By Sheikh Muhammad Firasat
After the verified and detailed response presented by the author rahimahu Llah concerning Sayyidah Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anha nikah to Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the method he adopted in proving its authenticity through the noble A’immah’s statements and the Shia scholars’ testimonies; no one — who wishes to understand this incident with sincerity and honesty — can reject the occurrence of this nikah. To reject this nikah is to deny the sun in broad daylight.
It is far worse that the guardians and custodians of this religion those who are known as fakhr al muhaqqiqin (pride of the researchers) and Ayatollahs (signs of Allah) are victim to this. The truth is that such people intentionally present plain and simple topics in such philosophical and theoretical complex ways with the intent of throwing the masses into utter confusion. The glorious Qur’an has spoken about these very people:
وَلَا تَلْبِسُوا الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُوا الْحَقَّ وَاَنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُوْنَ ﴿42﴾
And do not mix the truth with falsehood or conceal the truth while you know [it].
A few days back, a friend sent two books on this topic for me to read. The first book is written by Fakhr al Muhaqqiqin of the Shia, the former principal of Islah, Molana Sayed ‘Ali Haydar (d. 1380 A.H) exclusively on this topic with the title ‘Aqd Umm Kulthum. The second book is the ideological work of Molana Sayed Kalb Jawad ibn Molana Kalb ‘Abid which he wrote in reply to Molana Muhammad Manzur No’mani’s rahimahu Llah book Irani Inqilab Imam Khomeini awr Shi’iyyat by the name Iran ka Islami Inqilab Fitnah Wahhabiyyat awr Shi’iyyat.
The above author has discussed Sayyidah Umm Kulthum’s radiya Llahu ‘anha nikah on page 225 of this book but did not present any new proof. He just gave a summary of the proofs of Fakhr al Muhaqqiqin. It is also understood from Molana Sayed ‘Ali Haydar’s book that prior to him, his respected father — Sayed al Mutakallimin (leader of the theologians) and Ayatollahs of the universe — Sayed ‘Ali Azhar Qiblah had written two books on this topic, viz. Kanz Maktum fi Hill ‘Aqd Umm Kulthum and Raf’ al Wuthuq ‘an Nikah al Faruq. The author must have wrote his book thinking these books to be insufficient.
Molana Sayed ‘Ali Haydar in this book tries to prove that Sayyidah Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma was the daughter of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu but stumbles at every step. He writes at one place, “how could Sayyidina Amir radiya Llahu ‘anhu marry his daughter to ‘Umar? Was he not aware of this verse of the Qur’an:
اَلْخَبِیْثٰتُ لِلْخَبِیْثِیْنَ وَ الْخَبِیْثُوْنَ لِلْخَبِیْثٰتِۚ وَ الطَّیِّبٰتُ لِلطَّیِّبِیْنَ وَ الطَّیِّبُوْنَ لِلطَّیِّبٰتِۚ
Evil women are for evil men, and evil men are for evil women. And pure women are for pure men, and pure men are for pure women.
Fakhr al Muhaqqiqin means that when Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala emphatic command has been revealed in the glorious Qur’an, then how can a man like Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu — an ardent follower of the shari’ah — marry a believing woman to a munafiq?
Whether Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu honour was shielded from that blemish (what he deems as a blemish) by his proof or not, is a different story. However, he has blemished the honour of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who according to the Shia married two munafiqs and remained married to them until his demise. So either Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was ignorant of this verse or he opposed it intentionally, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala forbid, this is impossible. So now you have to accept them both (i.e. Sayyidah Aisha and Sayyidah Hafsah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma) as true believers which is contrary to Shia belief. It is an amazing divine phenomena of revenge that whenever a person rejects realities, he deliberately or inadvertently demolishes his own principles.
Fakhr al Muhaqqiqin writes the crux of his entire research at the end of the book under the heading, the actual reality of this slander.
Immediately after the demise of Abu Bakr, his daughter was born in 13 A.H whose name was kept Umm Kulthum. See al Isti’ab, Tarikh Tabari, Tarikh Kamil, etc. And since his wife Asma’ married Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu thereafter, she brought this daughter to his house. All the mentioned incidents are with regard to this Umm Kulthum — the daughter of Abu Bakr and Asma’. Just because she stayed in Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu house, people thought that she was his daughter. The historians and Muhaddithin of the Ahlus Sunnah were affected by the unlimited schemes and plots of the Banu Umayyah and mistakenly took Umm Kulthum — the daughter of Abu Bakr and Asma’ — as the daughter of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha since she also lived in Amir’s house.
A few points are taken out from this text of Molana Sayed ‘Ali Haydar.
The entire foundation upon which Molana Sayed ‘Ali Haydar erected his building is baseless. A novice student studying history will know that the mother of Umm Kulthum — daughter of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu — was Sayyidah Habibah bint Kharijah radiya Llahu ‘anha and not Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha. There is no need to find confirmation of this from the book of any “Sunni Nasibi” or the footnotes of the Banu Umayyah. In fact, you only need to look at the popular Shia history book Nasikh al Tawarikh whose author is Mirza Muhammad Taqi Khan. He was the prime minister of Sultan Nasir al Din Qachar — the king of Iran — and received the title Lisan al Mulk from the court of the king owing to his experience, excellence and appreciation.
Mirza Muhammad Taqi Khan writes on page 761 of Nasikh al Tawarikh concerning Sayyidah Habibah bint Kharijah radiya Llahu ‘anha:
Habibah bint Kharijah bin Zaid ibn Abi Zubair ibn Malik ibn Imra’ al Qais ibn Malik ibn Tha’labah ibn Ka’b ibn Khazraj. She was the wife of Abu Bakr and was expecting at the time of his death. After his demise, she gave birth to a girl who Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha named Umm Kulthum. ‘Umar ibn al Khattab asked for her hand in marriage but she refused saying, “I cannot live with a strict man like ‘Umar ibn al Khattab.”
The same historian writes about the children of Sayyidah Habibah bint Kharijah radiya Llahu ‘anha — wife of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu at another place:
در وقت وفات ابو بکر حاملہ بود پس ازوے دخترے آورد نام او ام کلثوم است
She was pregnant at the demise of Abu Bakr. She bore a girl whose name was Umm Kulthum.
A shia historian has demolished the entire foundation upon which Fakhr al Muhaqqiqin built his building. It is established that Sayyidah Umm Kulthum bint Abi Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhuma mother’s name was not Asma’ but Sayyidah Habibah bint Kharijah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Hence, when Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu married Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha, there is no question of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum bint Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma coming to his house.
کعبہ کس منہ سے جاؤگے غالب
شرم تم کو مگر نہیں آتی
Ghalib! What face will you show by the Ka’bah?
You have absolutely no shame!
Undoubtedly it is true that Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu had a child from Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha. However, it was not a girl but a boy whose name was Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. Accordingly, the same historian states in the biography of Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha:
She was first married to Sayyidina Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. She accompanied him in the emigration to Abyssinia. She with her husband Sayyidina Jafar ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu came to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the day of the Conquest of Khaybar. When Sayyidina Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred, she married Abu Bakr.
These words follow:
و محمد بن ابی بکر از و متولد شد و بعد از ابو بکر علی علیہ السلام اورا تزویج بست و یحی از و متولد شد
Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr was born from this union. After Abu Bakr’s demise, she married Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and bore Yahya for him.
I will now substantiate from Shia books that the Umm Kulthum who was married to Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not the daughter of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu but the daughter of Sayyidina ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Mirza Muhammad Taqi Khan writes in Nasikh al Tawarikh:
ام کلثوم بنت علی علیہ السلام عمر بن خطاب ویرا تزویج کرد و ازوے زید و رقیہ متولد شد وفات ام کلثوم و پسش در وقت واحد بود و ما قصہ اورا در کتاب عمر بہ شرح کتاب عمر نوشتیم
‘Umar ibn Khattab married Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Zaid and Ruqayyah were born from this union. Umm Kulthum and her son (Zaid) passed away at the same time. We have written his story in Kitab ‘Umar.
It has been established from the above text of Nasikh al Tawarikh that Sayyidah Umm Kulthum — the wife of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma — was the daughter of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. However, she being the daughter of Sayyidah Fatimah Zahra’ radiya Llahu ‘anha has not been established from this, therefore, I will substantiate this from Shia books.
The famous Shia historian of the 13th century Mirza ‘Abbas ‘Ali Qilli Khan (who is the successor of the author of Nasikh al Tawarikh and the prime minister of the king Qachar of Iran) in his book Tarikh Taraz Madhab Muzaffari has titled a chapter; the incident of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum’s radiya Llahu ‘anha marriage to ‘Umar ibn Khattab. This stretches from page 47 to 67 in the Iran print. He writes:
جناب ام کلثوم کبری دختر فاطمہ زہرا در سراۓ عمر بن خطاب بود و ازوے فرزند بیا ورد چنانکہ مذکور گشت و چوں عمر مقتول شد محمد بن جعفر بن ابی طالب اورا در حبالۂ نکاح آورد
Sayyidah Fatimah Zahra’’s radiya Llahu ‘anha daughter — Umm Kulthum — was in ‘Umar ibn Khattab’s house. She bore a son who has been mentioned previously. When ‘Umar was killed, Muhammad ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib married her.
The same historian opens the discussion on whether the children of Sayyidah Fatimah Zahra’s radiya Llahu ‘anha daughters can be called the children of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam or not. He writes in this discussion:
اما گفتہ انداز خصائص رسول خدا صلی اللہ علیہ و الہ ست کہ فرزندان فاطمہ سلام اللہ علیہا بآں حضرت نسبت دہند لاکن در حق دختر ان دخترش ایں عنوان را جاری نداشتہ اند پس جریان امر در حق ایشاں بر قانون شرع است دریں کہ ولد در نسب با پدر می رود نہ بمادر بہ ہمیں سپ گویند پسر شریف را اگر پدرش شریف نہ باشد شریف نمی خواںد پس فرزندان فاطمہ بہ رسول خدا منسوب و اولاد حسن و حسین رضی اللہ عنہما بایشاں و آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم منسوب باشد و فرزندان خواہران ایشاں زینب خاتون و ام کلثوم بہ پدران خود عبد اللہ بن جعفر و عمر بن خطاب نسبت برند نہ بمادر و نہ برسول خدا صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم زیراکہ ایشاں فرزندان دختر بنت آنحضرت ہستند نہ فرزندان دخترش
The scholars write that this is the speciality of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that the children of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha are called his children. However, this does not apply to Sayyidah Fatimah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha daughter’s daughters. The same general ruling applies to them which is according to the shar’i law that the child follows his father in lineage and not his mother. For this reason, if a person’s father is not noble, he will not be called noble. Therefore, Sayyidah Fatimah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha children will be called Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam children and Hasanayn’s radiya Llahu ‘anhuma children will be theirs and Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam children. Hasanayn’s sisters, i.e. Zainab and Umm Kulthum’s children will be linked to their respective fathers, i.e. ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar and ‘Umar ibn Khattab and not to their mothers or to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam since these are the children of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughter’s daughters and not Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughter’s sons.
I will now present such a Shia mujtahid’s authentication of this nikah who is most well-known in the Shia world and who the greatest Shia mujtahid of the 14th century — the leader of the Iranian revolution and the highest Ayatollah Ruh Allah Khomeini — has emphasised the reading of his books, i.e. the renowned Shia mujtahid of the 11th century Mulla Baqir Majlisi. He has written on this topic in many of his books. He has written a detailed discussion on this in Usul al Kafi wa Furu’ al Kafi’s commentary Mir’at al ‘Uqul (vol. 3 pg. 448/449 the chapter of Umm Kulthum’s marriage, old print, Iran) where he answers those who deny this nikah. Towards the end of the discussion, he acknowledges this nikah in the following words:
و الاصل فى الجواب ان ذلك وقع على سبيل التقية و الاضطرار
The original answer is that this nikah took place due to Taqiyyah and necessity.
When it is substantiated through the acknowledgement of Shia Mujtahidin, Muhaddithin and historians that the Umm Kulthum who was married to Sayyidah ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not the daughter of Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umays but the daughter of Sayyidina ‘Ali Murtada and Sayyidah Fatimah al Zahra’ and Hasanayn’s biological sister radiya Llahu ‘anhum, this claim of Molana Sayed ‘Ali Haydar carries absolutely no weight:
The historians and Muhaddithin of the Ahlus Sunnah were affected by the unlimited schemes and plots of the Banu Umayyah and mistakenly took Umm Kulthum — the daughter of Abu Bakr and Asma’ — as the daughter of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha.
The truth is that Fakhr al Muhaqqiqin wrote this sentence to keep the Shia masses in the dark which displays his agitation and distress. It also appeases the propensity to level every accusation against the Banu Umayyah and the Ahlus Sunnah.
We appeal to the Shia to overcome doggedness and prejudice and ponder over the facts carefully. They have four books (which are known as the Usul Arba’ah) which are the most reliable and authentic of all their books.
Authentic declarations of the noble Imams regarding Sayyidah Umm Kulthum’s radiya Llahu ‘anha nikah are found in these Usul Arba’ah besides Man La Yahdurhu al Faqih. Moreover, the infallible Imam has deduced laws from this nikah. The scholars are familiar of what incidents the noble scholars present as examples while presenting their verdicts. The infallible Imam has used the incident of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha as an example for his verdict. It appears in Furu’ al Kafi (Nowl Kashowr Lucknow print June 1886 vol. 2 pg. 311) in the chapter regarding a woman whose husband has passed away and the marriage was consummated; where will she pass her ‘iddah and what is binding upon her:
عن سليمان بن خالد قال سألت ابا عبد الله عليه السلام عن امرأة توفى عنها زوجها اين تعتد فى بيت زوجها او حيث شاءت قال بل حيث شاءت ثم قال ان عليا صلوات الله عليه لما مات عمر اتى ام كلثوم فاخذ بيدها فانطلق الى بيتها
Sulaiman ibn Khalid says, “I asked Abu ‘Abdullah (al -Sadiq) regarding a woman whose husband has passed away; will she pass her ‘iddah in her husband’s house or wherever she desires.” He replied, “wherever she desires.” He then said, “when ‘Umar passed away, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu came to Umm Kulthum, took her hand and went to her home.”
This verdict of Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah is found verbatim in al Istibsar (vol. 3; chapters concerning ‘iddah pg. 185/186, new print of Jafariyyah Nukhas printers; old print of Lucknow) and Tahdhib al Ahkam (pg. 238 Kitab al Talaq; chapter of women’s ‘iddah, old Iran print 1316). Whoever wishes may refer to it there.
There appears a narration from Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah who narrates from his father, Imam Muhammad Baqir rahimahu Llah, in Tahdhib al Ahkam (last volume; book on inheritance pg. 380; old print Iran):
عن جعفر عن ابيه قال ماتت ام كلثوم بنت على و ابنها زيد بن عمر بن الخطاب فى ساعة واحدة لا يدرى و لا يدرى ايهما هلك قبل فلم يورث احدهما من الاخر صلى عليهما جميعا
Jafar narrates from his father who says, “Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali and her son Zaid ibn ‘Umar ibn al Khattab passed away at the exact same time. It was not known who passed away first so none inherited from the other. He performed Salat al Janazah on both of them.”
O readers! The above narration is sufficient in removing the veil which Molana ‘Ali Haydar tried to put over the reality. The one who Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has blessed with even a little sound intelligence does not have to break his head to find the truth.
It is important to ask why Muhammad ibn Yaqub al Kulayni — who has the honour of having only one link between him and the eleventh Imam and whose book al Kafi has been authenticated by the (fictitious) twelfth Imam — has this title; the chapter concerning Umm Kulthum’s marriage; in his book? Furthermore, Sheikh al Ta’ifah Muhammad ibn Hasan al Tusi who has related this incident in his books al Istibsar and Tahdhib al Ahkam; Sharif al Murtada author of Shafi (d. 406); Sheikh Zayn al Din Ahmed al ‘Amili — commonly known as the second martyr (d. 964 A.H); Qadi Nur Allah Shostari — the third martyr (d. 1019); the renowned mujtahid of the 11th century Mulla Baqir Majlisi (d. 1111 A.H); the famous shia historian of the 13th century Mirza Muhammad Taqi Khan — author of Nasikh al Tawarikh and prime minister of Sultan Nasir al Din Qachar, king of Iran; his son Mirza ‘Abbas ‘Ali Qilli Khan — author of Tarikh Taraz Madhab Muzaffari and prime minister of the king of Qachar, as well as the Shia scholar and mujtahid of the 14th century Sheikh ‘Abbas al Qummi author of Muntaha al Amal; have all recorded and accepted the nikah of Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab to Sayyidah Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum in their respective books. Were all of these boot lickers of the Ahlus Sunnah and Banu Umayyah?
Nawab Muhsin al Mulk rahimahu Llah has stated aptly in Ayat Bayyinat that the Shia have changed many colours in this discussion and have presented ridiculous interpretations to it. Some have rejected the nikah, some have rejected Sayyidah Umm Kulthum being the daughter of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, some have referred to this nikah as abduction, some reject consummation of the marriage, some say that a Jinn from Najran assumed the appearance of Umm Kulthum and would come to Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu who he would have relations with, some have understood it as Sayyidina ‘Ali’s highest level of patience and others have said it is Taqiyyah. Everyone sings a new song and everyone has a different story. There are as many stories as there are mouths, but not one of them makes sense. The Shia scholars are in a predicament. This couplet of Ghalib with slight variation aptly suits them:
بوجہہ وہ سر پہ رکہا ہے جو اٹہاۓ نہ اٹہے
باب وہ آن پڑی ہے جو بناۓ نہ بنے
The burden that was put on the head could not be lifted by anyone
The door that was chosen could not be fitted by anyone
 Surah al Baqarah: 42
 Surah al Nur: 26
 Hadrat Umm Kulthum pg. 166/167
 Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umays Khath’amiyyah radiya Llahu ‘anha has the special virtue of being among the first Muhajirin. She is among the emigrants to Abyssinia. ‘Allamah Ibn Sa’d rahimahu Llah and Ibn Hisham rahimahu Llah have stated that when Sayyidah Asma’ bint ‘Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha accepted Islam there were only 30 Muslims at that time. She was first married to Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu elder brother Sayyidina Jafar Tayyar ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu. She bore three sons for him, viz. ‘Abdullah, Muhammad and ‘Own. Sayyidina Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred in the Battle of Mutah. Six months later, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married her to his beloved companion Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu in the year 8 A.H (around the time the Battle of Hunayn occurred). She bore one son for him Muhammad. After Sayyidina Abu Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu demise in 13 A.H, she married Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. At that time, Sayyidina Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhuma age was about 3. He came to Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu house with his mother and was nurtured by him. She bore one son for Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu by the name Yahya. Not long after the martyrdom of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in 40 A.H, Sayyidah Asma’ radiya Llahu ‘anha also left this world. (Sheikh Muhammad Firasat)
 ‘Aqd Umm Kulthum by Molana ‘Abdul Mu’min Faruqi pg. 27
 Nasikh al Tawarikh pg. 215
 Nasikh al Tawarikh gp. 718
 Tarikh Taraz Madhab Muzaffari; the chapter of the incident of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum’s radiya Llahu ‘anha marriage to Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn Khattab I
 Sayyidina Hasan and Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma
 Tarikh Taraz Madhab Muzaffari with reference to Abu al A’immah ki ta’lim pg. 34/35Back to top