عن محمد بن اسحاق عن ابي جعفر محمد بن علي قال من لم يعرف فضل ابي بكر و عمر رضي الله عنهما فقد جهل السنة.
Muhammad (al Baqir) ibn ‘Ali is reported to have said, “A person who does not concede the merits of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar is ignorant of the Sunnah.”
قال محمد بن فضيل عن سالم بن ابي حفصة سألت ابا جعفر و ابنه جعفر بن محمد عن ابي بكر و عمر فقالا لي يا سالم تولهما و ابرأ من عدوهما فانهما كانا امامي هدي.و عنه قال ما ادركت احدا من اهلي بيتي الا وهو يتولاهما.
Salim ibn Abi Hafsah states, “I asked Abu Jafar (Muhammad al Baqir) and his son Jafar regarding Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.
They said, “Associate yourself with them and absolve yourself from their enemies. They were both bastions of guidance.”
It is also narrated from Muhammad al Baqir that he would say, “I do not know of anyone in my family but that they love and befriend Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.”
قال حدثنا زهير عن جابر قال قلت لمحمد بن علي….ا كان منكم اهل البيت احد يسب ابا بكر و عمر قال لا فأحبهما و اتولاهما و استغفرلهما.
Zuhayr ibn Jabir says that he asked Muhammad ibn ‘Ali (al Baqir), “Is there any member of your family, the Ahlul Bayt, who would criticise Abu Bakr and ‘Umar?”
He rellied, “No! Therefore I love them, befriend them and seek forgiveness for them.”
عن عمرو بن شمر عن جابر قال قال لي محمد الباقر بن علي يا جابر بلغني ان قوما بالعراق يزعمون انهم يحبوننا و يتناولون ابا بكر و عمر رضي الله عنهما و يزعمون اني امرتهم بذالك فابلغهم اني الي الله منهم بريء و الذي نفس محمد بيده لو وليت لقربت الي الله تعالي بدمائهم.لانالتني شفاعة محمد ان لم اكن استغفر لهما و اترحم عليهما ان اعداء الله لغافلون عنهما.
Jabir narrates that Muhammad al Baqir, the son of ‘Ali Zayn al ‘Abidin, said to him, “O Jabir! I have come to know that there is group of people in Iraq who claim to love us, they revile Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and claim that I instructed them to do so. Convey my message to them that I am absolved from them. By that Being in whose control is the life of Muhammad! If ever I am elected as the ruler I will seek proximity to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala by killing them. May I, be deprived of the intercession of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam if I do not seek forgiveness for Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and do not invoke the mercy of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala on their behalf. The enemies of Allah are oblivious of who they were.”
حدثني شعبة الخياط مولي جابر الجعفي قال قال لي أبو جعفر محمد بن علي لما ودعته أبلغ أهل الكوفة أبي بريء ممن تبرأ من أبي بكر وعمر رضي الله عنهما وأرضاهما.”
Jabir al Ju’fi narrates, “Abu Jafar Muhammad al Baqir said to me when I was departing, “Convey my message to the people of Kufah that I am free from any person who absolves himself from Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. May Allah be pleased with them and may He please them.”
أصرم بن حوشب نا عبد الرحمن بن عبد ربه قال سمعت رجلا يقول قدمت المدينة فأتيت أبا جعفر محمد بن علي فجلست إليه فقلت أصلحك الله ما تقول في أبي بكر وعمر قال رحم الله أبابكر وعمر قلت إنهم يقولون أنك تبرأ منهما قال معاذ الله كذبوا ورب الكعبة أولست تعلم أن علي بن أبي طالب زوج ابنته أم كلثوم من فاطمة من عمر بن الخطاب وهل تدري من هي جدتها خديجة سيدة نساء أهل الجنة وجدها رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم خاتم النبيين وسيد المرسلين ورسول رب العالمين وأمها فاطمة سيدة نساء العالمين وأخواها الحسن والحسين سيدا شباب أهل الجنة و أبوها علي بن أبي طالب ذو الشرف والمنقبة في الإسلام فلو لم يكن لها أهلا عمر بن الخطاب ما زوجها إياه.
‘Abdur Rahman ibn ‘Abd Rabbih narrates that he heard a person saying, “I arrived in Madinah and came to Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn ‘Ali. Having set in his company I asked him, “What do you say about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar?”
He said, “May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, shower his mercy upon Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.”
I said, “They claim that you absolve yourself from them.”
He said, “I seek the refuge of Allah! They have indeed spoken a lie. Do you not know that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib had his daughter, Umm Kulthum — who was the daughter of Fatimah, married to ‘Umar? And do you have any idea as to who is her grandmother? Khadijah the queen of the women of Jannat. Her grandfather was the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the seal of nubuwwah, the leader of all the Prophets and the Rasul of the Rabb of the universe. Her mother was Fatimah, the queen of all the women in this world. Her brothers were Hassan and Hussain, the chiefs of the youth in Jannat. And her father was ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib who enjoyed a privileged position and held many merits and feats in Islam. Hence, if ‘Umar was not fit to marry her, ‘Ali would never have given her in marriage to him.”
Kathir al Nawa’ narrates this incident from Muhammad al Baqir. It reads as follows:
ان بني تميم و بني عدي وبني هاشم كان غل بينهم في الجاهلية فلما اسلم هولاء القوم تحابوا (نزع الله ذالك من قلوبهم)فأخذت ابا بكر الخاصرة فجعل علي كرم الله وجهه يسخن يده (بالنار)فيكوي بها خاصرة ابي بكر رضي الله عنه.
The Banu Taym, Banu ‘Adi and the Banu Hashim in the days of ignorance harboured ill feelings for one another. When they were blessed with Islam, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala removed the enmity that existed between them; they hence, began loving one another. On one occasion Abu Bakr experienced pain in his hip whereupon ‘Ali treated him; he would warm his hand in the fire and cauterise the hip of Abu Bakr.”
Ahead I shall cite several narrations in which it is stated that Muhammad al Baqir referred to Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma as a source of substantiation in jurisprudential issues. This would clearly serve as a sign of the mutual affinity, reliability, and reverence that they displayed.
حماد بن زيد عن الحجاج عن ابي جعفر محمد بن علي رضي الله عنهما قال اجتمع المهاجرون انه ما اوجب عليه الحد من الجلد و الرجم اوجب الغسل ابو بكر و عمر و عثمان و علي رضي الله عنهم.
Muhammad ibn ‘Ali narrates, “The Muhajirin, i.e. Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and ‘Ali had concurred that the extent of cohabitation which necessitates the legal punishment of lashing or stoning to death, necessitates an obligatory ritual bath as well.”
Deductions From the Narration
Imam Bukhari has made mention of a narration of Muhammad al Baqir in this regard:
قال قيس بن مسلم عن ابي جعفر (باقر)قال ما بالمدينة اهل بيت مجرة الا يزرعون علي الثلث و الربع و زارع علي و سعد بن مالك و عبد الله بن مسعود و عمر بن العزيز و القاسم(بن محمد)و عروة و ال ابي بكر و ال عمر و ال علي و ابن سرين
Abu Jafar (Muhammad al Baqir) said, “There is not a family in Madinah that does not enter into a sharecropping contract on the condition of receiving returns equal to one third or a quarter. And ‘Ali, Sa’d ibn Malik, ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz, al Qasim ibn Muhammad, ‘Urwah, the family of Abu Bakr, the family of ‘Umar, the family of ‘Ali and Ibn Sirin also engaged in farming contracts.”
What is intended here is to prove that Muhammad al Baqir made mention of the practice of the family of Abu Bakr, the family of ‘Umar, Qasim ibn Muhammad and ‘Urwah ibn Asma’ (who were both the grandsons of Abu Bakr) when sanctioning farming contracts. This is without doubt indicative towards the fact that they perceived good of one another, were sincere and trusted one another in din. There existed no enmity, opposition or quarrels between them.
Dying the Beard
قال زهير قال حدثنا عروة بن عبد الله عن قشير قال لقيت ابا جعفر وقد قصعت لحيتي فقال مالك عن الخضاب قال قلت اكرهه في هاذا البلد قال فأصبغ بالوسمة فأني كنت اخضب بها…ثم قال ان اناسا من حمقي قرائكم يزعمون ان خضاب اللحي حرام و انهم سألوا محمد بن ابي بكر أو القاسم بن محمد قال الزهير الشك من غيري عن خضاب ابي بكر فقال كان يخضب بالحناء و الكتم فهذا الصديق قد خضب قال قلت الصديق قال نعم و رب هذه القبلة و الكعبة انه الصديق.
Qushayr mentions, “I met Abu Jafar and my beard had turned white. So he inquired, ‘Why do you not dye your beard?’
I said, ‘I dislike dyeing it in this city.’
He responded, ‘Dye it with woad-leaves for I use it to dye my beard with them as well…’
He then said, ‘a group of foolish scholars amongst you claim that dyeing the beard is prohibited. Hence, they asked Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr or Qasim ibn Muhammad (Zuhayr the narrator of this incident says that the doubt is from one of the narrators above him) regarding the practice of Abu Bakr dyeing his hair who had responded by saying, “Abu Bakr would dye his beard with henna and Katam (a certain type of plant used to dye hair).”’
Thereafter he, Abu Jafar, remarked, ‘Hence, al Siddiq dyed his hair.’
I said, ‘Did you just call him al Siddiq?’
‘Yes by the oath of the Rabb of the Qiblah (the direction that we face in salah) and the Ka’bah he is definitely al Siddiq,” he said firmly.”
The purpose of mentioning this narration here is to prove that Muhammad al Baqir had presented the practice of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu to prove the permissibility of dyeing the beard. And he had referred to him as al Siddiq.
يونس بن بكير عن ابي عبد الله الجعفي عن عروة بن عبد الله قال سألت ابا جعفر محمد بن علي عن حلية السيف؟ فقال لا بأس به قد حلي ابو بكر الصديق سيفه قال قلت و تقول الصديق قال فوثب وثبة و استقبل القبلة ثم قال نعم الصديق فمن لم يقل له الصديق فلا صدق الله له قولا في الدنيا و الأخرة.
‘Urwah ibn ‘Abdullah narrates, “I asked Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn ‘Ali regarding embellishing the sword with jewellery.
He said, ‘There is no problem in doing so for Abu Bakr al-Siddiq had also embellished his sword with jewellery.’
I remarked, ‘Do you call him al Siddiq?’
He thereupon stood up, faced the Qiblah and said, ‘Yes! He is al Siddiq and whoever is not willing to concede that title for him, may his statements never be accepted in this world and in the hereafter.’”
This narration establishes that Imam Muhammad al Baqir had substantiated the permissibility of adorning the sword with jewellery by means of the practice of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. It likewise tells us of the importance of the title al Siddiq for Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, for he had sounded a very severe warning against a person who does acknowledge the title for him.
Note:- It is of paramount importance to remember here that this narration does not only appear in Sunni sources. It appears in a very famous and reliable book of the Shia named Kashf al Ghummah of Abu ‘Isa al Irbili (2/360). In the narration cited there, Imam Muhammad al Baqir is reported to have said, “What a brilliant person was al Siddiq, what a brilliant person was al Siddiq, what a brilliant person was al Siddiq.” Having narrated this, the author does not criticise the narration whatsoever. This implies that the narration is authentic according to Shia standards.
However, Qadi Nur Allah Shustari has, in his book Ihqaq al Haq, very boldly stated that this narration does not feature in Kashf al Ghummah. This is a blatant lie which is of no advantage to them in the least. This is because I personally have read this narration in various copies and prints of the book; currently the copy which has been published with the Persian translation also carries it. Anyone can confirm this for himself.
The second answer he has given to render this narration invalid is the famous argument of Taqiyyah, i.e. the Infallible Imam was compelled to overtly give such an answer due to threat of the Sunnis around him.
At the end of the discussion around this narration, I would like to bring to your attention the deceitful nature of the Shia. A translation of the book Kashf al Ghummah in the Persian language has recently been published from Iran. The translation of this narration and other similar narrations has been expunged from it so as to misrepresent historical facts before people who have no acquaintance with the Arabic language. This according to them does not impact upon their trustworthiness.
Lastly, I present before you the statement of Imam Muhammad al Baqir which appears in al Ihtijaj of al Tabarsi. Herein he concedes the superiority of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
لست بمنكر فضل ابي بكر و لست بمنكر فضل عمر ولكن ابا بكر افضل من عمر.
Neither do I deny the virtue of Abu Bakr, nor do I deny the virtue of ‘Umar. However, Abu Bakr is better than ‘Umar.
The meaning of this narration is quiet obvious. While not denying the esteem position they both enjoyed in Islam he had conceded the superiority of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu over ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This is a corroborative narration which supports the primary massage which is contained in all the narrations previously cited. The Ahlul Bayt radiya Llahu ‘anhum and Sheikhayn radiya Llahu ‘anhuma displayed love, and veneration for each other at every given juncture.
We shall suffice on these incidents of Imam Muhammad al Baqir. Previously, under the discussion of the monetary rights of the Ahlul Bayt I had cited a narration, with reference to Nur al Din al Samhudi and Ibn Abi al Hadid al Shia, wherein Imam Muhammad al Baqir had approbated the policy of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma regarding Fadak. To get a holistic idea of the current discussion one can refer to it again.
Hereunder the statements and incidents of Jafar al Sadiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the son of Muhammad al Baqir radiya Llahu ‘anhu, in which he commends Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu are presented. Most of the narrations make exclusive mention of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and some make mention of him and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
حدثنا عقبة بن مكرم ثنا ابن عيينة ثنا جعفر بن محمد عن ابيه قال كان آل ابي بكر الصديق يدعون علي عهد رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم آل محمد.
Jafar al Sadiq narrates from his father that the household of Abu Bakr was known as the household of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam during the era of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
حفص بن غياث انه سمعه يقول (حعفر الصادق)ما ارجو من شفاعة علي شيئا الا و انا ارجو من شفاعة ابي بكر مثله لقد ولدني مرتين.
Hafs ibn Ghayath says that he heard Jafar al Sadiq saying, “In as much as I hope to acquire the intercession of ‘Ali on the day of Qiyamah I have just as much hope in acquiring the intercession of Abu Bakr. My relationship with Abu Bakr is twofold.”
قال علي بن الجعد عن زهير بن معاوية قال ابي لجعفر بن محمد ان لي جارا يزعم انك تبرأ من ابي بكر و عمر فقال جعفر برء الله من جارك و الله اني لأرجو ان ينفعني الله بقرابتي من ابي بكر.
Zuhayr ibn Muawiyah reports that his father said to Jafar al Sadiq, “I have a neighbour who absolves himself from Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.”
He said, “Allah is free from your neighbour. I have hope that Allah will benefit me because of my kinship with Abu Bakr.”
عن جعفر و قد سئل عن ابي بكر و عمر فقال اتبرأ ممن تبرأ منهما فقيل له لعلك تقول هذا تقية فقال اذا انا برء من الاسلام و لا نالتني شفاعة محمد صلي الله عليه وسلم و عنه قال ما ارجو من شفاعة علي الا و انا ارجو من شفاعة ابي بكر مثله.
و عنه انه قال الله برء ممن برء من ابي بكر و عمر.و عنه قد قيل له ان فلانا يزعم انك تبرء من ابي بكر و عمر ؟فقال جعفر الله برء منه اني لأرجو ان ينفعني الله بقرابتي من ابي بكر.
It is reported regarding Jafar al Sadiq that he was asked about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.
He remarked, “I am absolved from every person who disassociates himself from them.”
He was thus asked, “Probably you are saying this practicing Taqiyyah?”
He said, “If that is the case then I am absolved of Islam; may the intercession of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not benefit me.”
He is also reported to have said, “I desire to receive the intercession of Abu Bakr as much as I desire to receive the intercession of ‘Ali.”
He is likewise reported to have mentioned, “Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala is free from any person who disassociates himself from Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.”
It was once told to him that so and so claims that you absolve yourself from Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. He remarked, “Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala is free from him. I have hope that Allah will benefit me because my kinship with Abu Bakr.”
Abu ‘Abdullah al Hakim al Naysaburi has cited the following narration in his book Ma’rifat ‘Ulum al Hadith:
و من اولاد البنات جعفر بن محمد الصادق و كان يقول ابو بكر جدي افيسب الرجل جده لا أقدمني الله ان لم اقدمه.
And among the children of the daughters of Abu Bakr was Jafar al Sadiq. He would often say, “Abu Bakr is my grandfather, is it ever possible for a person to revile his grandfather. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, deprive me of progress if I do not concede his excellence in din.”
Qadi Nur Allah Shustari has, after narrating this narration in his book Ihqaq al Haq, tried in various ways to refute it and belie it. Eventually, when finding no appropriate answer to it he states, as is always the final resort of the Shia, that someone had falsely accused him of making derogatory remarks regarding Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he had therefore given the above cited response. He states:
وسوق الحديث صريح في صدوره علي وجه التقية.
The context in which he had articulated this is evident that he had said it by way of Taqiyyah.
The readers should decide for themselves. This statement of Imam Jafar al Sadiq is in no uncertain terms informing us that no one ever criticises his predecessors. However, this notable Shia scholar has interpreted it to be by of Taqiyyah. Whereas, if we do take this statement to be by way of Taqiyyah then what would we say regarding Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu being the maternal and paternal grandfather of Jafar al Sadiq (as it will be established in the pages to come). Did this also happen by way of Taqiyyah? The marriages that were solemnised, were they also by way of Taqiyyah? Were they just outwardly arranged despite the contempt that existed? Who will ever accept such lame interpretations!
Qadi Nur Allah has cited a narration of Jafar al Sadiq in his book wherein he is reported to have praised Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. The narration reads as follows:
انه سأل رجل من المخالفين عن الامام الصادق عليه السلام فقال يا ابن رسول الله ما تقول في حق ابي بكر و عمر فقال عليه السلام امامان عادلان قاسطان كانا علي الحق و ماتا عليه فعليهما رحمة الله الي يوم القيامة.
A person of the opposition asked Jafar al Sadiq, “O grandson of Rasul Allah! What is your opinion regarding Abu Bakr and ‘Umar?”
He said, “They were just and fair leaders who led righteous lives and passed away upon righteousness. Hence, May the mercies of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala descend upon them till the Day of Qiyamah.”
The narration and the translation have been penned above. This narration establishes the superiority and lofty position that Sheikhayn held. In the narration there are no convoluted words or complex sentences that require interpretation or elucidation. But, the Shia have interpreted this narration in such strange ways which astound even the angels. A poet has very beautifully said:
Your interpretations have made you close to disbelief.
Nothing is impossible for a person of your calibre, O Sheikh.
In this instance as well, the best answer the Shia were able to present is that of Taqiyyah. Taqiyyah for them is the cure to all ailments and the solution to all problems even though it tarnishes the reputation of the infallible Imams very loathingly. To the Shia that is not really a matter of concern so long as the interpretation serves their purpose. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, guide us all.
The coming narration appears in Furu’ al Kafi (vol. 2) and it speaks of Jafar al Sadiq praising Abu Bakr, Abu Dhar and Salman al Farsi radiya Llahu ‘anhum:
من ازهد من هولاء و قد قال فيهم رسول الله صلي الله عليه و اله ما قال.
Can there be any person more disinclined from the world than them when the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has said with regard to them what he has said?
This narration proves that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was foremost in the disinclination from this world as is conceded by the scholars of the Shia.
Al Sayed al Murtada ‘Alam al Huda al Shia has likewise cited a narration of Jafar al Sadiq in his book al Shafi:
و المروي عن جعفر بن محمد انه كان يتولاهما و يأتي القبر فيسلم عليهما مع تسليمه علي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم.روي ذالك عباد بن صهيب و شعبة بن الحجاج و مهدي بن هلال و الدا……و غيرهما.
It has been reported regarding Jafar al Sadiq that he would love them. He would come to the grave of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and would invoke the mercy of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala for them together with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This has been reported by ‘Abbad ibn Suhayb, Shu’bah ibn al Hajjaj, Mahdi ibn Hilal, Darawardi, etc.
For the information of the readers, here as well the Shia were unable to present any answer better than Taqiyyah.
Musa al Kazim radiya Llahu ‘anhu has also reported a narration in praise of his pious predecessors. The narration is presented ahead:
عن الحسن بن علي قال قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم و آله ان ابا بكر مني بمنزلة السمع و ان عمر مني بمنزلة البصر و ان عثمان بمنزلة الفواد.
Hassan ibn ‘Ali narrates that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Abu Bakr to me is like my ears, ‘Umar is like my eyes, and ‘Uthman to me is like my bosom.”
This is the end of this chapter. In the next chapter I endeavour to present before you the kinship that existed between the two families. This is more for the commonality for the scholars are already well aware of these facts.
 Hilyat al Auliya 3/185: the mention of Muhammad al Baqir.
 Al Riyad al Nadirah 1/57; Tahdhib al Tahdhib 9/351; Izalat al Khafa’ 1/108-109; al I’tiqad ‘ala Mazhab al Salaf p. 185.
 Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d 5/232.
 Hilyat al Auliya 3/185; Al Riyad al Nadirah 1/58.
 Hilyat al Auliya 3/185; al Riyad al Nadirah 1/58.
 Fada’il Abi bakr al Siddiq p. 10.
 Al Riyad al Nadirah vol. 1 chapter. 5; al Durr al Manthur 4/101; Tafsir Ruh al Ma’ani 14/58.
 Sharh Ma’ani al Athar of Abu Jafar al Tahawi 1/36.
 Al Bukhari 1/313.
 Tabaqat ibn Sa’d 3/150.
 Hilyat al Auliya’ 3/185.
 Al Ihtijaj p. 230.
 Fada’il Abi Bakr al Siddiq p. 8.
 Tadhkirat al Huffaz 1/157; Tahdhib al Tahdhib 2/104. The meaning of this statement will be coming soon under the discussion regarding the kinship that existed between the family of Abu Bakr and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.
 Tahdhib al Tahdhib 2/104.
 Al Riyad al Nadirah 1/59.
 Ma’rifat ‘Ulum al Hadith p. 51.
 Ihqaq al Haq (Egyptian print) 1/ 7, Tehran print 1/15. Just a brief intro to the book: Ibn Mutahhar al Hilli (d. 726 A.H) had written a book titled Kashf al Haq wa Nahj al Sidq. In refutation of this book a Shafi’i Sunni scholar of Isfahan had written a book titled Ibtal Nahj al Batil. Thereafter a refutation of this book called Ihqaq al Haq was written by Qadi Nur Allah Shustari Mar’ashi who was executed in 1019 A.H. The book is in seven volumes and is printed with the footnotes of Shihab al Din al Najafi.
 Ihqaq al Haq, 1: 16.
 Furu’ al Kafi 2/4.
 Al Shafi p. 238; Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, section. 6 p. 306; Nahj al Balaghah 4/140
 Ma’ani al Akhbar p. 110; Tafsir al Hassan al ‘Askari, under the commentary of the Ayah: اوكلما عاهدوا عهدا نبذه فريق.