6.0 A biography of al Hilli and al Khu’i and an exposition of their creed and respective methodologies in their works

5.0 The absence of writing in the sciences of Mustalah al Hadith except in later times
September 23, 2020
‘Ammar ‘Ali’s letter
October 20, 2020

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6.0 A biography of al Hilli and al Khu’i and an exposition of their creed and respective methodologies in their works

 

Before delving into the biographies, it is appropriate that I mention what Twelver Shi’ism actually is. That is, the beliefs of both Ibn al Mutahhar al Hilli and Abu al Qasim al Khu’i.

 

6.1 Biography of al Hilli and his methodology in Khulasat al Aqwal

 

His name

Al Hassan ibn Yusuf ibn ‘Ali Ibn al Mutahhar Abu Mansur al Hilli—born and raised in Hillah, Iraq.[1]

 

His birth

Al Hilli said: “The nineteenth of Ramadan in the year 648.”[2]

 

His status among the Imamiyyah

There is a consensus among the scholars of the Imamiyyah regarding the virtue and greatness of al Hilli. Whoever studies and reads his biography will perceive this reality. To such an extent that the appellation ‘al ‘Allamah,’[3] whenever it is mentioned in unrestricted terms (i.e. without someone’s name attached to it), it refers to him, no one else.[4] His contemporary, Ibn Dawood al Hilli says:

 

شيخ الطائفة وعلامة وقته وصاحب التحقيق والتدقيق كثير التصانيف، انتهت رياسة الإمامية إليه في المعقول والمنقول، مولده سنة ثمان وأربعين وستمائة، وكان والده قدس الله روحه فقيها محققا مدرسا عظيم الشأن.

Master of the sect and the most learned scholar of his time, an individual of accurate and critical scholarship, and a prolific author. The leadership of the Imamiyyah ended with him in the rational and transmitted (sciences). He was born in 648 A.H and his father (may Allah sanctify his soul) was a jurist, specialist, and teacher of great rapport.[5]

 

After mentioning the words of Ibn Dawood al Hilli, Mustafa al Tiffarishi (d. 1021 A.H) stated:

 

ويخطر ببالي ألا أصفه إذ لا يسع كتابي هذا ذكر علومه وتصانيفه وفضائله ومحامده، وإنَّ كل ما يوصف به الناس من جميل وفضل فهو فوقه، له أزيد من سبعين كتابا في الأصول والفروع والطبيعي والإلهي وغيرها.

It has occurred to me that I should rather not describe him because this work of mine cannot fully encompass mentioning his knowledge, works, virtues, and praise-worthy traits. He is beyond everything that people have described about his beauty and virtue. He has more that seventy works in usul (legal theory), furu’ (branches of jurisprudence), science, theology, and others.[6]

 

There is no difference of opinion regarding his greatness and that he is one of the pillars of knowledge in the Imami school.[7]

His teachers

Al Hilli was a student of numerous teachers, among them:

  1. His father, Sadid al Din Yusuf – he narrates from him ijazatan (i.e. he received a license to transmit from him)
  2. His uncle, Najm al Din Jafar ibn al Hassan al Hilli, the author of Shara’i’ al Islam)
  3. The philosopher al Khawajah Nasir al Din al Tusi, the minister of Halagu Khan
  4. Maytham al Bahrani, the commentator of Nahj al Balaghah
  5. Ahmed ibn Tawus al Hassani
  6. ‘Umar al Katbi al Qazwini al Shafi’ (Dabiran)

And many others.[8]

 

His students

Many scholars were students of al Hilli, among them:

  1. Kamal al Din ‘Abdur Razzaq ibn Ahmed al Shaybani (famously known as Ibn al Fuwati)
  2. His son, Muhammad ibn al Hassan, the author of Idah al Fawa’id fi Sharh Ishkalat al Qawa’id
  3. Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al Jurjani
  4. Muhammad ibn al Qasim ibn Ma’iyyah al Hilli, the author of ‘Umdat al Talib

And many others.[9]

 

His writings

There has been much talk regarding the number of al Hilli’s works, to such an extent that Bahr al ‘Ulum (d. 1212 A.H) transmitted for us the statement of al Khuwanasari (d. 1313 A.H), the author of Rawdat al Jannat, who transmitted from several commentators of al Tajrid:

 

أن للعلامة نحوا من ألف مصنف كتب وتحقيق

Al ‘Allamah has written and edited approximately one thousand works.

 

And in Lu’lu’at al Bahrayn of Yusuf al Bahrani:

لقد قيل إنه لو وزع تصنيف العلامة على أيام عمره من ولادته إلى موته فكان قسط كل يوم كراسا

It has been said that if the works of al ‘Allamah were apportioned over the days of his life from the time he was born until his death, it would be (equal to) a book every day.[10]

 

Listing the number of works will be unnecessary lengthy and so I will restrict them to the following:

  • Muntaha al Matlab fi Tahqiq al Matlab
  • Talkhis al Maram fi Ma’rifat al Ahkam
  • Mukhtalif al Shia fi Ahkam al Shari’ah
  • Al Durr wa al Marjan fi al Ahadith al Sihah wa al Hisan
  • Al Sirr al Wajiz fi Tafsir al Kitab al ‘Aziz
  • Al Alfayn al Fariq bayna al Sidq wa al Mayn
  • Minhaj al Karamah fi al Imamah

 

Al Hilli has three works in narrator evaluation:

  1. Khulasat al Aqwal fi Ma’rifat al Rijal (one of the subjects of this study)
  2. Idah al Ishtibah fi Asma’ al Ruwat, the objective of this work is to distinguish between narrators by accurately identifying their names. Like Khulasat al Aqwal, this work is not for hadith narrator criticism. In this work, he collected 756 names and added 29 kunyas (agnomens).[11]
  3. Kashf al Maqal fi Ma’rifat al Rijal, in describing this work, al Hilli states:

 

ذكرنا فيه كل ما نقل عن الرواة والمصنفين مما وصل إلينا عن المتقدمين، وذكرنا أحوال المتأخرين والمعاصرين، ومن أراد الاستقصاء فعليه به، فإنه كاف في بابه.

We have mentioned in it everything that has been transmitted of the narrators and writers from that which has reached us of the early-day scholars. We have mentioned the conditions of the latter-day and contemporary (writers and narrators). Whoever wants a thorough understanding should use this work; it alone is sufficient in this category.[12]

 

Therefore, as described by al Hilli, it is a detailed and comprehensive work on narrators’ biographies. Many times, al Hilli refers (some 57 times) to it in al Khulasah for more (information).[13]

Kashf al Maqal is among the works that have been lost.[14] Bahr al ‘Ulum (d. 1212 A.H) states:

 

ولم يظفر به أحد فيما أعلم

To the extent of my knowledge, no one has successfully obtained a copy of it.[15]

 

Abu al Huda al Kalbasi (d. 1356 AH) states:

وهو غير موجود في هذه الأعصار، بل الظاهر، أنه لم يقف عليه أحد من علمائنا الأخيار

It is not to be found in these times. In fact, it seems that none of our outstanding scholars have come across it.[16]

 

His death

Al ‘Abbas al Qummi (d. 1359 A.H) states: “He died on Saturday, the twenty-first of Muharram in the year 726 A.H. He was buried near Amir al Mu’minin ‘alayh al Salam. The author of Nukhbat al Maqal said:

سبط مطهّـر فـريـدة الزمن

  وآية الله يوسف الحسن

ولد رحـمة 684 وعـز 77 عـمـره

 علامة الدهـر جـلـيـل قـدره

The sign of Allah Yusuf al Hassan –

The grandson of Mutahhir, the unrivaled of his time –

The erudite scholar of the time, exalted is his rank –

Born as a mercy in 684 and lived his life for 77 cherished years.[17]

 

A description of the work Khulasat al Aqwal fi Ma’rifat al Rijal

In describing his work, al Hilli said:

تصنيف مختصر في بيان حال رواة ومن يعتمد عليه، ومن تترك روايته …… ولم نطل الكتاب بذكر جميع الرواة، بل اقتصرنا على قسمين منهم، وهم الذين اعتمد على روايتهم، والذين أتوقف عن العمل بنقلهم، أما لضعفه أو لاختلاف الجماعة في توثيقه وضعفه، أو لكونه مجهولا عندي. ولم نذكر كل مصنفات الرواة، ولا طولنا في نقل سيرتهم …… ورتبته على قسمين وخاتمة: الأول: فيمن اعتمد على روايته، أو ترجح عندي قبول قوله.

الثاني: فيمن تركت روايته، أو توقفت فيه. ورتبت كل قسم على حروف المعجم للتقريب والتسهيل.

The authoring of an abridged work in explaining the conditions of narrators[18], who can be relied upon, and whose narrations should be abandoned… We will not prolong the work by mentioning all the narrators. In fact, we will restrict ourselves to only two types: those whose narrations are relied upon, and those whom I desisted from acting upon their narrations, either because of a narrator’s weakness; or because there is a difference of opinion from the group (i.e. scholars) regarding his reliability or weakness; or because he is majhul (unknown) according to me. We did not mention all of the writings of the narrators and neither did we elaborate in narrating their biographies… I organized it into two sections and a conclusion:

    1. Regarding those whose narrations are relied upon, or, according to me, his statement is acceptable.
    2. Regarding those whose narrations are abandoned, or I came to a standstill.

I organized every section in alphabetical order to facilitate its understanding and make easy (i.e. for the reader).[19]

 

Al Hilli mentioned 1779 biographies in his al Khulasah, divided over two sections. He concludes his work with ten beneficial points related to the sciences of narrator evaluation.   

 

Two points of caution regarding the work al Khulasah

1. The scholars of the Imamiyyah differ and have two views regarding the authoritative value (hujjiyyah) of the latter-day scholars’ rulings of tawthiq, at the head of them is al Hilli.[20] There are those who accept their rulings of tawthiq and there are those who reject them, such as al Khu’i. This issue will be dealt with later. Based on this, the benefit of al Hilli’s al Khulasah in relation to those that do not consider his rulings of tawthiq is only in his transmission of the previous scholars’ statements, as well as his transmission from books that were lost and hence inaccessible to the latter-day scholars. This is what al Tustari alluded to in his statement:

 

إنما يحسن فيما لم نقف على مستنده

It is only good for that which we could not find a basis for.[21]

 

The statement of al Tustari is not general. In fact, the authenticity of the narration of al Hilli is required for the statements he transmits, as mentioned by al Khu’i—as is still to come.

2. Many scholars of the Imamiyyah have raised concerns regarding the action of al Hilli in his work al Khulasah. For example, after dividing the work into two sections, we find him mentioning, at times, those who are at an impasse regarding his statement in the first section. It would have been more appropriate for him to have included it in the second section specific to weak narrators and those whose statements are rejected or there is a standstill about them. Whatever has been said in the first chapter can be said in the second chapter. This is considered to be of the faults against al Hilli.[22]

 

6.2 Biography of al Khu’i[23] and an exposition of his methodology in Mujam al Rijal

 

His Name

Abu al Qasim ibn ‘Ali Akbar ibn Hashim al Musawi al Khu’i

 

His Birth

Al Khu’i states: “I was born in the city of Khoy, one of the cities of Azerbaijan, on the fifteenth night of Rajab, in the year 1317 A.H. I grew up there with my parents and brothers. I mastered qira’ah (Qur’an recital), calligraphy, and other foundational sciences.

 

His Emigration

He states: “A major difference of opinion occurred between the Ummah on account of the incident of al Mashrutah[24]and so my late father emigrated because of it to al Najaf al Ashraf in the year 1328 A.H. I joined up with him in the year 1330 A.H accompanied by my older brother, ‘Abdullah al Khu’i, and the remaining members of my family.

 

His Teachers

He states: “When I arrived in al Najaf al Ashraf, at the Islamic University of the Imami Shia, I commenced with reading the literacy sciences and logic. Thereafter, I read the instructional works in usul and fiqh by several of the institute’s leading scholars, among them was my late father. Then I attended graduate studies “research abroad (bahth al kharij)” under senior lecturers in the year 1338 A.H. I will specifically mention five of my teachers among them, namely Ayat Allah Fath Allah (famously known as Sheikh al Shari’ah al Asfahani), Mahdi al Mazindarani, Diya’ al Din al ‘Iraqi, Muhammad Hussain al Asfahani, and Muhammad Hussain al Na’ini. I mostly studied fiqh and usul under the last two. In fact, I attended their complete courses in usul, as well as a number of fiqh works for a number of years. I used to relate back both of their research to a number of those present. There were a number of great personalities therein. Al Na’ini (may Allah have mercy on him) was the last teacher I accompanied.

 

His Authorizations to Transmit (Ijazat)

He states: “In (hadith) narration, I have teachers who have granted me authorization to narrate from them the works of our Imami scholars, and others. Therefore, I narrate via a number of chains our Four (Primary) works (al Kafi, al Faqih, al Tahdhib, al Istibsar), the other jawami’ (al Wasa’il, al Bihar, al Wafi), and other works of our scholars (ashab) (may Allah sanctify their secret). Among these chains is what I narrate from my teacher, al Na’ini, from his teacher, al Nuri, via the chains that have been explained in the epilogue of his work Mustadrak al Wasa’il (famously known as Mawaqi’ al Nujum); all of which end with the infallible and pure Ahlul Bayt.

 

His Teaching

He says: “I taught much, and gave many lectures on jurisprudence, legal theory, and exegesis. And trained a large number of prominent students in the Hawzah of al Najaf al Ashraf. Accordingly, I gave two complete fiqhi lectures (research abroad) on al Makasib of al Sheikh al A’zam al Ansari. I also taught a number of other works, and two complete sessions on Kitab al Salah. On twenty-seventh of Rabi’ al Awwal, 1377 AH, I began teaching the furu’ of al ‘Urwah al Wuthqa of Faqih al Ta’ifah, Muhammad Kazim al Tabtaba’i al Yazdi, beginning with Kitab al Taharah such that I taught al Ijtihad wa al Taqlid until I reached Kitab al Ijarah. I started this on the twenty-sixth of Rabi’ al Awwal, 1400 A.H …  During the previous years, I began teaching the Tafsir of the Noble Qur’an for a while until several harsh conditions prevented me from completing what I wanted to. How I desired to develop and further spread this lesson!

 

His Writings

He says: “I have authored a number of works in tafsir, fiqh, usul, and rijal (narrator evaluation); some of which have been printed and others remain in manuscript form. Herewith are the works that have been printed (title/no. of volumes/subject):

  • Al Bayan fi Tafsir al Qur’an/1/tafsir
  • Ajwad al Taqrirat/2/usul
  • Takmilat Minhaj al Salihin/1/fiqh
  • Mabani Takmilat Minhaj al Salihin/2/fiqh
  • Tahdhib wa Tatmim Minhaj al Salihin/2/fiqh
  • Al Masa’il al Muntakhabah/1/fiqh
  • Mustahdathat al Masa’il/1/fiqh
  • Ta’liqah ‘ala al ‘Urwat al Wuthqa/1/fiqh
  • Risalah fi al Libas al Mashkuk/1/fiqh
  • Mujam Rijal al Hadith/21 volumes have been printed and the remaining are under print. I completed writing it in the blessed month of Ramadan in the year 1389.[25]

And many others.

 

His Students

Considering the fact that al Khu’i remained the head of the Islamic seminary in al Najaf for a long time, many students graduated at his hands who (eventually) became famous in this time. Among them: ‘Ali al Sistani (Iraq), Muammad Ishaq al Fayad (Iraq), Jawwad Tabrizi (Iran), Muhammad Rida al Khalkhali (Iraq), Muhammad Asif al Muhsini (Afghanistan), Hussain Wahid al Khurasani (Iran), ‘Ala’ al Din Bahr al ‘Ulum (Iraq), Muhammad al Ruhani (Iran), Yusuf al Irawani (Iran), Muhyiyy al Din al Gharifi (Bahrain), Muhammad Baqir al Sadr (Iraq), and others.[26]

 

His Death

Murtada al Ridawi states while mentioning the time of this death: “At half past two after zuhr on Saturday 8 Safar, 1413 A.H. He was buried in his last place of  residency next to al Imam Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam in one of the rooms of al Sahn al ‘Alawi al Sharif, which was the entrance to Masjid al Khadra’ adjacent to al Sahn al Sharif at four o’clock after midnight on Sunday, the ninth of Safar.”[27] Some Statements Regarding HimIn describing al Khu’i, Hussain al Shakiri states: “The final marja’ (religious authority to follow) that al Najaf al Ashraf lived through was led by the Supreme Authority (al Marja’ al A’la) al Sayed Abu al Qasim al Khu’i. With his death, al Najaf lost its relative leadership. This was in the year 1413 AH/1992 CE.”[28] Muhammad al Jawahiri, the individual responsible for abridging Mujam Rijal al Hadith, states: “He is al Marja’ al ‘Am (the General Religious Authority) of the Shia” (of the Twelvers) “and a teacher at the al Hawzah al ‘Ilmiyyah in al Najaf al Ashraf. All of the students from the Shia academic seminaries studied at his hands, and the hands of his students. His opinions regarding fiqh, Tafsir, usul, and (hadith) narrators are the area of academic focus among the academic circles of the hawzat (plural of hawzah); our teacher and leader in al Intifadah al Sha’baniyyah against the Baathist Party in Iraq in 1991. He died after the Intifadah in extremely mysterious conditions in the year 1992/1413. The Baathist authorities prevented his funeral and imposed martial law, fearing another revolution, and so he was buried at night.”[29] From among all the teachers of the Najaf school of thought, he alone held the title Za’im al Hawzah al ‘Ilmiyyah (the Leader of the Islamic Seminar).[30]

 

An Introduction to al Khu’i’s Work Mujam Rijal al Hadith and a Detailed Explanation of the Tabaqat of Narrators

Mujam Rijal al Hadith is regarded as the most important work in the intellectual legacy left behind by al Khu’i considering the sheer amount of effort that went into it, its size, and the fact that so many people after him rely so heavily on it.

 

The Number of Volumes

The Mujam of al Khu’i is twenty-four volumes. This is the edition of the work I relied upon.[31]

Hussain ‘Abdullah Mar’i states that the Mujam is twenty volumes. He does not mention the source of its print.[32]

‘Abdul Hadi al Fadli mentions that the Mujam is twenty-three volumes. It was printed in al Najaf, Beirut, and Iran. Muhammad al Tarihi and Jafar al Subhani agreed with him.[33]

The reason for the difference of opinion in the number of volumes goes back to what Muhammad al Jawahiri states in his abridgement of al Khu’i’s Mujam about the twenty-third and twenty-fourth volumes. He states: “Before I commence with my work (in this abridgment), I have incorporated the twenty-fourth volume of the Mujam” (which is printed separately in al Najaf al Ashraf and only contains amendments) “into the one before it, the twenty-third volume. Other than the amendments, it contains additional information from a number of individuals… The volume specific to amendments has not been incorporated into the volumes before it in the Beirut edition, and neither has it been printed separately. The number of volumes for this edition is twenty-four” (before the Iranian edition was released” “is twenty-three volumes.”[34]

 

The Number of Biographies

The edition I relied on contains 15706 biographies. Al Fadli mentions the number of biographies for them in the work is 15676. With this, the difference in the number of narrators between the two editions is only thirty.

 

Al Khu’i’s Methodology

Al Khu’i employed the following methodology in his work Mujam al Rijal:

  1. He identified the narrator’s tabaqah by mentioning who he narrated from (i.e. his teachers) and who narrated from him (i.e. his students). However, al Khu’i restricted himself in this regard to (only) four works, namely al Kafi, al Tahdhib, al Istibsar, and al Faqih. This led many to negate the sama’ of individuals if the narration is not found in these four works. This is because they did not realize that al Khu’i only relied on these and no other works that are transmitted with asanid, such as most of al Saduq, al Saffar, and others’ works.
  2. He evaluated the asanid of praiseworthy and objectionable narrations so as to know the most authentic narration of a (particular) narrator. However, what al Khu’i can be criticized for is the fact that he generally did this only when objecting to narrators of the Imamiyyah. This will be explained in detail later.
  3. Similarly, he mentioned the number of narrations of a narrator in the four works and, at times, their places (of residence).
  4. He endeavored to distinguish between homonymous names (al asma’ al mushtarakah).
  5. Al Khu’i’s work generally obviates the need to refer to the (other) works that are considered primary in the science of narrator evaluation by the Imamiyyah, such as Rijal al Tusi, Fihrist al Tusi, Rijal al Najjashi (al Fihrist), al Kashshi, al Barqi, and others. This is because he mentions the views of his predecessors regarding the narrator (in question), discussed them, and (eventually) offers his preponderant view.
  6. Al Khu’i mentions his judgment similar to the ways al Tusi offers in his Mashyakhah. In other words, the ruling of al Tusi on a narrator when he is of those mentioned in Mashyakhat al Tusi or in al Fihrist. This is also true for the narrations of al Saduq.
  7. The biographies included in the Mujam are different with respect to the amount spoken about some of the narrators. Some biographies are merely one or two lines. Others are tens of pages.
  8. In the introduction to his work, al Khu’i objects to a number of principles that the scholars before him used. He repeats these objections in different places as well. Accordingly, he would fill it up in one place and mention what he did not mention in another place as needed. All of which produced a response, explanation, or an inference for us for many of the principles related to narrator evaluation according to the Imamiyyah. I produced all of this into research, most of which will come throughout this study.[35]

 

 

NEXT⇒ COMING SOON…


[1] Al Hilli: Khulasat al Aqwal, p. 109, no. 274. This is what al Hilli said about himself in Khulasat al Aqwal when he wrote his autobiography in the first section that is dedicated to reliable narrators!

[2] Ibid, p. 113. He mentioned one hundred in Khulasat al Aqwal instead of six hundred. The correct (number) is what I affirmed here from the other biographical works. The editor of the Khulasat al Aqwal, Jawwad al Qayyumi missed this. However, he did mention in the introduction the difference of opinion regarding his birthday: it has been said the twenty-ninth and the twenty-seventh of Ramadan. However, the correct date is what al Hilli himself mentioned. See: p. 5 of al Khulasah. Aqa Buzurg al Tahrani in his work Tabaqat A’lam al Shia (al Qarn al Thamin: al Haqa’iq al Rahinah fi al Mi’at al Thaminah, p. 52) is of those who felt he was born on the twenty-seventh of Ramadan.  

[3] The term ‘al ‘Allamah’ is the superlative form (ism al mubalaghah) of ‘‘alim (learned),’ meaning ‘very learned.’ [Translator’s Note]

[4] For the Imamiyyah, al Hilli exclusively enjoys the appellation ‘al ‘Allamah.’ Of those who have written a biography of him with this appellation and greatly praised him is ‘Abbas al Qummi in his work al Kuna wa al Alqab (2/468, no. 492). See Mujam al Rumuz wa al Isharat of Muhammad Rida al Mamaqani (p. 285) and Rijal Bahr al ‘Ulum (2/257). When al Khu’i and others mention the appellation ‘al ‘Allamah,’ it only refers to al Hilli, as will be seen later.

[5] Al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Dawood: Kitab al Rijal (Rijal Ibn Dawood), p. 2, no. 466.

[6] Mustafa al Hussaini al Tiffarishi: Naqd al Rijal, 2/69.

[7] Thamir Kazim: Muqaddimat Idah al Ishtibah, p. 33; Abu ‘Ali al Ha’iri (d. 1216 AH): Muntaha al Maqal, 2/475 (no. 831); al Hurr al Amili: Amal al Amal, 2/81 (no. 224); al Khu’i: Mujam Rijal al Hadith, 6/171 (no. 3213). The best biography I found of him was by Bahr al ‘Ulum in his al Fawa’id al Rijaliyyah, 2/257, and Muhsin al Amin in A’yan al Shia, 5/396 (no. 865).

[8] Muhsin al Amin: A’yan al Shia, 5/396 (no. 865); al Hilli: Muqaddimat Idah al Ishtibah (ed. Thamir Kazim), 35; and the references mentioned above.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Bahr al ‘Ulum: Rijal Bahr al ‘Ulum (al Fawa’id al Rijaliyyah), 2/260.

[11] This number is according to the version (of the book) edited by Thamir Kazim ‘Abdul Khafaji.

[12] Al Hilli: Muqaddimat Khulasat al Aqwal.

[13] Refer to biography numbers 71, 91, 118, 131, 174, and many others.

[14] It is necessary to note the following: Ibn Dawood al Hilli, the contemporary of Ibn al Mutahhir has a work entitled Kashf al Maqal bi Ma’rifat Ahwal al Rijal. In his work al Dhari’ah, Aqa Buzurg al Tahrani rejected the notion that Ibn Dawood al Hilli has a work with a similar name to al Hilli—whom al Tahrani regards as a teacher of Ibn Dawood al Hilli. Al Tahrani also alludes to the fact that the work of al Hilli exists in what he titled al Khazanah al Ridawiyyah. Thereafter, he also regards as farfetched that this work is actually al Hilli’s. As he says, maybe it is Ibn Dawood al Hilli’s! He mentions that the work of al Hilli, Kashf al Maqal, consists of four volumes. Refer to: al Dhari’ah, 18/63 (nos. 688 and 689).

[15] Bahr al ‘Ulum – Rijal Bahr al ‘Ulum (al Fawa’id al Rijaliyyah), 2/278.

[16] Abu al Huda al Kalbasi: Sama’ al Maqal fi ‘Ilm al Rijal, 1/219.

[17] ‘Abbas al Qummi: al Kuna wa al Alqab, 2/470. Refer to the biography of al Hilli in the introduction to Idah al Ishtibah of Thamir Kazim. He mentions a minor difference of opinion about his death date.

[18] The reference mentions ‘narrators’ (i.e. without the definite article ‘al’). Perhaps it should be ‘the narrators.’

[19] Muqaddimat Khulasat al Aqwal.

[20] Abu al Ma’ali al Kalbasi mentions in his al Rasa’il al Rijaliyyah a number of issues in accepting the statements of al Hilli and the difference (of opinion) therein. See: Radd Tawthiqat al Allamah, 1/219, pp. 222, 223, 456; 2/347, 348, 360, 367; 3/362; Tashihat al ‘Allamah, p. 516; Tawthiqat al ‘Allamah, 4/374; Abu al Huda al Kalbasi: Sama’ al Maqal, 1/225. See: al Gharifi: Qawa’id al Hadith, p.191.

[21] Muhammad Taqi al Tustari: Qamus al Rijal, 1/24 (chapter 16). Refer to p. 29-30 for (other) important issues. Al Tustari mentions on p. 35 and subsequent pages the differences between the methodology of al Hilli in Khulasat al Aqwal and Rijal Ibn Dawood al Hilli. He also examined the meaning of majhul between the two. This is what Jafar al Subhani quoted without explicit reference to the fact that it is from the words of al Tustari, as mentioned in Kulliyyat ‘Ilm al Rijal, p. 120.

[22] Al Kalbasi: al Rasa’il al Rijaliyyah, 4/96; Rijal Bahr al ‘Ulum, 2/277

[23] I took this biography from al Khu’i’s Mujam Rijal al Hadith wherein he has an autobiography (3/23). Before it, he states: “Following the tradition of narrator evaluation scholars’ (rijaliyyin) wherein they set forth their own biographies when their name reaches its turn, I have briefly explained my autobiography when the print of this work (mujam) reaches that point.” I adjusted and altered some of sections of the biography.

[24] It is written as “Masrutah Mujam Rijal al Hadith. And it is also called “al Mashrutah,” if the wording in al Mujam is not a mistake. Salim al Hassani said about it in an article: “The Mashrutah movement began in 1905 CE and was led by two of the most senior religious scholars in Iran, namely, al Sayed Muhammad al Tabtaba’i and al Sayed ‘Abdullah al Bahbahani. The movement tried to rely on the religious authority in Najaf to take a stance against the Qajar dynasty, which was opposed to the movement’s goals in establishing a Shura Council. However, a schism occurred between supporters and opponents in the Hawzah ‘Ilmiyyah. Al Sheikh Kazim al Khurasani, al Na’ini, and others were at the head of al Mashrutah’s supporters. Kazim al Yazdi led the opposition and with him was Kashif al Ghita’. The conflict between the two parties was intense and painful, and its effects were reflected on the Hawzah ‘Ilmiyyah in Iran. This could be seen when Fadl Allah al Nuri emerged as a strong opponent because he identified the existence of deviations that crept into the reality of the movement. Al Shahrastani, who is one of the advocates of al Mashrutah, says: “The rivalry between al Yazdi and al Sheikh al Khurasani reached its apex in the year 1907 AH as did the height of its brutality. The scope of division expanded, and its effects included the circles of the Ummah. To such an extent that students of the religious sciences from the supporters of the Mashrutah were subjected to many harassments that reached the point whereby they did not go for an entire year to visit Karbala, Kufah, or the Masjid al Sahlah, fearing for their lives. This dispute developed when the tribes entered to support the position of the conflicting parties. It is narrated that al Yazdi asked the Iraqi tribes to attend al Najaf al Asharaf, and so they came armed and surrounded him whilst denouncing the Mashrutah. There would be thousands of people marching with him when he attended salah, while only a small amount would read salah behind al Khurasani. The most dangerous thing that the events of the Mashrutah bore were the contradictory fatawa (plural of fatwa) between the two parties. The split almost led to killing (one another), since each group considered the other to be outside of Islam.” From an article of his entitled “al Marja’iyyah al Diniyyah Dirayatan fi Tahawwulat ma Qabl al Sittinat” (the eighth article from al Sadr’s website. See Muhsin al Amin’s A’yan al Shia wherein he mentioned that al Sheikh (Fadl Allah al Nuri) was executed in Tehran because of this incident (2/604)! Also see Muhammad al Tarihi’s work Dalil Mujam al Rijal wa al Hadith, p. 12.

[25] Al Khu’i mentions until here about himself.

[26] This was stated on the official website of the al Khu’i Foundation.

[27] Murtada al Ridawi: Ma’a Rijal al Fikr, 1:146 (footnote).

[28] Hussain al Shakiri: Tadwin al Hadith wa Tarikh al Fiqh, p. 110.

[29] Muhammad al Jawhari: al Mufid min Mujam Rijal al Hadith, p. 719 (with some alternation in some of the words). See: Majjalat Turathina (affiliated with Mu’assasat Al al Bayt ‘Alayhim al Salam of Ihya al Turath in Qom), volume 28 (where they mentioned something of his condition in an obituary statement in the journal’s editorial.

[30] Muhammad Sa’id al Tarihi: Dalil Mujam Rijal al Hadith, p. 11.

[31] ‘Abdul Sahib al Khu’i said this in his introduction to the book when describing the changes in the form and publication of the book: “Organizing the parts of the book into 24 parts instead of 23 parts because of the many additions that followed the first four parts.” The books was printed in Matabi’ Markaz Nashr al Thaqafah al Islamiyyah and bound at Mu’assasat Mahr ‘A’in (fifth edition—1413 A.H/1992 AD).

[32] Hussain ‘Abdullah Mar’i: Muntaha al Maqal fi al Dirayah wa al Rijal, p. 187.

[33] ‘Abdul Hadi al Fadli: Usul ‘Ilm al Rijal, p. 61; Muhammad Sa’id al Tarihi: Dalil Mujam Rijal al Hadith, p. 32; Jafar al Subhani: Kulliyyat ‘Ilm al Rijal, p. 146.

[34] Muhammad al Jawahiri: Introduction to al Mufid min Mujam Rijal al Hadith.

[35] For more, see: Mujam al Khu’i, 1/11; Usul ‘Ilm al Rijal of ‘Abdul Hadi al Fadli, p. 61; Muntaha al Maqal of Hussain Mar’i, p. 187; Dalil Mujam Rijal al Hadith of al Tarihi, p. 23.

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