In this chapter I shall present the kinship that existed between these two noble families as it is documented in the history of Islam. By way of these historical facts all the misconceptions of acrimony and contempt that people have concocted by means of weak and unreliable narrations will automatically be debunked. When two different families establish relations with one another, then due to being intimately associated, they are better acquainted with the background, history and conditions of each other. The purpose behind presenting these facts is to show the harmony and affinity that existed between Abu Bakr and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.
The following facts are presented from the books of genealogy, Tabaqat (classes of narrators), and Tarajim (books on biographies).
First of all, I shall present the marriage of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Ethically and to derive blessings it is crucial to initiate the discussion with her mention.
Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu had wed his daughter Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, the daughter of Umm Ruman, to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The marriage took place in Makkah Mukarramah and the reception took place in Madinah Munawwarah. The Ahlus Sunnah and the Shia unanimously concur that she was given to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in marriage. Hence, there remains no need to prove this by way of citing narrations.
Due to this union Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu became the father-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam — the leader of all the Prophets. And Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhu attained the privilege of being the Mother of the Believers. She was thus without doubt unanimously the spiritual mother of ‘Ali and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma as well. The proof of her being the Mother of the Believers is the following verse of the Qur’an:
وَأَزْوَاجُهُ أُمَّهَاتُهُمْ .
And his consorts and the mothers of the believers.
Secondly, we present the kinship of Asma’ bint ‘Umays. Previously I had shed light on her life briefly. Here, however, I am to present a little more detail.
I. Asma’ bint ‘Umays was first married to Jafar ibn Abi Talib, the brother of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He had attained martyrdom in the Battle of Mutah which had transpired in 8 A.H. She was thus the sister-in-law of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (as will be explained shortly). Thereafter Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu had married her. It is obvious that her marriage to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu would not have materialised without the consent of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Jafar al Tayyar radiya Llahu ‘anhu had two children from her: ‘Abdullah and Muhammad. Abu Bakr had one child from her whose name was also Muhammad. After the demise of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had married her and they had two children from their union: ‘Awn ibn ‘Ali and Yahya ibn ‘Ali. Hence, all the children of Asma’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu from her three husbands were uterine siblings.
II. Asma’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu had nine uterine sisters. Among them were:
Keeping this in mind she, whilst being the wife of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, was the sister- in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, ‘Abbas and Hamzah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. And all these noble men including Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu were co-brothers-in-law.
III. As it was previously stated under the discussion around the death of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, Asma’ radiya Llahu ‘anha was in the wedlock of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu when she nursed Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha in her final moments.
I call upon the readers to reflect over the above stated facts and decide as to whether it is possible for Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to be at logger heads with one another despite being so closely related.
The Shia have also approved of Asma’ bint ‘Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha, thus making a noble personality held in esteem by both groups. Therefore, the above mentioned details should not be taken to be from a Sunni perspective only and I shall suffice on citing a few Shia narrations, for the occasion does not permit us to go into more detail.
a. The author of Kashf al Ghummah, Abu ‘Isa al Arbili has stated the following regarding Asma’ bint ‘Umays:
اسماء هذه امرأة جعفر بن ابي طالب عليه السلام و تزوجها بعده ابو بكر فولدت له محمدا و ذالك بذي الحليفة فخرج مخرج رسول الله عليه وسلم و آله و سلم الي مكة في حجة الوداع فلما مات ابو بكر تزوجها علي بن ابي طالب عليه السلام فولدت له…
Asma’ was the wife of Jafar ibn Abi Talib. Abu Bakr had married her after him; she bore his son Muhammad who was born on the journey of Hajjat al Wada’ of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at a place called Dhu al Hulayfah. Abu Bakr carried on with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Makkah. After the demise of Abu Bakr, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib had married her…
b. At the end of discussion around Fadak the Shia Mujtahid of the eleventh century, Mulla Baqir al Majlisi, has stated the following in his book Haq al Yaqin:
اسماء بنت عمیس کہ دراں وقت زن ابوبکر بود وسابقا زن جعفر طیار واز شیعان حیدر کرار بود۔
Asma’ bint ‘Umays was at that time in the wedlock of Abu Bakr. Prior to that she was married to Jafar al Tayyar. She was from amongst the supporters of ‘Ali.
c. The commentator of Nahj al Balaghah, Ibrahim ibn Haji Hussain al Danbali al Shia has stated the following in his commentary al Durrah al Najafiyah:
ام محمد هي اسماء بنت عميس و كانت تحت جعفر بن ابي طالب و هاجرت معه الي الحبشة فولدت له عبد الله بن جعفر و قتل عنها يوم موته فتزوجها ابو بكر فاولدها محمدا ثم لما مات عنها تزوجها علي و كان محمد ربيبه و كان علي عليه السلام يقول محمد ابني من ظهر ابي بكر.
Umm Muhammad is Asma’ bint ‘Umays. She was initially married to Jafar ibn Abi Talib, she migrated with him to Abyssinia and bore his child ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar. Jafar was martyred in the Battle of Mutah. Thereafter Abu Bakr married her; they had a child Muhammad. And upon his demise ‘Ali married her, and Muhammad — the son of Abu Bakr came under his care. ‘Ali would thus say, “Muhammad is my son from the posterity of Abu Bakr.”
a. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was married to Qaribah al Sughra radiya Llahu ‘anha. She was the sister of Umm Salamah radiya Llahu ‘anha who was one of the consorts of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. ‘Abdur Rahman and Rasulullah were thus co-brothers-in-law and Umm al Mu’minin Umm Salamah was his sister-in-law.
b. ‘Abdur Rahman and Qaribah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were blessed with a daughter Hafsah bint ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakr. She was later on given in marriage to Mundhir ibn Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. After him she came into the wedlock of Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu. And subsequent to that ‘Asim ibn ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu married her. The scholars have only differed as to whether Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu married her first or Mundhir radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Study the following narrations:
 .وسالفه النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم. عبدالرحمن بن أبي بكر الصديق. خلف علي قريبة الصغري بعد معاوية فولدت له عبد الله بن عبدالرحمن
 حفصة بنت عبدالرحمن بن ابي بكر الصديق زوجها إياه المنذر بن زبير بن العوام فولدت له عبدالرحمن وإبراهيم وقريبة ثم خلف عليها بعد المنذر حسين بن علي بن أبي طالب وقد روت حفصة عن أبيها وعن عمتها عائشة وعن خالتها أم سلمة زوج النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم سماعا
 وتزوجت حفصة بنت عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر الصديق الحسين بن علي أبي طالب ثم عاصم بن عمر بن الخطاب ثم المنذر بن زبير
The summary of all three narrations: The granddaughter of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Hafsah was in the wedlock of Hussain ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. This is clear evidence of the kinship that existed between these two families.
The grandson of Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu — Qasim, and the grandson of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu — ‘Ali Zayn al ‘Abidin; were maternal cousins. They were both sons of the daughters of the Persian Emperor whose name was Yazdegerd. One daughter had come into the wedlock of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma and the other to Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This is mentioned in much detail in the books of the Ahlus Sunnah such as Tarikh ibn Khallikan (1/320) and Tahdhib al Tahdhib (3/438). I have sufficed on mentioning the relationship of Qasim and ‘Ali Zayn al ‘Abidin and have omitted the other details which I shall mention in the second volume which is regarding ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu, if need be.
The Shia scholars have also acknowledged the authenticity of this in their sources. A few of their references are presented ahead:
i. Sheikh al Mufid has stated the following in his book al Irshad:
فبعث إليه ابنتي يزدجرد اتن شهريار بن كسري فنحل ابنه الحسن عليه السلام شاه زنان منهما فأولدها زين العابدين عليه السلام و نحل الأخري محمد بن أبي بكر فولدت له القاسم بن محمد بن أابي بكر فهما أبنا خالة.
‘Umar sent to him, ‘Ali, the two daughters of Yazdegerd ibn Shahrayar. He thus gifted one of them whose name was Shah Zanan to his son Hussain. She bore his child Zayn al ‘Abidin. He gifted the other sister to Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and she bore his child Qasim. Hence, Zayn al ‘Abidin and Qasim, were maternal cousins.
ii. Qadi Nur Allah Shustari has also made mention of their kinship in his book Majalis al Mu’minin. He states the following:
قاسم پسر خالہ امام زین العابدین بود ومادر او دختر یزدجرد شہریار آخر بادشاہاں عجم بود۔
Qasim was the maternal cousin of Imam Zayn al ‘Abidin. His mother was the daughter of Yazdegerd ibn Shahrayar, the last monarch of the Persian Empire.
iii. In his book Jila’ al ‘Uyun, Mulla Baqir al Majlisi has mentioned the maternal kinship of Zayn al ‘Abidin and Qasim in great detail. He concludes:
پس قاسم با امام زین العابدین خالہ زاد ہستند۔
Hence, Qasim was the maternal cousin of Imam Zayn al ‘Abidin.
iv. Sheikh ‘Abbas al Qummi has stated the following in his book Muntaha al Amal:
حضرت یکی را کہ شاہ زناں نام داشت بحضرت امام حسین علیہ السلام داد وحضرت امام زین العابدین از او بہمرسید ودیگر را بمحمد بن ابی بکر داد وقاسم جد مادری حضرت صادق علیہ السلام از او بہمرسید۔ پس قاسم باامام زین العابدین خالہ زاد بودہ اند۔
Imam ‘Ali had given one of them whose name was Shah Zanan to Imam Hussain and Imam Zayn al ‘Abidin was born from their union. The other one he had gifted to Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, and Qasim, the maternal grandfather of Jafar al Sadiq was born. Qasim was thus the maternal cousin of Imam Zayn al ‘Abidin.
Lastly, I present before you a kinship between the two families that both the Ahlus Sunnah and the Shia unanimously agree upon.
Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhum was the grandson of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He had a daughter who was famously known as Umm Farwah (some scholars have suggested that her name was Fatimah while others have suggested that her name was Qaribah). She was in the wedlock of Imam Muhammad al Baqir. And through their union Jafar al Sadiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his brother ‘Abdullah were born.
What is more crucial to remember is that both the parents of Umm Farwah belonged to the family of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Her mother was Asma’ bint ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakr and her father was Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. In essence, the grandson and the granddaughter of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu were married to one another and from their union Umm Farwah the mother of Jafar al Sadiq was born. Therefore we find that Jafar al Sadiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu would say, “Abu Bakr is my grandfather in two ways (as will be established by way of the narrations, Allah willing).”
I shall first endeavour to establish the above mentioned details from a Sunni perspective. Thereafter, I shall corroborate it with statements of the notable Shia scholarship.
i. The following is mentioned in Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d:
فولد ابو جعفر جعفر بن محمد و عبد الله بن محمد و امهما ام فروة بنت القاسم بن محمد بن ابي بكر الصديق.
ii. The following appears in Tabaqat Khalifah ibn Khayyat:
و جعفر بن محمد بن علي بن الحسين بن ابي طالب امه ام فروة بنت القاسم بن محمد بن ابي بكر الصديق يكني ابو عبد الله توفي سنة ثمان و اربعين و مائة.
iii. Ibn Qutaybah al Dinawari has stated the following in his book al Ma’arif:
فاما محمد بن علي (يعني محمد باقر بن زين العابدين)فكان يكني ابا جعفر و كان له فقه و مات بالمدينة فولد محمد جعفر محمد و عبد الله بن محمد امهما ام فروة بنت القاسم بن محمد بن ابي بكر و امها اسماء بنت عبد الرحمان بن ابي بكر.
The summary of all three narrations: The offspring of Abu Jafar (Muhammad al Baqir), Jafar and ‘Abdullah, were born from his spouse Umm Farwah. Umm Farwah’s father was Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and her mother was Asma’ bint ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al Siddiq. Muhammad al Baqir was a jurist in Madinah. He passed away in 117 A.H. His son Jafar passed away in 148 A.H.
Now from the Shi‘i Sources:
i. Al Nowbakhti has mentioned the following in his book Firaq al Shia:
وتوفي صلوات الله عليه بالمدينة في شوال سنة ثمان و اربعين و مائة و هو ابن خمس و ستين سنة و كان مولده في سنة ثلاث و ثمانين و دفن في القبر الذي دفن فيه ابوه و جده في البقيع و امه بنت القاسم بن محمد بن ابي بكر و امها اسماء بنت عبد الرحمان بن ابي بكر.
ii. Al Kulayni has stated the following in his book Usul al Kafi:
امه ام فروة بنت القاسم بن محمد بن ابي بكر بكر و امها اسماء بنت عبد الرحمان بن ابي بكر
Khalil al Qazwini has written a translation of al Kafi. In it he has translated this narration in the following manner:
ومادرش ام فروہ دختر قاسم بن محمد بن ابی بکر بود ومادر ام فروہ اسماء دختر عبدالرحمن ابن ابی بکر بود۔
iii. The author of Kashf al Ghummah, Abu ‘Isa al Arbili, has stated the following under the biography of Jafar al Sadiq:
امه ام فروة و اسمها قريبة بنت القاسم بن محمد بن ابي بكر الصديق و امها اسماء بنت عبد الرحمان بن ابي بكر الصديق و لذالك قال جعفر عليه السلام و لقد ولدني ابو بكر مرتين ولد عام الحجاف سنة ثمانين و مات سنة ثمان و اربعين مائة.
iv. The well reputed genealogist al Sayed Jamal al Din ibn Ahmed who was well known as Ibn ‘Inabah, has stated the following in his book ‘Umdat al Talib Fi Ansab Al Abi Talib:
امه ام فروة بنت القاسم بن محمد بن ابي بكر و امها اسماء بنت عبد الرحمان بن ابي بكر ولهذا كان الصادق عليه السلام يقول ولدني ابو بكر مرتين …قد ولد سنة ثمانين و توفي سنة سبع وأربعين ومائة.
v. The author of Tanqih al Maqal; ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani, and the author of Muntaha al Amal; ‘Abbas al Qummi, have likewise made detailed mention of Umm Farwah the granddaughter of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the mother of Jafar al Sadiq.
The Summary of all the Above Cited Narrations
In this chapter I had presented five different types of bonds that existed between the two families. The Shia and the Ahlus Sunnah both acknowledge them. Hence, we can safely conclude:
It is indeed possible to outwardly commend and praise each other even though there be major contentions. However, family bonds cannot be sustained merely outwardly when there is hatred and acrimony deep down in the hearts. Therefore, to say that it was all done out of Taqiyyah is baseless.
I make an earnest request to all the readers to consider the narrations that contain the events post the demise of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam of acrimony, transgression and upheaval on the one hand and these lovely family bonds that had been established between the two families on the other hand. Thereafter, every person can decide for himself as to what the truth is and what is mere sensationalism.
 Surah Ahzab: 6
 For further reference refer to: Kitab al Muhabbar of Abu Jafar al Baghdadi p. 106-107, 442-443; al Isti’ab 4/231-232, Usd al Ghabah 5/395.
 Kashf al Ghummah 1/500-501.
 Haq al Yaqin p. 119; Majalis al Mu’minin: Mention of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
 Al Durrah al Najafiyah p. 113.
 Kitab al Muhabbar, p 102.
 Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, 8: 343.
 Kitab al Muhabbar, p 448.
 The narration in which it appears that ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu had given ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu two of the daughters of Yazdegerd, the monarch of Persia, and that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had further gifted them to Hussain ibn ‘Ali and Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu from whom they were blessed with Zayn al ‘Abidin and Qasim respectively, has been classed weak by the scholars. However, there are few reasons due to which I have presented it here: Firstly, it is very possible that this incident ensued; maybe not in the era of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu but at some other time. Secondly, it is likewise possible that the handmaids that were gifted to them were not the daughters of Yazdajard, but rather taken as captives from a people other than the Persians. One of the narrators might have perceived them to be the daughters of Yazdajard and therefore narrated the incident based on his perception. Hence, it is very likely that the core aspect of the narration i.e. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu gifting Husain and Muhammad handmaids, is established while the finer details as to who they were is unauthentic. Thirdly, the Shia scholarship has conceded the kinship of Qasim ibn Muhammad and ‘Ali ibn Husain. They have narrated this in their books without any criticisms or negative remarks. Therefore, even if the above mentioned details are not reliable according to the Ahlus Sunnah, they are being presented from a Shia perspective so that they may serve as an inculpatory answer against them. I have first-hand access to the books of the Shia and quote directly therefrom. Some off the details are presented here and the rest will be presented in the second volume in sha Allah.
 Al Irshad p. 237; Kashf al Ghummah 2/276.
 Majalis al Mu’minin: Majlis no. 5.
 Jila’ al ‘Uyun, the incident of Shahr Banu.
 Muntaha al Amal 2/p. 3: chapter regarding the birth of Imam Zayn al ‘Abidin.
 Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d 5/235.
 Tabaqat Khalifah ibn Khayyat p. 269.
 Al Ma’arif p. 94.
 Firaq al Shia of Abu Muhammad Hassan ibn Musa al Nowbakhti.
 Al Safi Sharh al Kafi 3/214: Chapter regarding the birth of Abu ‘Abdullah.
 Kashf al Ghummah 2/378.
 ‘Umdat al Talib Fi Ansab Al Abi Talib p.195;
 Tanqih al Maqal by ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani p. 73; Muntaha al Amal p. 120-121.
 Qadi Nur Allah Shustari has also quoted this statement of Jafar al Sadiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his book Ihqaq al Haq. However finding no efficient answer to this he has concluded that Jafar al Sadiq had said it out of Taqiyyah. Taqiyyah is the solution to all problems for the Shia. See: Ihqaq al Haq (Egyptian print) 1/7, Tehrani Print, 1/29-30.Back to top