Chapter One: During the Lifetime of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

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Chapter One: During the Lifetime of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Name and Lineage

His name is Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim. He is the first child born to Sayyidah Fatimah al Zahra’ radiya Llahu ‘anha, the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. His kunyah (agnomen) was Abu Muhammad. He is al Qurashi (belonging to the Quraysh tribe), al Hashimi (belonging to the clan of Banu Hashim). He was the beloved grandson of the leader of both the worlds, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

He is also known by the titles: Sibt Rasulillah (the grandson of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), Rayhanat al Nabi (the flower of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and Shabih bi al Rasul (the one who resembled the Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)

 

Birth

Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu was born in Madinah Munawwarah in the middle of Ramadan 3 A.H. Although there are other narrations about the date of his birth, we have mentioned the preferred opinion.

 

Adhan

As is the practice in Islam, Adhan was called out in the ears of the new-born baby. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself called out the Adhan in the ears of Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

The slave of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Abu Rafi’, has narrated this incident, and both Imam Abu Dawood and Imam al Tirmidhi have included it in their hadith collections and regarded it as authentic.

The incident is as follows:

و عن أبي رافع قال رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أذن في أذن الحسن حين ولدته فاطمة بالصلوة

Abu Rafi’ narrates, “I saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam calling out the Adhan for salah in Hassan’s ears after Fatimah gave birth to him.”[1]

 

Muhibb al Din al Tabari has recorded this narration in Dhakha’ir al Uqba and Allamah al Dhahabi has recorded it in Siyar Alam al Nubala’[2].

 

Tahnik

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was informed of Sayyidina Hassan’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu birth. He proceeded to the house of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

فحنكه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بريقه وسماه حسنا

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam placed his blessed saliva in his mouth and named him Hassan.[3]

 

Sayyidina ‘Ali had first named him Harb (war) but Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam changed his name to Hassan (beautiful, pleasant). Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam loved Sayyidina Hassan deeply and was very fond of him.

 

Naming of Hassan and Hussain

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports:

 

لما ولد الحسن جاء رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال أروني ابني ما سميتموه؟   قلت سميته حربا قال بل هو حسن فلما ولد الحسين قال أروني ابني ما سميتموه؟ قلت سميته حربا قال بل هو حسين فلما  ولد الثالث جاء النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال أروني ابني ما سميتموه؟   قلت سميته حربا قال بل هو محسن ثم قال إني سميتهم بأسماء ولد هارون شبر وشبير و مشبر

When Hassan was born, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam arrived and said, “Show me my son. What have you named him?”

I replied, “I named him Harb.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Nay, he is Hassan.”

When Hussain was born, he [came and] said, “Show me my son. What have you named him?”

I replied, “I named him Harb.”

He said, “Rather, he is Hussain.”

When my third son was born, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came and said, “Show me my son. What have you named him?”

I replied, “I named him Harb.”

He said, “Nay, he is Muhassin.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then remarked, “I have named them after Nabi Harun’s ‘alayh al Salam children viz. Shabar, Shubayr and Mushabbir.”[4]

 

Shaving of the Head

Another law pertaining to a new-born baby is that the hair of the head be shaved on the seventh day after birth.

In Dhakha’ir al Uqba, a mursal[5] narration is mentioned from Muhammad al Baqir:

 

وعن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه أن فاطمة حلقت حسنا وحسينا يوم سابعهما فوزنت شعرها فتصدقت بوزنه فضة

Jafar ibn Muhammad (al Sadiq) narrates from his father (Muhammad al Baqir) that Fatimah shaved the heads of Hassan and Hussain on the seventh day (after their birth). She then weighed it and gave silver equivalent to its weight in charity.[6]

 

It is reported in another mursal narration in Marasil Abi Dawood:

 

وعن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه أنه قال وزنت  فاطمة ابنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم شعر الحسن و الحسين و زينب و أم كلثوم و تصدقت بوزن ذلك فضة

Jafar ibn Muhammad narrates from his father: “Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, weighed the hair of Hassan, Hussain, Zainab, and Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anhum and gave silver equal to its weight in charity.”[7]

 

This practice is Sunnah for all children.

 

‘Aqiqah

On the seventh day after birth, after the shaving of the head, it is Sunnah to carry out the ‘aqiqah. In the books of hadith there are clear narrations regarding the ‘aqiqah of Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.

The following appears in Musannaf Abdul Razzaq:

 

عبد الرزاق عن ابن جريج قال حدثت حديثا رفع إلى عائشة أنها قالت عق رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن حسن شاتين و عن حسين شاتين ذبحهما يوم السابع قال و مشقهما و أمر أن يماط عن رؤوسهما الأذى قالت قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم اذبحوا على اسم الله و قولوا بسم الله اللهم لك و إليك هذه عقيقة فلان قال و كان أهل الجاهلية يخضبون قطنة بدم العقيقة فاذا حلقوا الصبي وضعوها على رأسه فأمرهم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يجعلوا مكان الدم خلوقا يعني مشقهما وضع على رأسهما طين مشق مثل الخلوق

‘Abdul Razzaq reports from Ibn Jurayj that Aisha said:

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam slaughtered on the seventh day after birth, two sheep for Hassan and two sheep for Hussain. He also instructed that their heads be shaved and perfume be applied to their heads.

Aisha narrates that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed, “Slaughter in the name of Allah, and say: O Allah! This is purely for you. This is the ‘aqiqah of so and so.”

The narrator explains that it was the practice of the era of ignorance that they would dip a piece of cottonwool in the blood of the slaughtered animal and place it on the head of the child after it was shaved. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed that perfume be applied to the head instead of blood.[8]

 

In doing so, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did away with one of the customs of Jahiliyyah (the period of ignorance).

 

Note:

In Mishkat, under the second section in the chapter on ‘aqiqah, there are narrations of Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma reported by Abu Dawood and al Nasa’i wherein mention is made of one ram and of two rams being slaughtered for Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. The best and most virtuous is to slaughter two sheep or goats. However, the Sunnah of ‘aqiqah itself will be fulfilled by slaughtering even one animal.

 

Seeking Protection for Hassan and Hussain

 

عن ابن عباس قال كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يعوذ الحسن والحسين يقول أعيذكما بكلمات الله التامة من كل شيطان و هامة و من كل عين لامة ويقول إن أباكما إبراهيم كان يعوذ بها إسماعيل و إسحاق

Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma narrates that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would seek protection for Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma with the following supplication, “I place both of you in the protection of Allah from the evil of every devil, harmful animal, and every evil glance.”

He would observe, “Indeed your father Ibrahim would seek protection for Ismail and Ishaq with these words.”[9]

 

Dislike for Silver Jewellery

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam disliked the use of silver jewellery for his family. On one occasion, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam removed silver bracelets from the hands of Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, and advised them to use some ivory instead. From this incident we learn the teaching of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with regards to abstaining from worldly adornments.

In Mishkat, it is narrated from Sayyidina Thawban radiya Llahu ‘anhu that whenever Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam used to depart on a journey, the last person he would meet before leaving and the first person he would meet upon returning was his beloved daughter, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.

Once on returning from a certain battle, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went to the house of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, as was his habit, but noticed a fancy embroidered curtain hanging over the entrance. He also saw Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma wearing silver bracelets. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not enter the house and moved on. When Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha learnt that it was these things which prevented Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from entering her home, she immediately pulled down the curtain and removed the bracelets from the hands of Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. The two children came crying to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (upon having the bracelets taken away from them).

The narration continues:

 

فقال يا ثوبان اذهب بهذا إلى آل فلان إن هؤلاء أهلي أكره أن يأكلوا طيباتهم في حياتهم الدنيا يا ثوبان اشتر لفاطمة قلادة من عصب و سوارين من عاج

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed, “O Thawban! Take these (bracelets) to a certain [poor] family.”

He then mentioned, “This is my family. I dislike for them to enjoy the luxuries and adornments of this world. [That is reserved for them in the Hereafter.]”

He then instructed, “O Thawban, purchase for Fatimah a necklace made of ‘asab (the bones of a certain fish) and 2 ivory bracelets for her children.”[10]

Here Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam advised adopting a simple lifestyle and abstaining from the luxuries and adornments of this world.

 

Considering the one who requested first

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:

 

زارنا النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم و الحسن والحسين نائمان فاستسقى الحسين فقام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى قربة لنا  فجعل يعصرها في القدح ثم جاء يسقيه فتناول الحسن ليشرب فمنعه و بدأ بالحسين  فقالت فاطمة يا رسول الله كأنه أحبهما إليك قال لا ولكنه استسقى أول مرة

Once Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came to visit us while Hassan and Hussain were asleep. Hussain woke up and asked for water. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam poured water from the water-bag into a cup and was about to give it to Hussain when Hassan came forward to drink. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam refused to give it to him and gave it first to Hussain. On seeing this, Fatimah commented, “O Messenger of Allah! It seems as if he (Hussain) is more beloved to you from the two?”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied, “No. Rather he asked for the water first.”[11]

 

This incident is also mentioned in the famous Shia book al Amali[12] of the renowned Shia scholar al Tusi.

 

Impermissibility of Sadaqah for the Family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Amongst the laws of Islam is that it is impermissible for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his family to consume or accept any offerings from fard or wajib sadaqah. There are many saying of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to this effect. We feel it appropriate to reproduce below an incident of this nature which occurred with Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, in which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prohibited the use of such sadaqah upon his family.

 

حدثنا محمد بن زياد قال سمعت أبا هريرة قال أخذ الحسن بن علي تمرة من تمر الصدقة فجعلها في فيه فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كخ كخ ليطرحها ثم قال أما شعرت أنا لا نأكل الصدقة

Muhammad ibn Ziyad reports that he heard Abu Hurairah relating, “Once Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu picked up a date from the dates of sadaqah and put it in his mouth. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed him to spit it out and declared, ‘Are you not aware that we do not eat from sadaqah?’”[13]

 

Another narration by Rashid ibn Malik is as follows:

 

كنت عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم  ذات يوم فجاء رجل بطبق عليه تمر فقال ما هذا صدقة أم هدية  فقال الرجل بل صدقة قال فقدمها إلى القوم قال و الحسن يعفر بين يديه فأخذ تمرة فجعلها في فيه فنظر إليه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأدخل إصبعه في فيه فانتزع التمرة ثم قذفها  ثم قال إنا آل محمد لا نأكل الصدقة

Once I was present in the company of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when a person presented a dish filled with dates. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked him whether it was sadaqah or a gift. He replied that it was sadaqah. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam thereupon instructed him to distribute it amongst the people. Meanwhile, Hassan was playing in the sand in front of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He took a date and placed it in his mouth. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saw him so he inserted his finger into his mouth and removed the date. He then remarked, “We, the family of Muhammad, do not consume sadaqah.[14]

 

There are many narrations of this nature from which we understand that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not consume or use sadaqah for himself or for his family.

 

Teaching him Du’a’ al Qunut and other Supplications

One of the things Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu learnt from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his childhood was Du’a’ al Qunut.

Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:

 

علمني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كلمات أقولهن في قنوت الوتر اَللّٰهُمَّ اهْدِنِيْ فِيْمَنْ هَدَيْتَ وَعَافِنِيْ فِيْمَنْ عَافَيْتَ وَتَوَلَّنِيْ فِيْمَنْ تَوَلَّيْتَ وَ بَارِكْ لِيْ فِيْمَا اَعْطَيْتَ وِ قِنِيْ شَرَّ مَا قَضَيْتَ فَاِنَّكَ تَقْضِيْ وَ لَا يُقْضٰى عَلَيْكَ اِنَّهُ لَا يَذِلُّ مَنْ وَالَيْتَ تَبَارَكْتَ رَبَّنَا وَ تَعَالَيْتَ

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam taught me the words I should recite in the Qunut of Witr:

 

اَللّٰهُمَّ اهْدِنِيْ فِيْمَنْ هَدَيْتَ وَعَافِنِيْ فِيْمَنْ عَافَيْتَ وَتَوَلَّنِيْ فِيْمَنْ تَوَلَّيْتَ وَ بَارِكْ لِيْ فِيْمَا اَعْطَيْتَ وِ قِنِيْ شَرَّ مَا قَضَيْتَ فَاِنَّكَ تَقْضِيْ وَ لَا يُقْضٰى عَلَيْكَ اِنَّهُ لَا يَذِلُّ مَنْ وَالَيْتَ تَبَارَكْتَ رَبَّنَا وَ تَعَالَيْتَ

O Allah! Guide me together with those whom You have guided. Grant me afiyah (peace and protection) together with those whom You have granted afiyah. Befriend me together with those whom You have befriended. Bless me in whatever you have given me and protect me from the evil of that which You have decreed. Indeed You pass decisions and none can pass a decision against Your will. Whoever you guide will not be disgraced. O Allah! You are Blessed and Exalted.[15]

 

This Du’a’ has been recorded with the exact same words in Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah[16].

 

Ayat al Kursi after Fard Salah

Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu has narrated from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

من قرأ آية الكرسي في دبر الصلوة المكتوبة كان في ذمة الله إلى الصلاة الأخرى

He who recites Ayat al Kursi after fard salah will remain in the protection of Allah till the next salah.[17]

 

This is an excellent virtue of Ayat al Kursi which every Muslim should practice upon and recite after every fard salah. Although others have narrated this, Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu also has a share in passing on this blessed practice to the ummah.

 

Abstaining From the Doubtful

Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu has also memorised and passed on other advises of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam like the following one:

دع ما يريبك إلى ما لا يريبك فإن الصدق طمأنينة و إن الكذب ريبة

Abstain from what is doubtful, and choose that which is not doubtful, since truth creates tranquillity in the heart while falsehood creates doubts.[18]

 

Many other ahadith have been narrated by Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, however, for the sake of brevity we are unable to reproduce all of them here.

 

Pledging Allegiance for the sake of Barakah

There were various forms of pledges which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took from his Sahabah, such as:

  • Pledging allegiance upon accepting Islam.
  • Pledging allegiance to fulfil a specific task.
  • Pledging allegiance upon jiha
  • Pledging allegiance as repentance.

On some occasions little children also pledged their allegiance. The ‘ulama’ term this allegiance as an “allegiance for the sake of barakah (blessing)”.

Ibn ‘Asakir narrates:

 

عن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بايع الحسن والحسين و عبد الله بن عباس و عبد الله بن جعفر و هم صغار لم يبلغوا قال و لم يبايع صغيرا إلا منا

Jafar ibn Muhammad narrates from his father: “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took the pledge of allegiance from Hassan, Hussain, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, and ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar whereas they were minors and had not yet attained puberty.”

He comments, “He did not take the pledge of allegiance from any minor besides us.”[19]

 

These young personalities were honoured by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and the effects and blessings of this pledge were seen later in their life through the virtuous deeds they carried out. These fortunate Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were blessed with the ability of doing good for the rest of their lives on account of the blessings they received through this pledge.

 

An Outstanding Prophecy Regarding Hassan

Once Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was sitting on the pulpit while Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu was seated next to him. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then look towards his grandson, Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and said to the Sahabah:

 

إن ابني هذا سيد و لعل الله أن يصلح به بين فئتين عظيمتين من المسلمين

This son of mine is a leader. Perhaps Allah will use him to bring about reconciliation between two major groups of Muslims.[20]

 

As per this prophecy, in Rabi’ al Awwal 41 A.H., reconciliation took place between Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma regarding the Caliphate, the details of which will be discussed later, Allah willing.

 

Their Childhood Teacher

Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Habib ibn Umayyah al Baghdadi (d. 245 A.H.) writes under the heading “noble teachers and jurists” in his book, al Muhabbar, that Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were taught by ‘Abdullah ibn Habib.[21] I have tried to confirm this information from other historical sources, but my limited research bore no fruits. Perhaps Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will allow me to find corroborating proof at a later stage.

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Seating Hassan and Hussain alongside him when riding

The Muhaddithin have recorded many incidents which illustrate the affection Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam displayed to his two beloved grandsons. ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar al Tayyar radiya Llahu ‘anhu relates an incident from his childhood days. He says:

 

كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إذا قدم من سفر تلقى بنا قال فتلقى بي و الحسن و الحسين قال فحمل أحدنا بين يديه و الآخر خلفه حتى دخلنا المدينة

When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would return from a journey, he would meet us (the children) first. So he met me, Hassan, and Hussain (on the outskirts of Madinah). He seated one of us in front of him and the other behind him and we entered Madinah in this manner.[22]

 

One of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhu relates an incident of this nature:

 

لقد قدت بالنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم والحسن والحسين بغلته الشهباء حتى أدخلتهم حجرة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم هذا قدامه و هذا خلفه

I led Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on his white mule and seated with him were Hassan and Hussain, one in front of him and the other behind him. I led them in this manner until they dismounted right in front of the home of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[23]

 

In this manner, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam displayed his love for them. They too were naturally delighted and honoured to be treated in this way. They were extremely close to and familiar with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

Virtues and Merits

We have mentioned in the foregoing pages some incidents relating to the childhood of Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Now we wish to focus specifically on their virtues and merits related to their childhood period. There are many narrations mentioning their virtues and merits, and mentioning all of them would be difficult, hence we will suffice by noting down those which are famous and commonly known. As the saying goes:

ما لا يدرك كله لا يترك كله

If you cannot get them all, don’t leave them all!

 

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Supplicates as Hassan sits on his Shoulders

The renowned Sahabi Sayyidina Bara’ ibn ‘Azib radiya Llahu ‘anhu relates:

 

رأيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم و الحسن بن علي على عاتقه يقول اللهم إني أحبه فأحبه

I saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicating, while Hassan ibn ‘Ali sat on his shoulders, “O Allah! I love him. You also love him.”[24]

 

Sa’d ibn Zaid al Ansari radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:

 

إن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم حمل حسنا ثم قال اللهم إني أحبه فأحبه مرتين

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lifted Hassan and supplicated, “O Allah! I love him, so You also love him.” He repeated this twice.[25]

 

A Special Supplication for those who love Hassan

 

عن أبي هريرة عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم أنه قال لحسن اللهم إني أحبه فأحبه و أحب من يحبه

Abu Hurairah narrates that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicated regarding Hassan: “O Allah! I love him, so You also love him, and love the one who loves him.”[26]

 

Encouraging others to love Hassan and Hussain

 

عن أبي هريرة قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم من أحبهما فقد أحبني و من أبغضهما فقد أبغضني يعني الحسن والحسين

Abu Hurairah has also narrated that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said with regards to Hassan and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma: “Whoever loves them loves me and whoever hates them hates me.”[27]

 

We can easily gauge from the narrations cited above that love for Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma was cherished by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and hatred and enmity for them is indeed an evil and despicable trait.

 

Another Incident Outlining the Love of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Sayyidina Buraydah al Aslami radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates:

 

كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يخطبنا إذ جاء الحسن والحسين عليهما قميصان أحمران يمشيان و يعثران فنزل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من المنبر فحملهما و وضعهما بين يديه ثم قال صدق الله إنما أموالكم و أولادكم فتنة نظرت إلى هذين الصبيين يمشيان و يعثران فلم أصبر حتى قطعت حديثي و رفعتهما

Once Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was delivering a khutbah (sermon). As the khutbah was in progress, Hassan and Hussain came into the Masjid adorned in red throbes, walking (towards Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and stumbling. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam descended from the pulpit and lifted them onto the pulpit with him. He then remarked, “Allah has spoken the truth, ‘Verily your wealth and your offspring are a test (to you).’ I saw these children walking and stumbling and could not help myself until I stopped my lecture and picked them up.”

 

From this incident we realise how attached Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was to his grandsons and how much love he had for them. They in turn were also closely attached to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

Another Incident

 

الاقرع بن حابس التميمي كان احد الرؤساء  قدم على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مع وفد بني تميم … و هو القائل و قد رأى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقبل الحسن أتقبله؟ و الله إن لي عشرة  الولد ما قبلت واحدا منهم فقال من لا يرحم لا يرحم

Aqra’ ibn Habis al Tamimi was one of the leaders who came to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with the delegation of Banu Tamim.

On seeing Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam affectionately kiss Hassan, he remarked, “Do you kiss him? By Allah, I have ten children, yet I have not kissed one of them.”

On hearing this, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commented, “He who does not show mercy will not be shown mercy.”[28]

 

Similar Features to that of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

In the foregoing pages we discussed the virtues and merits of Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Now we will discuss their physical attributes and how they resembled Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This is an honour which was reserved for them. The Muhaddithin and those who recorded the biographies of narrators have mentioned numerous narrations in this regard, which have reached the level of mash-hur[29]. Hereunder we will mention few such narrations.

Ibn Abi Mulaykah reports that Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha used to lovingly toss Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu in the air and say:

 

بأبي شبه النبي ليس شبيها بعلي

By my father, he resembles the Nabi and not ‘Ali.[30]

 

Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the famous attendant of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mentioned that none resembled Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam closer than Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He also said regarding Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he too bore close resemblance to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[31] Many narrations to this effect have been reported from Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. In one narration he is reported to have said that Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu resembled Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his upper body, while Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu resembled Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his lower body.[32] To resemble Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his physical appearance is a rare honour and distinction, which Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma enjoyed more than anyone else.

 

The Sahabah’s Display of Love and Affection for Hassan and Hussain

The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum often displayed their love and affection for the grandchildren of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Incidents of this nature are widespread in the books of hadith and biographies. The Muhaddithin have narrated an incident of Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu. ‘Umair ibn Ishaq says:

 

كنت مع الحسن بن علي فلقينا أبو هريرة فقال أرني أقبل منك حيث رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال و رفع قميصه قال فقبل سرته

Once we were walking with Hassan ibn ‘Ali when Abu Hurairah passed us. He requested Hassan to show him the place on his body where Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had kissed him, so that he too may kiss the same place. Hassan raised his shirt and Abu Hurairah kissed his navel.[33]

 

This narration has also been reported in Majma al Zawa’id[34] with a slight difference in wording. From this incident we can gauge the extent of love and respect between the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and the Ahlul Bayt.

 

The Leaders of the Youth of Jannat

The famous Sahabi, Sayyidina Abu Sa’id al Khudri radiya Llahu ‘anhu, narrates:

 

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم الحسن و الحسين سيدا شباب أهل الجنة

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Hassan and Hussain will be the leaders of the youth of Jannat.”

 

The above narration has been narrated briefly. In some narrations, Sayyidina Abu Sa’id radiya Llahu ‘anhu mentioned the following exception:

 

قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم الحسن و الحسين سيدا شباب أهل الجنة إلا ابني الخالة عيسى بن مريم و يحيى بن زكريا

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Hassan and Hussain will be the leaders of the youth of Jannat, except the two (maternal) cousins, ‘Isa ibn Maryam and Yahya ibn Zakariyya.”[35]

 

In some narrations it appears:

الحسن و الحسين سيدا شباب أهل الجنة و أبوهما خير منهما

Hassan and Hussain will be the leaders of the youth of Jannat, and their father is more virtuous than them.[36]

 

This narration has been quoted by Hafiz Ibn Hajar in the biography of Malik ibn Hassan in al Isabah from Imam al Baghawi.

In the light of the above narrations, the commentators of hadith have mentioned that in such narrations there are exceptions which are generally understood by all or intellect demands they be exempted, therefore there is no need to explicitly mention these exemptions. Based on the above principle, the commentators of hadith have explained the hadith as follows:

 

إنهما سيدا أهل الجنة سوى الأنبياء و الخلفاء الراشدين

They (Hassan and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma) will be the leaders of the youth of Jannat, with the exception of the Ambiya’ and the al Khulafa’ al Rashidin.[37]

 

An example of this is that if the young prince comes into the gathering of the grand minister of the king, he is shown special affection and is treated with great respect, but this does not mean that his position is higher than that of the grand minister.

This leadership has been bestowed upon them due to them being the grandchildren of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

The Verse of Tathir and Hadith al Kisa’

It appears in a narration that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wrapped his blessed shawl around Sayyidina Hassan, Sayyidina Hussain, Sayyidina ‘Ali, and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and recited the following verse:

 

إِنَّمَا يُرِيْدُ اللهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيْرًا

Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity (of sin), O people of the (Nabi’s) household, and to purify you with (extensive) purification.[38] [39]

 

In some narrations these words are added:

اللهم هؤلاء أهل بيتي

O Allah! These are my Ahlul Bayt.[40]

 

The stance of the Ahlus Sunnah wa l-Jama’ah is that based upon the preceding and following verses—which are addressing the pure wives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—this verse too was revealed regarding them. It is the pure wives who have been addressed in this verse and they have been honoured by its revelation. However, after this verse was revealed, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam by means of this supplication also included Sayyidah Fatimah, Sayyidina ‘Ali, Sayyidina Hassan, and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum in this honour and virtue.

‘Allamah al Qurtubi writes in his Tafsir al Jami li Ahkam al Qur’an under the commentary of this verse:

 

فهذه دعوة من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لهم بعد نزول الآية أحب أن يدخلهم في الآية التي خوطب بها الأزواج

This is a supplication of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in their favour after the revelation of the verse. He wished to include them in the verse which was addressed to the noble wives.[41]

 

Here we deem it appropriate to quote from Tuhfah Ithna Ashariyyah of Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz Muhaddith Dahlawi rahimahu Llah:

Umm al Mu’minin Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha requested Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to also include her in this supplication, and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied, “You are already upon goodness,” or, “You are already on your position.” In other words, there is no need to make this supplication for you (since the verses were revealed about you).

This is a clear proof that this verse was revealed regarding the pure wives. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam by means of his supplication included these four august personalities in its virtue. If the verse was revealed regarding these four then there would have been no need for the subsequent supplication. Why would Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then try to achieve what was already achieved, which is termed tahsil al hasil (attempting to attain what is already attained)? It is precisely for this reason that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not include Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha in the supplication, since it would be tantamount to achieving the achieved.[42]

In short, by means of this supplication, Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were included in this virtue.

 

Mubahalah and the Virtue of Hassan and Hussain

The incident of Mubahalah took place with the Christians of Najran in 9 A.H. The background to the incident is that a delegation of their senior priests came to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and he invited them to Islam. After a lengthy discussion with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam they refused to acknowledge the truth, upon which the following verses of Surah Al ‘Imran were revealed:

 

فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيْهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَآءَنَا وَأَبْنَآءَكُمْ وَنِسَآءَنَا وَنِسَآءَكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وَأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَلْ لَّعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِيْنَ

Then whoever argues with you about it after (this) knowledge has come to you – say, Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then supplicate earnestly (together) and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars (among us, which is called Mubahalah).[43]

 

After this verse was revealed, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam invited the Christians of Najran to Mubahalah. However, after consulting with their seniors, they felt they should not go ahead with the Mubahalah and chose to pay Jizyah to the Muslims instead. Thus, the actual Mubahalah did not take place.

In some narrations, mention is made of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam actually preparing for the Mubahalah, for which he called Sayyidina ‘Ali, Sayyidina Hassan, Sayyidina Hussain, and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. This narration is correct and authentic. It should be noted that the other three daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had already passed away before this incident occurred.

There are other narrations which mention that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took with him Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his children, Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his family, Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his family, as well as Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his family.[44]

After reading all these narrations, we come to the conclusion that if the Mubahalah were to have taken place then Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would have definitely included, as per the command of Allah, the Azwaj Mutahharat (the pure wives), just as he was prepared to take along ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hassan and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum, and the three Khalifas and their children.

 

The Command to show Due Consideration and Take Care of the Ahlul Bayt

In the foregoing pages many of the virtues and merits of the Ahlul Bayt have been mentioned, and there are many others which could be mentioned. There is one specific narration commonly known as Hadith al Thaqalayn (the hadith concerning the two weighty things), in which the status and position of the family and children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has been mentioned.

 

حدثنى يزيد بن حيان قال انطلقت أنا و حصين بن سبرة و عمر بن مسلم إلى زيد بن أرقم  فلما جلسنا إليه قال له الحصين لقد لقيت يا زيد خيرا كثيرا رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و سمعت حديثه و غزوت معه و صليت خلفه لقد لقيت يا زيد خيرا كثيرا حدثنا يا زيد ما سمعت من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال والله يا ابن أخى لقد كبرت سنى و قدم عهدى و نسيت بعض الذى كنت أعى من رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فما حدثتكم فاقبلوا وما لا فلا تكلفونىه ثم قال قام رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يوما فينا خطيبا بماء يدعى خما بين مكة و المدينة فحمد الله و أثنى عليه ووعظ و ذكر ثم قال أما بعد ألا أيها الناس إنما أنا بشر يوشك أن يأتينى رسول ربي فأجيب و أنا تارك فيكم الثقلين أولهما كتاب الله فيه الهدى و النور فخذوا بكتاب الله تعالى واستمسكوا به فحث على كتاب الله و رغب فيه ثم قال وأهل بيتى أذكركم الله فى أهل بيتى أذكركم الله فى أهل بيتى أذكركم الله فى أهل بيتى فقال له الحصين و من أهل بيته يا زيد أليس نساءه من أهل بيته؟ قال نساءه من أهل بيته ولكن أهل بيته من حرم الصدقة بعده قال من هم؟ قال هم آل علي وآل عقيل و آل جعفر و آل عباس قال كل هؤلاء حرم الصدقة؟ قال نعم

Yazid ibn Hayyan narrated: I went with Hussain ibn Saburah and ‘Umar ibn Muslim to Zaid ibn Arqam radiya Llahu ‘anhu. After taking our seats, Hussain said to him: “O Zaid, you have been granted great virtue. You saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, heard his speech, joined him on expeditions and performed salah behind him. Indeed Zaid, you have encountered a great amount of goodness! Narrate to us, O Zaid, some of that which you have heard from Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

Zaid said: “O my nephew, I have reached old age, my time has passed a very long time ago and I have forgotten some of that which I had memorised regarding Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Therefore accept from me that which I narrate to you and what I do not then do not burden me with narrating it.”

He then said: “Once Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stood up to deliver to us a sermon at a well known as Khum, which was situated between Makkah and Madinah. He praised Allah abundantly, advised us, and reminded us. Thereafter he said: ‘Pay attention O people, Indeed, I am only a human and it is possible that soon the messenger of my Rabb will come to me and I will respond to him. Indeed I will leave amongst you the Thaqalayn (two weighty things). The first of the two is the Book of Allah, in it is guidance and light, so hold onto the Book of Allah and never let it go!’ He continued to encourage and urge regarding the Book of Allah.

He then said: ‘And my Ahlul Bayt! I remind you to fear Allah regarding my Ahlul Bayt! I remind you to fear Allah regarding my Ahlul Bayt! I remind you to fear Allah regarding my Ahlul Bayt.’”

So Hussain enquired: “And who are his Ahlul Bayt, O Zaid? Are not his wives part of his Ahlul Bayt?”

Zaid replied: “His wives are part of his Ahlul Bayt. But his Ahlul Bayt also includes those upon whom Zakat is forbidden.”

Hussain asked: “Who are they?”

Zaid replied: “They are the family of ‘Ali, the family of ‘Aqil, the family of Jafar and the family of ‘Abbas.”

Hussain asked: “Is Zakat forbidden for all of them?”

Zaid replied: “Yes.”[45]

 

In summary, this narration is an exhortation to uphold good ties and excellent conduct with the members of the Ahlul Bayt, which include Sayyidina Hassan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. They should always be treated with love, compassion, and honour. Due consideration should be given to fulfilling their rights under all circumstances, ensuring that they never become the targets of oppression and harassment.

 

NEXT⇒  Chapter 2


[1] Dhakha’ir al Uqba, pg. 120.

[2] Siyar Alam al Nubala’, 3/166.

[3] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 8/33.

[4] Fada’il al Sahabah, 2/772, 773.

[5] Mursal: A narration wherein a Tabi’i reports directly from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, or reports an incident from the time of the Sahabah which he was not present at, omitting the person he heard it from.

[6] Dhakhair al Uqba, pg. 77.

[7] Marasil Abi Dawood, pg. 41.

[8] Musannaf Abdul Razzaq, 4/330, 331.

[9] Sahih al Bukhari; Mishkat, pg. 134; Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, 8/49; Musnad Ahmed, 1/236.

[10] Mishkat, p. 383, on the authority of Ahmed and Abu Dawood.

[11] Tahdhib Tarikh Ibn Asakir, 4/317; Majma al Zawa’id, 9/169; Siyar Alam al Nubala’, 3/171; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 8/207.

[12] Al Amali, 2/206.

[13] Mishkat, pg. 361 on the authority of al Bukhari.

[14] Tabaqat ibn Sad, 6/29.

[15] Mishkat, p. 112 on the authority of al Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood, Nasa’i, and Ibn Majah.

[16] Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah, 10/384.

[17] Tabarani in al Kabir as mentioned in Majma al Zawa’id, 2/148.

[18] Usd al Ghabah, 2/11; Siyar Alam al Nubala’, 3/165; Musnad Ahmed, 1/200; Akhbar Asbahan, 1/45.

[19] Tahdhib Tarikh Ibn Asakir, 4/323.

[20] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3629, 3747, 7109.

[21] Al Muhabbar, p. 475.

[22] Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah, 9/35.

[23] Sahih Muslim as mentioned in Dhakha’ir al Uqba, pg. 133 and Jam al Fawa’id, 1/293.

[24] Sahih al Bukhari; Sahih Muslim, as reported in Mishkat; al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 8/34, Fada’il al Sahabah, 2/768, al Sunan al Kubra, 5/49.

[25] Al Isabah, 2/26.

[26] Fada’il al Sahabah, 2/767.

[27] Fada’il al Sahabah, 2/771, al Sunan al Kubra, 5/49.

[28] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, 7/141.

[29] A narration that is profusely narrated but fails to reach the level of Tawatur.

[30] Musnad Ahmed, 6/283, Musnad al Humaidi, 2/393, Fada’il al Sahabah, 2/766, Tahdhib Tarikh Ibn Asakir, p. 313, al Isabah, 3/60

[31] Sahih al Bukhari.

[32] Sunan al Tirmidhi.

[33] Al Fath al Rabbani bi Tartib Musnad Ahmed, 22/167, Majma al Zawa’id, 9/177.

[34] Majma al Zawa’id, 9/177.

[35] Marifat wa al Tarikh, 2/644, Hilyat al Awliya’, 5/71, Mukhtasar Tarikh Ibn Asakir, 7/119, al Sunan al Kubra, 5/50.

[36] Al Isabah, 3/480.

[37] Mirqat al Mafatih Sharh Mishkat al Masabih, 11/390.

[38] Surah al Ahzab: 33.

[39] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2424.

[40] Al Mustadrak, Hadith: 3559.

[41] Tafsir al Jami li Ahkam al Qur’an, 14/183-184.

[42] Tuhfah Ithna ‘Ashariyyah, pg. 303.

[43] Surah Al ‘Imran: 61.

[44] Al Durr al Manthur, 3/40, Ruh al Maani, 3/190, Tafsir al Shawkani, 2/28.

[45] Sahih Muslim.