith. I have also cited the grading of the scholars which I came across regarding that particular hadith.

c. When giving the reference of any hadith I have mentioned the following:

  • The Sahabi who narrates it, if he is not mentioned in the core text.
  • The name of the book, the chapter, and the number of the hadith if it appears in any of the collections which are arranged according to chapters. When citing narrations from collections other than the above I have sufficed on mentioning the number of the hadith, if there is any, or else the number of the volume and page.
  • The sequence of the references wherein the hadith appears will be detailed as follows: Sahih al Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abi Dawood, Sunan al Nasaʾi, Sunan Ibn Majah. As for the collections besides these, the sequence will revolve around ancientness and seniority.
  • When alluding to a hadith which is narrated whose approximate meaning is transmitted (with a slight variation from the actual words), I will suffice on indicating to its source with the volume and page number without any further detail.
  1. I have referenced everything that I have cited by mentioning its source. And I have enlisted the references in a chronological order save in a few places, like when the cited text appears in its entirety in a later text, etc.
  2. I have endeavoured to place vowel signs on the noble hadiths, the quotations of the Sahabah and the unclear names, etc.
  3. I have commented on all the beliefs in which the Nawasib have opposed the Ahlus Sunnah.
  4. Although the term Nawasib is inclusive of those who deviated regarding ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, irrespective of whether they excommunicated him or not, but at times I have shed more light upon those Nawasib who do not excommunicate him because I believe that that might be more befitting; like for instance when a detailed discussion has already passed regarding the excommunicating Nawasib,
  5. I have penned the biographies of the scholars and luminaries who appear in this work, but with the exception of the Sahabah, the four Imams, the authors of the nine hadith collections and Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn al Qayyim.
  6. I have given a brief introduction to the various sects and denominations which appear in the book.
  7. I have likewise given brief details regarding places and cities and have explained the less common words which appear in the discussion.
  8. I have delayed the detailed descriptions of the various references and sources till its bibliography due to my distaste for repetition and the elongation of the study.

 

Furthermore, although I have presented the manner of the study, but I am quite sure that treading the path accordingly is not going to be easy. Rather there will be a number of difficulties which will be encountered. Most prominent among them is the following:

  1. This topic has not been isolatedly studied and academically researched in a way that would make it easy for the researcher to tread the path.
  2. There are no references which specifically provide information regarding Nasb wherefrom the researcher can draw his information directly, and whereupon he can rely when discussing various aspects of the topic. Hence one can only learn of the various positions and beliefs of the Nawasib by way of an array of means and sources.
  3. Undertaking a study of this nature demands the exertion of ones capabilities and application of ones strengths. This is in order to have an encompassing idea of the sources pertaining to the various spheres of knowledge and to undertake a lengthy journey through the commentaries of hadith, the transmitter biographies, the specific and general books of heresiography and the sources of history, all of this in an effort to put together what is scattered in different places and to link everything which has some sort of relationship to the topic.

 

Moving on, the choicest and the purest of praises all belong to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala Who has favoured me by enabling me to study this topic and complete it. To Him belongs all praise in the beginning and at the end, outwardly and inwardly, such praise that is proportionate to His bounties and reciprocative of His additional favours.

I would thereafter thank my beloved parents for all the efforts they have exerted in my good upbringing and the dispensation of sound advice. This study is nothing but a result of their support and their supplications.

I would also like to thank my wife who withstood all my shortfalls during the duration of my preparation of this study.

 

Lastly, I would especially like to thank my two advisors:

  1. The great scholar and Professor Yusuf ibn Muhammad al Sa’id, who honoured me by agreeing to oversee my thesis, blessed me with his wonderful opinions and deep comments. I have benefitted tremendously from his graceful character, noble ethics, and immense humility.
  2. His excellence, Sheikh ‘Abdul Radi Muhammad ‘Abdul Muhsin.

May Allah elevate their status and grant them goodness and blessings in their knowledge and practice.

Lastly, this is the efforts and contributions of the one who possesses meagre knowledge and this is its end-result. Whatever good is contained in it is from Allah alone, and whatever wrong is contained in it is from me and from Shaitan. I beseech Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to favour me by overlooking my shortcomings and accepting my efforts.

 

وصلى الله على نبينا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين

 

NEXT⇒ The Meaning of a Sahabi


[1] Surah Al ‘Imran: 102.

[2] Surah al Nisaʾ: 1.

[3] Surah Ahzab: 70.

[4] Surah Ahzab: 72.

[5] This is the Khutbah al Hajah, the sermon of need, which Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would teach his companions, as is reported by Ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu. It appears in the following books: Abu Dawood: Sunan Abi Dawood: chapter of Nikah: sub-chapter regarding Khutbah al Hajah: hadith no. 2118; al Tirmidhi: Sunan al Tirmidhi: chapter of Nikah: subchapter regarding Khutbah of Nikah: hadith no. 1105; al Nasaʾi: Sunan al Nasaʾi: chapter of Nikah: sub-chapter regarding the speech which is recommended in Nikah: hadith no. 3277; Ibn Majah: Sunan Ibn Majah: chapter of Nikah: subchapter regarding the Khutbah of Nikah: hadith no. 1893. The hadith is considered Hassan by al Tirmidhi, in his Sunan, and Ibn al Mulaqqan in al Badr al Munir 7/531). Albani has considered it to be Sahih in his book Sahih wa Da’if Sunan Abi Dawood. He has also dedicated a booklet to it with the title: Khutbah al Hajah al lati kan Rasul Allah Yu’allimuha Ashabahu (the sermon of need which Nabi [saw] would teach his companions).

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