The attitude of the Ahlul Bayt towards Abu Bakr

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The attitude of the Ahlul Bayt towards Abu Bakr

 

Now let us discuss the Ahlul Bayt’s attitude towards Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the Companion who was with the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the cave. The one regarding whom the cousin, son-in-law, and father of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam grandchildren, says when recalling the manner in which people swarmed and rushed towards Abu Bakr after the demise of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when pledging allegiance. He says:

 

I went to Abu Bakr and I pledged allegiance to him. I rose to the occasion until falsehood departed and the word of Allah was raised even though the disbelievers detested it. Abu Bakr took charge of all those affairs and facilitated it, settled it, brought (people) together and showed no weakness. I accompanied him with sincerity and I obeyed him wholeheartedly in his obedience to Allah.[11]

 

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu also mentions in a letter which he sent to Egypt with his governor, Qais ibn Sa’id ibn Umamah al ‘Askari:

 

In the name of Allah, Most Benevolent, Most Merciful.

From the servant of Allah, ‘Ali, Amir al Mu’minin, to those Muslims whom this letter reaches.

Peace be upon you.

I praise Allah, the one and only deity. Indeed Allah, in His infinite knowledge and wisdom, selected Islam as His religion, the angels, and Messengers. He sent Messenegrs to His servants and chose them specifically. From amongst the honour that Allah has endowed this nation with is that He had sent to them Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (as His Messenger) who taught them the Qur’an and the Sunnah. He educated and groomed them so that they may be guided, purified, and united them so that they not be divided. When he had accomplished his task, Allah took him from this world. Thereafter, the Muslims chose two pious personalities who had the best conduct. They would act upon the Qur’an and Sunnah. They then passed on. May Allah have mercy on them.[12]

 

Also when mentioning the Caliphate of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu he states:

 

The believers chose a man from amongst them after the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who had approached and settled the affairs of the believers in accordance to his capability with great concern and diligence.[13]

 

One might ask: Why did the believers select Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu as their khalifah? The responsibility of answering this we leave to Sayyidina ‘Ali al Murtada and Sayyidina Zubair ibn al ‘Awwam radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, the cousins of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

We considered Abu Bakr the most worthy for the position. Indeed he was with the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the Cave and the second of the two (described in the Qur’an). Verily we recognise his seniority. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed him to lead the salah in his life time.[14]

 

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructing him to lead the salah is a clear indication by the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as to who should assume leadership after him. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu states something similar when responding to Abu Sufyan radiya Llahu ‘anhu when the latter encouraged him to seize leadership, as transmitted by Ibn Abi al Hadid[15]:

 

Abu Sufyan came to ‘Ali and said, “You have handed over this matter to the most insignificant of households amongst Quraysh, by Allah if you wish we will fill Madinah with men and horses against Abu Fasil[16].”

‘Ali replied, “You have always been deceiving Islam and its followers, but you have not harmed them in the least. We have no need for your men and horses. If we had considered Abu Bakr unfit for the position, we would have left him.”[17]

 

Statements such as these are profuse and their own literary works are filled with it. It establishes that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu considered Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu worthy of Caliphate due to status and virtues. It is for this reason that when he was asked—after being fatally struck by Ibn Muljim—as to who will be appointed to succeed you, he replied:

 

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not appoint a successor such that I should too. Rather he (the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “If Allah intends well (for this |Ummah) then he will unite them behind the best amongst them after His Prophet.”[18]

 

‘Alam al Huda[19] transmits similar reports in his book al Shafi from Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

It was said to him, “Will you not appoint a successor after you?”

He replied, “The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not appoint a successor such that I should too. However, if Allah intends well for the people, He will unite them behind the best from amongst them just as He united them around the best of them after their Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[20]

 

Here is ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu expressing his desire that Allah should guide his Shia to choose a good and pious leader, just as He had guided the Muslims after the demise of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to elect a good and pious leader; the best of people after the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, a man of the Quraysh, an Imam of guidance, who was Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The chief of the Ahlul Bayt and husband of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha stated as much as recorded by al Sayedal Murtada from Jafar ibn Muhammad, who narrated from his father (al Baqir):

 

A man from the Quraysh came to Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and said, “I have heard you mentioning in a sermon, ‘O Allah rectify our affairs as you have rectified the two rightly guided Khalifas’, who are they?”

‘Ali replied, “They are my beloveds and your uncles, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, who were from the Quraysh and also the leaders of the Muslims. They were those who were followed after the demise of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Whoever takes them as guides will be saved and led to the straight path.”[21]

 

It is also established that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu stated in his sermons that the best of this nation after the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. And why would he not say as much when he is the one who transmitted the hadith:

 

We were with the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on Mount Hira when it began to shake. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Be firm, for there is none upon you but a Prophet, a Siddiq, and a martyr.[22]

 

This is the opinion of the fourth Rightly Guided Khalifah ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu—and the first infallible Imam according to the Shia—regarding Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. They Shia report relating to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, “He who rejects his rule has disbelieved.” They also say:

 

He who supports him is safe, while he who opposes him is a disbeliever and destroyed. The one who takes anyone besides him as a close friend is misguided and a polytheist.[23]

 

They also transmit from their Imams:

 

Allah refuses to entrust the affairs of a nation to people who act contrary to their (the Imams) instruction and he will not resurrect them together on the Day of Judgement. Never! By Allah, the Rabb of the Ka’bah.[24]

 

What is expected from the Shia who claim partisanship to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his progeny is that they follow their instructions and guidance with regards to the Companions of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and in particular Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. After discussing the statements and beliefs of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the chief of the Ahlul Bayt, regarding Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu; we will now present to you the opinions of other members of the Ahlul Bayt regarding Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the cousin of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and also served as the governor of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Imam Jafar al Sadiq stated about him:

 

When he passed away and was shrouded, a white bird flew out of his shroud. People looked at it flying up into the sky until it disappeared.

 

Imam Jafar then added, “My father loved him immensely.”[25]

Al Mufid[26] states with regards to him:

‘Ali would have supper one night with Hassan, one night with Hussain, and one night with Ibn ‘Abbas.[27]

 

The very same Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu says when mentioning Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

May Allah have mercy on Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he was very kind towards the poor, a reciter of the Qur’an, one who forbade evil, well-acquainted with the religion of Allah, and fearful of His punishment. He would prevent from the unlawful, command good, stand in prayer at night and fast during the day. He surpassed his companions in piety, subsistence, asceticism, and chastity.[28]

 

Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, considered the second infallible Imam by the Shia, narrates that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

Abu Bakr’s position to me is like that of the ears (to the body).[29]

 

Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would revere Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhum to such an extent that he made it a precondition upon Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan radiya Llahu ‘anhu when abdicating in his favour that he judge in accordance with the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Rightly Guided Khalifas’; and in another report the pious Khalifas’.[30]

It is said that a delegation from Iraq came to ‘Ali Zayn al ‘Abidin, who is considered to be the fourth Imam by the Shia, and began to belittle Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum. When they had finished saying what they intended, he asked them:

 

Please inform me, are you from amongst the,

 

لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الْمُهَاجِرِيْنَ الَّذِيْنَ أُخْرِجُوْا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَأَمْوَالِهِمْ يَبْتَغُوْنَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللّٰهِ وَرِضْوَانًا وَّيَنْصُرُوْنَ اللّٰهَ وَرَسُوْلَهُ أُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُوْنَ

The poor Emigrants who were expelled from their homes and their properties, seeking bounty from Allah and [His] approval and supporting Allah and His Messenger, [there is also a share]. Those are the truthful.[31]

 

They replied, “No we are not.” He then asked them:

Are you then,

وَالَّذِيْنَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيْمَانَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ يُحِبُّوْنَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَا يَجِدُوْنَ فِيْ صُدُوْرِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِمَّا أُوْتُوْا وَيُؤْثِرُوْنَ عَلٰى أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ

Those who were settled in the Home [i.e., al Madinah] and [adopted] the faith before them. They love those who emigrated to them and find not any want in their breasts of what they [i.e., the emigrants] were given but give [them] preference over themselves, even though they are in privation.[32]

 

Again they replied, “No we are not,” so he said to them:

As for you, you have disavowed yourself from these two groups, and I bear testimony that you are not from the group regarding whom Allah had said:

يَقُوْلُوْنَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِيْنَ سَبَقُوْنَا بِالْإِيْمَانِ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ فِيْ قُلُوْبِنَا غِلًّا لِلَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا

Saying, Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith and put not in our hearts [any] resentment toward those who have believed.[33]

 

Get out from here, may Allah curse you![34]

 

‘Ali ibn ‘Isa al Arbili[35] in his book Kashf al Ghummah reports the statements of Muhammad al Baqir when asked whether it was permissible to decorate a sword. ‘Urwah ibn ‘Abdullah narrates:

 

I asked Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn ‘Ali (al Baqir) with regards to decorating a sword.

He replied, “There is no problem with doing so, as Abu Bakr al Siddiq had also decorated his sword.”

I asked him, “Do you say al Siddiq (with his name)?”

He jumped up, faced the Qiblah, and said, “Yes! Al Siddiq! Whoever does not call him (by the title) al Siddiq then may Allah not authenticate his word in this world and the hereafter.”[36]

 

He had only said al Siddiq because his grandfather, the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, who did not speak out of his own accord, had called him al Siddiq. Al Bahrani al Shia transmits in his book al Burhan from ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim:

 

My father has transmitted to me from some of his men from Abu ‘Abdullah (al Baqir) who said, “When the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Abu Bakr were in the cave, he told Abu Bakr, ‘It is as though I am looking at the ship of Jafar and his companions sailing on the ocean and the Ansar settled in their courtyards.’

Then Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu asked, ‘Can you see them, O Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam?’

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam responded in the affirmative and Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu then asked the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to enable him to see them as well. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then wiped over his eyes and he was able to see them.

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then proclaimed, ‘You are al Siddiq.’”[37]

 

Al Tabarsi[38] reports from al Baqir:

 

Indeed I do not deny the virtue of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, however, Abu Bakr is more virtuous than ‘Umar.[39]

 

In addition, Qadi Nur Allah al Shushtari[40] reports that Imam Jafar al Sadiq, nicknamed al Sadis (the Sixth Imam), said when asked about Abu Bakr and Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

A man asked Imam al Sadiq, “O son of the Rasul of Allah what do you say with regards to Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma?”

He replied, “They were two just and equitable Imams who were on the truth and died upon it. May Allah’s mercy be upon the two of them on the Day of Judgement.”[41]

 

Al Kulayni reports in Furu’ al Kafi that Imam Jafar said:

 

When it was said to Abu Bakr at the time of his death, “Bequeath!” He responded, “I bequeath a fifth and a fifth is a lot.”

Allah was pleased with a fifth, thus he bequeathed a fifth. Even though Allah had made it permissible for him to bequeath a third of his wealth at the time of his death. Had he thought that the third was better for him he would have bequeathed it.

Thereafter, who do you know in virtue after him? They are Salman and Abu Dhar. As for Salman, when he would get his share he would store a year’s provisions until he received his next share.

It was then said to him, “O ‘Abdullah despite your asceticism you are doing this and yet there is no guarantee that you will live tomorrow?”

He replied, “What is wrong with you why is it that you do not desire that I should live? Do you not know O ignorant people that the soul of a person is unsettled if it has no sustenance that it can rely on? Thus, if that is in place it is satisfied and at ease.”

And as for Abu Dhar he had sheep and young she-camels which he would milk and slaughter when his family desired meat, had a guest over, or share with those who would fetch water for him. He would then divide the meat equally between them.

Who could be more ascetic than these Companions, after the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had said regarding them what he had said.[42]

 

Thus he established the position of Abu Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu asceticism right at the top, alongside the likes of Abu Dhar and Salman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma.

Al Arbili also quotes Imam Jafar saying, “Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu has fathered me twice.”[43]

The reason for making this statement is that both the paternal and maternal ancestry of his mother, Umm Farwah, links up to Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The father of Umm Farwah is Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al Siddiq, and her mother is Asma’ bint ‘Abd al Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al Siddiq.[44]

Al Sayedal Murtada transmitted in his book, al Shafi, regarding Imam Jafar:

 

He would associate himself with them (Abu Bakr and ‘Umar). When he would come to the grave (of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) he would also greet them with greeting the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[45]

 

Hassan ibn ‘Ali, better known as Hassan al ‘Askari (the Eleventh Imam), when discussing the migration of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

After the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had asked ‘Ali to sleep in his bed, he asked Abu Bakr, “Would it please you to accompany me and be pursued just as I will be pursued? After all, it was you who believed in me and carried me through; therefore, will you not be prepared to face the consequences and help defend me?”

Abu Bakr replied, “O Rasul of Allah! If I lived an entire life having to undergo constant punishment and suffering, experiencing no pleasure, all for your sake; this would be more beloved to me than possessing the entire world and disobeying you (in that)! My life, wealth, and possessions; are they not but for you?”

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam responded: “Allah certainly knows that whatever is on your tongue is in accordance to what is in your heart! He has made your position (with me) like the ears, eyes, head, and soul of a body.”[46]

 

All these statements, I have transmitted from their own sources are statements of the Blessed Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, may we and our parents be sacrificed for him, Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and the alleged Imams from his progeny. In conclusion and to place the final nail in the coffin so to speak, I wish to transmit another two narrations also from the Ahlul Bayt of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and recorded in the books of the Shia as well.

The first narration is from Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. The blood brother of Muhammad al Baqir and uncle of Jafar al Sadiq, the one regarding whom they would say; “He was the companion of the Qur’an.”[47]

Many Shia believed him to be the Imam and the reason for their belief in him was his picking up arms in opposition to the Umayyads.[48] Abu al Faraj Al Asbahani[49] al Shia transmits from al Ashnani from ‘Abd-Allah ibn Jarir:

 

I saw Jafar ibn Muhammad (al Sadiq) holding the reigns of Zaid ibn ‘Ali’s mount and straightening his clothes on the saddle.[50]

 

This very Zaid ibn Zayn al ‘Abidin when asked about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, as related by the Shia author of Nasikh al Tawarikh[51]:

 

Some of the leaders of Kufah, who had pledged allegiance to him (Zaid) came to him one day and said, “May Allah have mercy upon you what is your opinion of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar?”

Zaid replied, “I only have good to say regarding them, just as I have only heard good regarding them from the Ahlul Bayt. They have not oppressed us nor other than us, they would act in accordance with the Qur’an and Sunnah of His Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[52]

When the people of Kufah heard his reply they rejected him and (instead) turned to al Baqir.

Upon this Zaid said, “Today they have rejected us.”

Thus this group is referred to as the Rafidah.[53]

 

The second report is transmitted from a personality whom the Shia hold in high esteem, namely Salman al Farisi radiya Llahu ‘anhu, regarding whom it was said:

Salman is from Muhammad. That is a man from the Ahlul Bayt.[54]

 

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is also reported saying:

 

Indeed Salman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is the door to Allah in this world. He who recognises him is a believer and he who rejects him is a disbeliever.[55]

 

This very Salman radiya Llahu ‘anhu states that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would tell his Companions:

 

Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not surpass you by fasting and offering prayer rather it is on account of that which resides in his heart.[56]

 

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was so protective of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu that during the Battle of Badr, when he was about to dual his son who was mounted, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prevented him saying:

 

Sheath your sword and return to your place. Give us benefit through your presence.[57]

 

Shed a tear, beloved readers, at the manner in which the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam considered the companionship of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu to be a means of comfort for him.

 

The Caliphate of Abu Bakr al Siddiq

After having clarified the stance of the Ahlul Bayt towards Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, we will now prove that no dispute existed between him and the Ahlul Bayt with regards to the Caliphate after the demise of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. In fact, they all pledged allegiance to him just as the rest of the Ummah. They assisted Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and shared in bearing his anxiety and pain for the Muslims at large. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was also one of his close consultants who provided him with sound council when attending to the affairs of state. A fact which cannot be denied. He would also perform salah behind him, act upon his injunctions, and judge in accordance with his verdicts. He would consider his rulings and even cite them as evidence. He would also name his children after him, out of love for him and seeking blessing through it.

In addition they would intermarry, exchange gifts, and other relations usually found amongst close relatives. And why would they not have cordial relations when they were fruit from the same tree, not as portrayed by the progeny of the Jews who try to deceive the Muslims with their false interpretation of events, and who harbour enmity for those who spread Islam and raised its banner.

‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu cited as a proof for the validity of his Caliphate, the basis upon which the Caliphate was founded, when responding to Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the governor of Syria:

 

Those who had pledged allegiance to me are the same people who had pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and Uthman, thus it is not for those who were present to choose (after the khalifah has been elected) nor for those who were absent to reject as the consultation is restricted to the Ansar and the Muhajirin. If they concur that a person should be the khalifah then that is what Allah is pleased with, however, if anyone is not chosen to be a khalifah due to him not being suitable for the position and he persists he will be fought on account of him going contrary to the believers, and Allah will hold him responsible for the choices that he had made.[58]

 

He also states that:

 

You have pledged allegiance to me in the same manner that you have pledged allegiance to those before me, and the people only have a choice before they have elected the khalifah and not after.[59]

 

It becomes evident from this that the Caliphate only comes into effect by the consensus of the Muslims and in the first century it was the consensus of the Muhajirin and the Ansar as they were the ones who had agreed that Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma should be the khalifah, thus no choice remains for any one present to choose nor for he who was absent to reject as we have previously mentioned in the quote from ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu which is reported in al Gharat by al Thaqafi[60] that the people swarmed and rushed towards Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Thus there was not a person except that he recognised the Caliphate and leadership of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

In al Gharat he mentions his Caliphate and leadership saying that:

 

We are pleased with the decree of Allah and we hand over this matter to Allah. I then looked into my matter and found that the people’s obedience to me had preceded their allegiance to me, and the covenant between me and them is for other than me.[61]

 

When he had seen that he approached Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and pledged allegiance to him as the Muhajirin and the Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum did. These statements were made by him after he had assumed leadership thus he had no reason to fear people or having to resort to Taqiyyah[62] according to them but expressing that which his bosom contained. “Then I approached Abu Bakr and pledged allegiance to him and rose to the occasion. Abu Bakr assumed the leadership and responsibility of the affairs of the Muslims which he approached, facilitated, settled, and managed economically. His companionship was loyal and sincere, I obeyed him wholeheartedly in his obedience to Allah.”[63]

It was on account of the validity of Abu Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Caliphate that he had declined the proposal of Abu Sufyan and ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma when they had presented the Caliphate to him as he had no right in the matter after it had been decided that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu will be the khalifah.

In addition he states in a the letter that he had written to the governor of Sham attesting to the Caliphate of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, mentioning his virtues, feeling remorse over his departure and supplicating for him after his demise asking Allah to forgive him and have mercy on him. He writes:

 

Allah has chosen many from the Muslims to assist and aid the believers. Their status with Allah is exactly the same as their virtue in Islam. And those who were most faithful and sincere towards Allah and His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. By my life they occupy a great position in Islam and their deaths were a great blow to Islam. May Allah have mercy on the two of them and reward them for what they have done.[64]

 

Al Tusi[65] transmitting from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu states that he said when addressing those who were defeated at Jamal:

 

You pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr and abandoned me, so I pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr just like you did. I then pledged allegiance to ‘Umar just as you did and I fulfilled my pledge to him. You then pledged allegiance to ‘Uthman and so I did too. I was then sitting in my house and you came to me without me calling you or forcing any of you.[66] You then pledged allegiance to me just as you pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman.

How is it correct that you fulfil your pledge to Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman but not to me?[67]

 

Al Tabarsi also reports another narration from Muhammad al Baqir which establishes with certainty that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu attested to Abu Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Caliphate and pledge allegiance to him. It is reported that when Usamah ibn Zaid—the beloved of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—returned to Madinah when news of the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam demise reached him and he saw people pledging allegiance to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he went to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and inquired, “What is this?” ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied, “It is what you see.” He then asked ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, “Did you also pledge allegiance?” and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied in the affirmative.[68]

This was attested to by one of the leading Shia scholars by the name of Muhammad Hussain Al Kashif al Ghita’, who said:

 

When Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had passed on, a number of Sahabah were of the opinion that ‘Ali should not be appointed as the Khalifah, either due to his young age or because the Quraysh disliked that Prophethood and thereafter the Caliphate should be in the Banu Hashim… When they saw that the first and second Khalifah had exerted themselves in spreading the message of Islam, preparing armies, conquering, and not monopolising, they pledged allegiance and accepted.[69]

 

A question remains to be answered: Why did ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu delay pledging allegiance for a few days? Ibn Abi al Hadid answers this question:

 

Abu Bakr stood up, addressed the people, and apologised, “My allegiance was sudden, [but] Allah saved us from its harm, and I feared fitnah. By Allah! There was not a day that I had ever desired it. I have undertaken a great burden, a matter for which I have no strength. How I desire that a stronger person would take my place.” He then continued apologising until the Muhajirin accepted his apology. ‘Ali and Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma said, “We were only angry because we not included in the consultation, and we believe that Abu Bakr is the most entitled for this position. Indeed! He was the Companion of Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the cave, and we know of his seniority. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had also instructed him to lead the people in prayer during his lifetime.”[70]

 

Ibn Abi al Hadid reports from ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Awfa in his commentary on Nahj al Balaghah that Khalid ibn Sa’id ibn al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the governor whom the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had appointed over Yemen. When the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away, Khalid ibn Sa’id radiya Llahu ‘anhu came to Madinah and arrived whilst the people were pledging allegiance to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He refrained from pledging allegiance for a number of days until he went to the Banu Hashim:

 

He said, “If you are pleased, we are pleased, and if you are displeased then so are we. Therefore, inform me, have you pledged allegiance to this man?”

They responded in the affirmative.

He then asked, “Are you pleased?”

They said, “Yes”.

Thereafter he said, “I am also pleased and I will pledge allegiance, by Allah! You Banu Hashim are tall trees, the produce of which is good”.

He then pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr.[71]

 

‘Ali following Abu Bakr in salah and accepting gifts from him

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu accepted and was pleased with the Caliphate of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He participated in the affairs of the Muslims, gave legal rulings, accepted gifts from Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and raised his complaints to him. He performed prayer behind him, and lovingly interacted with him. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu loved Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and had enmity towards those who opposed him. This is attested to by even the greatest opponents of the four Rightly Guided Khalifas’, the Sahabah, and those who follow their path.

We have previously mentioned what ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had said to the people when they wanted to elect him as the Khalifah, “I am better for you as an advisor than as a leader.”[72]

Al Ya’qubi[73], an extremist Shia historian, under the discussion of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhuma Caliphate—when ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was considered an important consultant whose opinions would be heard and adhered to—he mentions:

 

When Abu Bakr intended to fight the Romans, he consulted a number of Sahabah who were hesitant. He then consulted ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who indicated that he should proceed.

Abu Bakr enquired, “If I were to proceed would I be successful?”

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied, “I give you glad tidings.”

Abu Bakr then stood up, addressed the people, and commanded that the armies be prepared to fight the Romans.[74]

 

It is also reported in another narration:

 

Abu Bakr asked ‘Ali, “How and from where do give [this] glad tidings.”

‘Ali replied, “From the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when I heard him giving these glad tidings.”

Abu Bakr said, “You have brought be pleasure by what you have heard from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, O Abu al Hassan! May Allah ease your affairs.”[75]

 

Al Ya’qubi further states:

 

From amongst those who were entrusted with legal rulings during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr were ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, Muaz ibn Jabal, Ubay ibn Ka’b, Zaid ibn Thabit, and ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud.”[76]

 

Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu would give preference to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu over the other Sahabah in consultations and legal rulings,[77] which is a proof of their mutual interactions.

The extremist Shia Muhammad ibn al Nu’man—better known as Sheikh al Mufid, attests to this in his Kitab Al Irshad. He dedicated an independent chapter to the legal rulings of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He reports:

 

A man who had consumed wine was brought before Abu Bakr.

He was about to carry out the capital punishment when the man said, “Indeed I consumed alcohol, but I was unaware of its prohibition since I have been living with people who consider it lawful. I was unware of its impermissibility until now.”

This made it difficult for Abu Bakr to pass a verdict. Those who were present suggested that he ask Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu about its legal ruling. So Abu Bakr sent someone to enquire about the matter.

Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said, “Command two reliable and trustworthy Muslims to take him around to the gatherings of the Muhajirin and the Ansar and ask if there is anyone who had read the verses of its prohibition to him. If two men from amongst them bears witness to this then carry out the punishment. If none bears testimony then ask him to repent and let him go.”

Abu Bakr did this but none from amongst the Muhajirin and the Ansar testified that they had recited the verses or traditions of its prohibition to him. Abu Bakr then asked him to repent and allowed him to go, in accordance with the ruling of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[78]

 

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would also obey the commands of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. It has been transmitted that a delegation of disbelievers came to Madinah and noticed that the Muslims were weak and very few in number because of them fighting on different fronts and attending to the apostates and rebels. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu sensed that the Muslim capital was endangered. He thus commanded that Madinah be guarded and placed security at all of its strategic points. He instructed ‘Ali, Zubair, Talhah, and ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhum to oversee the security. They remained in that state until it was safe.[79]

As for the mutual interactions, love, and affection that existed between them, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu—the leader of the Ahlul Bayt and father of the two grandsons of Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—would accept gifts from Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Their relationship was like that of brothers, consulting and loving one another. He accepted the slave girl al Sahba’ from him, who was taken captive in the Battle of ‘Ayn al Tamar and she later bore him ‘Umar and Ruqayyah.

The slave girl al Sahba’ who gave birth to ‘Umar and Ruqayyah—the children of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu—had been taken captive in the Battle of ‘Ayn al Tamar which took place under the leadership of Khalid ibn al Walid during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[80]

Her name was Umm Habibah, the daughter of Rabi’ah.[81]

Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu had also gifted him Khawlah bint Jafar ibn Qais who was taken captive in the Battle of Yamamah. She bore him a son, Muhammad ibn al Hanafiyyah, his most virtuous son after Hassan and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

She was from the captives of the apostate wars and her son, Muhammad ibn al Hanafiyyah, is attributed to her.[82]

There are many other reports that mention how ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his progeny would accept monetary gifts, i.e. the Khums and Fay’,[83] from Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. In fact, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was in charge of distributing the Khums and the Fay’ in Abu Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Caliphate.

Its distribution was assigned to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and thereafter to Hassan, and then Hussain. After them Hassan ibn Hassan and then Zaid ibn Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhum were responsible for its distribution.[84]

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would perform salah behind Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu whilst being pleased with his leadership and making it apparent to the people.[85]

Al Tusi when discussing the salah of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu behind Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu states, “He is a Muslim as that is what is apparent.”[86]

 

The role of Abu Bakr in the marriage of ‘Ali and Fatimah

Indeed, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is indebted to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, as he was the mediator and orchestrator in his marriage to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. He was also one of the witnesses to their marriage on the request of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, as transmitted by one of the senior Shia scholars. Abu Jafar al Tusi transmits from Dahhak ibn Muzahim:

 

I heard ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib saying, “Abu Bakr and ‘Umar came to me and suggested that I approach the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and ask him about Fatimah. So I went to him and when he saw me he laughed and asked, ‘What has brought you, O ‘Ali, what is your need?’ I mentioned my close relation to him, my early entry into Islam, my striving, and assisting him. He said, ‘O ‘Ali! You have spoken the truth, in fact you are even better than you have described.’ Thereafter I said, ‘O Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam marry Fatimah to me.’”[87]

 

Al Majlisi who does not mention the Companions of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and in particular Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma except that he curses and insults them with the worst of names—such as accursed, blackened faces, devils, and much more, Allah forbid—transmits this incident and elucidates further:

 

One day Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and Sa’d ibn Muaz were sitting in the Masjid of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam discussing among themselves who will marry Fatimah.[88]

Abu Bakr said, “The nobles of the Quraysh have asked her hand from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but he replied that the matter is up to Allah.”

We thought that she was being reserved for ‘Ali but ‘Ali on the other hand had not approached the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam due to his poverty.

Abu Bakr then said to ‘Umar and Sa’d, “Let us go to ‘Ali and press him to ask for her hand from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. If it is poverty that is preventing him then we will assist him.”[89].

Sa’d replied, “What a wonderful idea!”

They went to the house of Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

He asked them, “What has brought you here at this time?”

Abu Bakr said, “O Abu al Hassan! There is not a single good trait except that it is found in you, so what is preventing you from asking the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for his daughter’s hand in marriage?”

When ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu heard what Abu Bakr said, tears began to stream down his cheeks and he replied, “You have peeled my wounds, uncovered and awoken my dreams which I have concealed[90] for a very long time. Who would not like to get married to her? However, it is poverty[91] and my shyness for the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that prevents me whilst I am in this state.”[92]

 

Furthermore, it was Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who had encouraged ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to get married to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. It was also Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu who had personally assisted ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in that regard, preparing everything by the command of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as transmitted by al Tusi:

 

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu sold his armour and brought the money to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took the coins with both hands and gave it to Abu Bakr, and told him to purchase for Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha the clothing and household items she requires. The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also sent ‘Ammar ibn Yasir and a number of other Sahabah to assist Abu Bakr. After they had reached the market place, whenever they would stumble upon an item, they would not purchase it until and unless they had consulted Abu Bakr, and upon his approval they would purchase it. When returning Abu Bakr was carrying some of the goods and the other Sahabah were carrying the rest.[93]

 

Abu Bakr and his Companions radiya Llahu ‘anhum were the witnesses of this contract upon the request of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Al Khawarizmi[94], al Majlisi, and al Arbili mention:

 

When Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and Sa’d sent ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam they waited for him in the masjid to hear the answer and acceptance of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which would bring great joy to them, and it was just as they had perceived.

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said, “When I departed from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam I could not even think straight out of the felicity I was experiencing, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar approached me and asked me what had happened, to which I replied that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had married Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha to me. They became extremely happy, returned with me to the masjid, and no sooner did we reach the masjid did we meet the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his face was beaming.

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, ‘O Bilal! Gather the Muhajirin and the Ansar.’

After Bilal had assembled them, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ascended the pulpit and started praising Allah, thereafter he said, ‘O people! Jibril had come to inform me that Allah had gathered the angels at the Bayt al Ma’mur and He had made all of them witnesses, that He had married off his slave, Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha—the daughter of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, and He has commanded me that I marry her off here on earth and make you the witness.[95]

 

Al Arbili in his book Kashf al Ghummah mentions all of those who were present. He narrates from Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu who said:

 

I was with the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam whilst he was receiving revelation. When he gained consciousness he said, “O Anas! Do you know what Jibril has brought from Allah?”

I replied, “Allah and His Messenger know best!”

He then said, “Allah has commanded me to marry Fatimah to ‘Ali. So go and call Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, ‘Ali, Talhah, Zubair, and a number of the Ansar.”

I called them and when they all were seated, after praising Allah, he said, “I make you my witness that I have married Fatimah to ‘Ali for four hundred Mithqal of silver.”[96]

 

When Hassan was born, Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu—who was the Companion of his Grandfather salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the Cave and friend of his father, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, who assisted with the preparations of his marriage, carrying the items on his own shoulders—would play and tease him saying, “By my father he resembles the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and not ‘Ali.”[97]

Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha also agreed to this statement.[98]

Asma’ bint ‘Umays, who was the wife of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, was the nurse of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha during her final illness. She was with her until her last breath. She then assisted in the washing of her body and escorting her to her grave.

‘Ali would also take care of her himself, and Asma’ bint ‘Umays would assist him in doing so, may Allah have mercy on her.[99]

Fatimah had also entrusted Asma’ bint ‘Umays with shrouding and escorting her to her grave, which she fulfilled.[100]

She was by her side until her last breath, and she gave the news of her demise to ‘Ali.[101]

She assisted in washing her body.[102]

Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was always in contact with ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu enquiring about the condition of the daughter of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam contrary to what the Shia portray.

When she fell ill ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would still perform his five daily salah in the Masjid. When he would come for prayer Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhum would ask him, “How is the health of the daughter of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam?”[103]

Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu would also enquire about her condition from his wife, Asma, as she was Fatimah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha nurse.

The day Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha passed on, Madinah trembled with cries from both males and females alike. The people were as perplexed as the day when the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away. Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma consoled ‘Ali and said to him, “Do not commence the funeral prayer of the daughter of Allah’s Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam without us.”[104]

 

Intermarriage between the Ahlul Bayt and the family of Abu Bakr

The relationship between the Ahlul Bayt and the family of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was one of kindness and mutual affection, despite the Shia wanting to portray it differently. As Allah says:

 

وَإِنَّ أَوْهَنَ الْبُيُوْتِ لَبَيْتُ الْعَنْكَبُوْتِ لَوْ كَانُوْا يَعْلَمُوْنَ

Indeed, the weakest of homes is the home of the spider, if they only knew.[105]

 

The jealous may burn with envy and the opposition may hate it with a passion but ‘Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, the daughter of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, was the wife of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and from the dearest of people to him. This is an established fact. When the Qur’an has testified to her purity and chastity, the critics can object all they like and the deviated can deny it all they want; this reality will never change.

 

Asma’ bint ‘Umays

Asma’ bint ‘Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha, whom we have mentioned previously, was the wife of Jafar ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu— the true brother of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. When Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu passed away, Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu married her and from this union a son by the name of Muhammad was born. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu appointed him as the governor over Egypt during his Caliphate. After the demise of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu married Asma’ bint ‘Umays radiya Llahu ‘anha and a son, Yahya, was born from their union.[106]

 

Umm Farwah bint al Qasim

The great granddaughter of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was married to Muhammad al Baqir, one of the grandsons of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and considered to be the fifth Imam by the Shia. Al Kulayni writes in Usul al Kafi, under the title, the birth of Jafar:

 

Abu ‘Abdullah was born in 83 A.H and passed away in 148 A.H in the month of Shawwal at the age of 65. He was buried in Baqi’ where his father, grandfather, and Hassan ibn ‘Ali were buried. His mother was Umm Farwah bint al Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and her mother was Asma bint ‘Abd al Rahman ibn Abi Bakr.”[107]

 

Ibn ‘Inabah[108] states:

 

Jafar’s mother is Umm Farwah bint al Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and her mother is Asma bint ‘Abd al Rahman ibn Abi Bakr. It is for that very reason that he would say, “Abu Bakr fathered me twice.”[109]

 

Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr—the grandson of Abu Bakr—and ‘Ali Zayn al ‘Abidin ibn Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib—the great grandson of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu—were maternal cousins. Al Mufid when speaking about ‘Ali ibn Hussain states:

 

The Imam after Hussain ibn ‘Ali was his son Abu Muhammad ibn al Hussain Zayn al ‘Abidin, whose agnomen was also Abu al Hassan. His mother was Shah Zanan bint Yazdegerd ibn Shariyar ibn Khosrow. It is said that her name was Shaharbanuyah. ‘Ali appointed Hurayth ibn Jabir al Hanafi governor over some parts of the East, he was the one who had sent the two daughters of Yazdegerd ibn Shariyar ibn Khosrow to him. Shah Zanan was gifted to his son, Hussain, and from that union came Zayn al ‘Abidin. The other daughter was gifted to Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and from that union came Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, thus making Zayn al ‘Abidin and Qasim ibn Muhammad maternal cousins. [110]

 

Al Majlisi mentions this report in Jala’ al ‘Uyun, when rectifying what al Mufid and Ibn Babawayh transmitted. He states:

 

Shaharbanuyah was not taken captive in the Caliphate of ‘Ali as mentioned by al Mufid nor in the Caliphate of ‘Uthman as stated by Ibn Babawayh al Qummi. Rather, she was taken captive in the Caliphate of ‘Umar as transmitted by al Qutb al Rawandi.[111]

 

Thereafter, he writes:

 

Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and Zayn al ‘Abidin ibn Hussain ibn ‘Ali were maternal cousins.[112]

 

Hafsah bint ‘Abd al Rahman

The scholars of genealogy and history further establish their relations in that Hafsah bint ‘Abd al Rahman ibn Abi Bakr was married to Hussain ibn ‘Ali. This took place either after or before she was married to ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

 

Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr

Muhammad, the son of Abu Bakr from Asma’ bint ‘Umays, was also the stepchild and beloved of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu whom he had appointed as a governor over Egypt.

‘Ali would say, “Muhammad is my son from the back of Abu Bakr.”[113]

 

The Ahlul Bayt name their children Abu Bakr

‘Ali ibn Abi Talib

Another sign of the love and affection between Abu Bakr and the Ahlul Bayt is that they would name their children after him. The first amongst them to do so was ‘Ali who had named his son Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu as transmitted by al Mufid under the heading, Mention of the children of ‘Ali and a brief biography.

12. Muhammad al Asghar who was nicknamed Abu Bakr.

13.Ubayd Allah. They were both martyred with their brother Hussain in the battle of al Taf (Karbala’). Their mother was Layla bint Mas’ud al Darimiyyah.[114]

 

Al Ya’qubi states that ‘Ali had fourteen male children:

 

Hassan, Hussain… ‘Ubayd Allah and Abu Bakr, who had no offspring, their mother’s name was Ya’la bint Mas’ud al Hanzaliyyah from the tribe of Tamim.[115]

 

Al Asbahani mentions in Muqatil al Talibiyin under the heading, Mention of Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib’s death and those relatives who fought alongside him:

 

(Amongst them were :) Abu Bakr ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, whose mother was Ya’la bint Mas’ud. Abu Jafar mentions that two men from Hamdan killed him. Al Mada’ini states that he found him dead at a well, his killer unknown.[116]

 

Is the love, brotherhood, and admiration between ‘Ali and Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma not clearly evident from these reports?

It is noteworthy that ‘Ali’s son, Abu Bakr, was born after Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu had assumed leadership. In fact, he was born after the demise of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

Are there any from amongst those who claim to love ‘Ali and his progeny who named his son Abu Bakr? Are they truly his followers or rather his opponents?

When one contemplates further one realises that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had only named his son Abu Bakr seeking a good omen therefrom, and as an expression of his loyalty and allegiance to him, even after his death. The reason being, that none from the Banu Hashim had named their sons Abu Bakr prior to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, according to our study of the source material.

The Ahlul Bayt naming their children after Abu Bakr as a good omen and to exhibit their love for him was not restricted to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu only. In fact, his offspring followed this practice.

 

Hassan ibn ‘Ali

Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, considered to be the second infallible Imam by the Shia, named one of his sons Abu Bakr. Al Ya’qubi states:

 

Hassan had eight sons: Hassan ibn Hassan—whose mother was khawlah… Abu Bakr and ‘Abd al Rahman were from different mothers, and Talhah and ‘Ubayd Allah.[117]

 

Al Asbahani mentions that Abu Bakr ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib was killed by ‘Uqbah al Ghanawi at Karbala’.[118]

 

Hussain ibn ‘Ali

Hussain ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu also named his son Abu Bakr as mentioned by the famous Shia historian al Mas’udi in al Tanbih when mentioning those who were killed alongside Hussain at karbala’. He writes:

Those who were killed at Karbala’ were three of Hussain’s sons ‘Ali al Akbar, ‘Abdullah al Sabbi, and Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[119]

 

‘Ali ibn Hussain Zayn al ‘Abidin

It is said that Zayn al ‘Abidin ibn Hussain was also nicknamed Abu Bakr.[120]

 

Hassan ibn Hassan (al Muthanna)

Hassan ibn Hassan ibn ‘Ali, the grandson of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, also named one of his sons Abu Bakr. Al Asbahani transmits from Muhammad ibn ‘Ali Hamzah al ‘Alawi:

From amongst those who were killed along with Ibrahim ibn Hassan ibn Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib was Abu Bakr ibn Hassan ibn Hassan.[121]

 

Musa al Kazim

Musa ibn Jafar al Kathim, considered to be the seventh Imam, also named one of his sons Abu Bakr.[122]

 

‘Ali al Rida

Al Asbahani states that Musa ibn Jafar’s son, ‘Ali—the eighth Shia Imam), was also nicknamed Abu Bakr. It has been transmitted from ‘Isa ibn Mihran who in turn transmits from Abu Salt al Harawi, who states:

 

Ma’mun had once asked me with regards to a matter

I replied, ‘Our Abu Bakr states’

‘Isa ibn Mihran then asked Abu al Salt, “Who is your Abu Bakr?”

He responded, “He is ‘Ali ibn Musa al Rida, who had the agnomen Abu Bakr, whose mother was a slave.[123]

 

It is worth noting that Musa al Kazim had also named one of his daughters ‘Aisha as mentioned by al Mufid under the heading, Mention of the number of children of Musa ibn Jafar and a brief biography.

Musa al Kazim had thirty-seven children, from amongst them were ‘Ali ibn Musa al Rida, Fatimah, ‘Aisha, and Umm Salamah.[124]

His grandfather—’Ali ibn al Hussain—had also named his daughter ‘Aisha.[125]

Abu al Hassan ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al Hadi—the tenth Shia Imam—also named one of his daughters ‘Aisha. Al Mufid states: “He had passed away the year 254 A.H in the month of Rajab, he was buried in his house at a place called Surra Man Ra’ahu and had left behind his son—Abu Muhammad al Hassan, and his daughter—’Aisha.[126]

In conclusion we would like to bring to your attention that after Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, there were many Hashimites who would name their children Abu Bakr. From amongst them was ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar al Tayyar ibn Abi Talib, who was the nephew of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He had also named one of his sons Abu Bakr as mentioned by Al Asbahani in his book al Maqatil. He states:

 

Abu Bakr ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar ibn Abi Talib was killed on the Day of al Harrah that occurred between Musrif ibn ‘Uqbah and the people of Madinah.[127]

 

These are clear depictions and portrayals of the love and affection that existed between them, contrary to that portrayed by the Shia of hatred, enmity, continuous quarrelling, and fierce infighting.

 

The incident of Fadak

Before moving on to ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu relationship with the Ahlul Bayt, it is necessary that we pause for a moment, to address a question that might arise, and that is: If there was so much love and affection between them as mentioned, then how does one explain the incident of Fadak? It is this incident that the enemies of Islam take out of context to fulfil their objectives, intending to establish that there was disunity amongst the Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the prophetic household in particular, and the Muslims in general. As if the Ahlul Bayt was on the one side and the Muhajirin, Ansar, and the rest of the Muslim nation on the other.

It was not and it never will be as such! The matter in essence was not of great importance and significance, as they make it out to be. The incident occurred after the demise of Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Muslims had now pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha had requested her estate from Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu which Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had left behind, i.e. that which Allah had granted the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, viz. Fadak[128]. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu responded,

 

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “We (the Prophets) are not inherited from, what we leave behind is charity.” The family of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam will eat from this wealth. I swear by Allah I will not change anything of the charity of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, I will do the exact same with it as the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had done with it.

 

Then he added:

 

By the One Who has control of my life, having good relations with the relatives of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is more beloved to me than having good relations with my own relatives.

 

When Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu mentioned the hadith to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha she retracted and did not discuss the matter again until she passed on. In fact, it is stated in some Shia narrations that she was pleased with it. Ibn Maytham[129] al Shia in his commentary on Nahj al Balaghah writes:

 

Abu Bakr said to her, “For you is that of your father. He would take from Fadak what sufficed for your sustenance. Then he would divide the rest and spend of it in the path of Allah. By Allah I will dispose of it in the same manner that he did. She was pleased with that, and took a covenant from him to the effect.[130]

 

A similar report is transmitted by al Dunbuli in his commentary al Durrat al Najfiyyah.[131]

The fact that Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was pleased and accepted the judgement so easily was not sufficient for the Shia, rather, they went on writing books condemning the Sahabah. Such books filled with blasphemy and cursing, accusing the Sahabah of being immoral, disbelievers, apostate, and oppressing the Ahlul Bayt; whereas the people involved in the incident did not have the least to say! As we have just mentioned, citing their own literature as sources. Their scholars further transmit reports which prove that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu followed up his statements with action.

Ibn al Maytham, al Dunbuli, Ibn Abi al Hadid, and Fayd al Islam ‘Ali Naqi writes:

 

Abu Bakr would take the harvest of Fadak, give to the Ahlul Bayt that which would suffice them, and the remainder he would divide as was the practice of the other Khalifas’ who succeed him: ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and ‘Ali.[132]

 

This does not sit well with the Shia and how can it? Al Majlisi[133] a senior Shia cleric states:

 

The greatest calamity and misfortune was Abu Bakr and ‘Umar usurping Fadak from the prophetic household… and the most horrifying matter is that Abu Bakr usurped the Caliphate from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, then forced the Muhajirin and the Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum to pledge allegiance. His greed then increased wanting fadak also, fearing that if it were made over to the Ahlul Bayt. People would be inclined towards them for their wealth, thus abandoning the oppressors (Abu Bakr and his companions). He therefore intended to reduce them to bankruptcy, so that people would have no inclination towards the Ahlul Bayt, rendering their false Caliphate null and void. It was for reasons such as this that they had fabricated traditions which state, “We the Prophets are not inherited from, rather what we leave behind is sadaqah.”[134]

 

Many Shia scholars have followed al Majlisi in attempting to uncover the ‘malice’ and ‘hatred’ which had never existed. Unaware that the refuge they were spinning was nothing more than a web which is blown away with the slightest gust of wind.

The report which they have rejected out of rancour and malice towards Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu not knowing that their fifth infallible Imam—Jafar al Sadiq—also transmitted the same from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. It can be found in al Kafi, which is considered to be the most authentic according to them and regarding which it was said, “It is sufficient for the Shia.”

Al Kulayni transmits from Hammad ibn ‘Isa—from al Qaddah—from Abu ‘Abdullah:

 

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “He who treads a path seeking knowledge, Allah facilitates for him the path to Jannat… The virtue of a scholar over a devoted worshipper is like that of the moon at its fullest over the stars, the scholars are the heirs of the Prophets, gold and silver are not inherited from them rather knowledge is inherited, and he who had taken from it has taken a large portion.[135]

 

Abu ‘Abdullah Jafar al Sadiq said:

 

The scholars are the heirs of the Prophets and that is because gold and silver are not inherited from the Prophets but rather the scholars inherit their traditions.[136]

 

So what weight does the statements of al Majlisi and those who follow him hold? There is a poem in the Persian language that goes as follows:

 

If this is a crime, then know that it also being perpetrated in your town.

 

Here are two additional reports transmitted by al Saduq which gives strength to the previous narrations:

 

It has been narrated from Ibrahim ibn ‘Ali al Rafi’i—from his father—from his grandmother, the daughter of Abu al Rafi’i, who stated:

Fatimah brought Hassan and Hussain to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in his final illness.

She said, “Here are your two grandsons bequeath for them.”

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied, “As for Hassan he has inherited my reverence and prestige, and Hussain has inherited my bravery and generosity.”[137]

 

It is reported that Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha came to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

She said, “O Rasulullah! These are your grandsons bequeath for them.”

The Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied, “As for Hassan, I have gifted him my reverence and prestige; and as for Hussain, I have gifted him my generosity and my bravery.”[138]

 

Yet we still find al Majlisi and others trying to establish that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Companions only denied ‘Ali and his family Fadak so as to bankrupt them and thus lessening their influence over the people. How strange is it! Do they really think that they were people who attained leadership using wealth and bribes as our current politicians do. If were to assume for a moment that this were true then it would have had no bearing on them as according to the Shia they had an abundance of wealth. Al Kulayni transmitting from Abu al Hassan al Hadi—the tenth Shia Imam—states:

 

Fatimah had seven properties (orchards):

Al Dalal

Al ‘Auf

Al Hassani

Al Safiyah

Wa ma li Umm Ibrahim

Al Muthayyib

Al Barqah.[139]

 

Do they think that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took all the state’s money and made it his own? That does not make any sense. Even in present times, in which plundering has become the norm and people are no longer concerned about religion, if a king or government were to conquer land, they would not make it theirs exclusively, rather they will deal with it in the interest of its people. So is it possible for someone such as the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—may I and my parents be sacrificed for him—to give preference to himself over others? Especially when he was merciful and compassionate? These are but fabrications!

Hypothetically, if Fadak was the inheritance of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha would not have been his sole heir, rather the daughters of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma would have also inherited. They would therefore have deprived their daughters as well as ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the uncle of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, from their inheritance.

Thirdly, the antagonist from amongst the Shia are unaware that according to their jurisprudence, females do not inherit property or land. Their scholars have dedicated a specific chapter in that regard. Al Kulayni has a chapter titled, Women do not inherit property, in which he transmits a number of reports from Abu Jafar—the fifth Shia Imam—he states:

Females do not inherit anything from land and property.[140]

 

Al Saduq ibn Babawayh al Qummi transmits in his book, Man la Yahduruhu al Faqih, from Maysara:

 

I asked Jafar, “What do females inherit?”

He replied, “They do not inherit land and property.”[141]

 

There are many reports like these in which their scholars[142] concur that females do not inherit land or property. The question thus arises: If females cannot inherit land or property, then how could Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha have requested Fadak?

As for Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu angering Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma and saying that she returned after that and did not speak until she had passed away. The truth is that she retracted her view on Fadak and did not bring up the topic again thereafter until she passed away, May Allah have mercy on her and be pleased with her.

As for usurping her rights, al Majlisi—despite his harshness—is forced to say the following:

 

When Abu Bakr realised that he had angered Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma he told her, “I do not deny your virtue, and close relation to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. I am only preventing you from taking Fadak because I want to execute the command of the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. By Allah I have heard the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, ‘We the Ambiya are not inherited from. What we leave behind is the book, knowledge, and wisdom.’ I am not the only one who is of this opinion, rather it was with the consensus of the believers. As for the wealth, if you so wish then take from my wealth, because you are the noble daughter of your father and a pure tree for your children. No one is able to deny your virtue!”[143]

 

After reading this report is it possible for anyone to say that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu had angered her, taken her wealth forcefully, intended to harm her, cause her distress, or even render them bankrupt for ulterior motives? None except he who has lost his senses will be able to reach such a conclusion!

The building they intended to erect upon this weak and feeble foundation, establishing memorial ceremonies and gatherings to curse those who had supposedly ‘usurped’ the rights of the Ahlul Bayt, trying to portray that hatred and animosity existed between the Companions of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his household; that very building collapsed the day they intended to erect it, the stories being baseless. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu has proved its baselessness the day he assumed leadership, as mentioned by al Sayedal Murtada, commonly called ‘Alam al Huda:

When the matter of requesting Fadak was mentioned to ‘Ali he said, “I feel ashamed before Allah to return something that Abu Bakr had withheld, and which ‘Umar continued to maintain (as before).”[144]

 

Therefore, when Abu Jafar ibn Muhammad al Baqir was asked concerning Fadak:

 

“Did Abu Bakr and ‘Umar oppress you in anyway or have they deprived you from anything that rightfully belonged to you?”

He replied in the negative, and said, “By the One Who had revealed the Quran to his slave so that he may be a warner to the worlds, they did not oppress us to the extent of the weight of a mustard seed.”

I then said, “May I be ransomed for you, should I associate myself with them?”

He replied in the affirmative, and said, “Associate yourself with them in this life and in the hereafter, and whatever affliction you are faced with (on account of it) I will take the responsibility.”[145]

 

The brother of al Baqir, Zaid ibn ‘Ali ibn al Hussain, states something similar to that of his grandfather, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, and his brother, al Baqir, regarding Fadak, when asked by al Bahtari ibn Hassan. He states:

 

I asked Zaid ibn ‘Ali with the intention of provoking the matter of Abu Bakr by saying that Abu Bakr usurped Fadak from Fatimah.

He replied, “Abu Bakr was kind-hearted and would dislike changing anything that the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had done. Therefore, when Fatimah came to him and said that the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had given Fadak to her, he asked, ‘Do you have any evidence?’ she then brought ‘Ali to bear testimony for her and thereafter Umm Ayman. Umm Ayman asked, ‘Do the two of you bear testimony that I am from the people of Jannat?’ they responded in the affirmative.”

Zaid then clarified who were intended by the two and said, “They were Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma”.

He then continued, “She then said, ‘I bear testimony that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had given Fadak to her.” Abu Bakr said bring another male or female so that the matter could be resolved.”

Zaid added, “If the matter were raised to me, by Allah, I would have judged in the same manner that Abu Bakr had.”[146]

 

Does this matter require any more detail?

Before concluding we would like to present these last two reports that are transmitted by al Kulayni in this regard:

He reports that Abu ‘Abdullah Jafar said:

 

Booty and land, as long as it is not preoccupied by horses, camels, people tending to it or have spent money on it; then it and every other piece of ruined or destitute land and valley belongs to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam or the Imam who succeeds him and he is able to do with it whatever he pleases.”

This report explicitly states that the leader of the believers is at liberty to do with the land whatever he wishes.[147]

 

The following unique report has also been reported in al Usul min al Kafi:

 

Imam Abu al Hassan Musa—the seventh Shia Imam—came to the Abbassid Khalifah al Mahdi and saw that he was returning the peoples possessions that were taken unjustly.

He said, “O Amir al Mu’minin! What about our possessions that were wrongfully taken?”

Al Mahdi asked, “What possessions are you referring to, O Abu al Hassan?”

He responded, “Fadak!”

Al Mahdi then said, “O Abu al Hassan, demarcate it for me.”

He said, “One of its extremities is Mount Uhud, the other is al ‘Arish of Egypt, the third is Sayf al Bahr, and the last is Dawmat al Jundul.”[148]

 

In other words, half of the world! Look at these lies! How is it possible for the village of Khaybar to be equal to half of the world? How strange are all of these exaggerations? This is clear evidence of the extent of their exaggeration and lies.

We now conclude this on the virtues of Amir al Mu’minin Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his rightful position as the Khalifah after Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, as well as the discussion of Fadak. The mutual love that existed between Ab Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Ahlul Bayt is evident from their mutual interactions as attested to by the Shia sources themselves. We now move on to the discussion of the second Khalifah, Sayyidina ‘Umar al Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

 

NEXT⇒ The attitude of the Ahlul Bayt towards ‘Umar


[11]Al Gharat vol. 1 pg. 307 chapter ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu letter to his companions after the killing of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr.

[12]Al Gharat vol. 1 pg. 210; Nasikh al Tawarikh vol. 3 pg. 241; Majma’ al Bihar by al Majlisi and similar reports with slight variations in the commentary of Nahj al Balaghah by Ibn Abi al Hadid.

[13]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah pg. 400 by al Maytham al Bahrani.

[14]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah vol. 1 pg. 332 by Ibn Abi al Hadid.

[15]  He is ‘Izz al Din ‘Abd al Hadid ibn Abi al Hassan ibn al Hadid al Mada’ini the author of Sharh Nahj al Balaghah. He was from amongst their most senior and well versed scholars. A partisan of the pure and sinless Ahlul Bayt. His commentary al Sharif al Jami’ li Kulli Nafisat wa Gharib and al Hawi li kulli Nafihah Dhat Tayyib suffices as evidence of his lofty status that he holds amongst them and his exaggeration in support of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He was born in 586 A.H in the month of Dhu al Hijjah. He is also the author of Sharh Nahj al Balaghah which is in 10 volumes. He wrote it for the library of the minister Mu’ayyid al Din Muhammad al ‘Alqami. On completion the minister enforced it through his brother Muwaffaq al Din Abi l-Ma’ali, and sent to its author a hundred thousand gold coins, a splendid robe of honour, and a horse. (Rawdat al Jannat vol. 5 pg. 20-21)

He was born in al Mada’in. The people of al Mada’in were predominantly Shia, extremists, and exaggerators. Thus he followed their path and accepted their views. He had also versified the beliefs which is well known as al ‘Alawiyyat al Saba’ in which he discusses Shiasm. The extent of his exaggeration can be seen therein. A few of his beliefs can be gauged from the poetry he authored:

The Imam has knowledge of the unseen without dispute,

just as the rising sun is not disputed.

To him is our reckoning on the Day of Judgement,

And to him will be our shelter and refuge tomorrow.

I have come to know the religion of I’tizal,

However, I have come to love every Shia for your sake.

I have also come to realise that your Mahd,i

Will most certainly come to be and it is that day I anticipate.

He is protected by the armies of Allah,

which resembles an ocean that is replete and gushing forth.

By Allah I will not forget Hussain and his remains,

dispersed out in the open under the hoofs.

I grieve for that blood which was spilled,

and lost, forcibly by the hands of the Ummayads.

Abu al ‘Abbas Ahmed had refused and indeed he is,

the best of those who rose up and were prevented.

As he is the rightful claimant of revenge and the one,

who shouldered this burden when every stick was bent.

Time is compliant and youthfulness is fresh,

the sword is sharp and cutting and the heart is filled with valour.

He then went to Bagdad and became a Mu’tazili. He became as stated by the author of Nasmat al Sihr, “A Mu’tazili Jahiziyyan (inclining towards the teaching of Jahiz) in most of his writings after he was an extremist Shia. He died in 655 A.H in Bagdad as transmitted by al Hilli from his father. (Al Kuna w al Alqab vol. 1 pg. 185)

[16] A derogatory term used to refer to Abu Bakr.

[17]Sharh ibn Abi al Hadid vol. 1 pg. 130.

[18]  Al Tusi: Talkhis al Shafi vol. 2 pg. 372.

[19] He is ‘Ali ibn Hussain ibn Musa better known as al Sayedal Murtada nicknamed ‘Alam al Huda (355-436). He was one of the pillars and founding members of the Shia creed. The Shia have exaggerated in praising him and his brother who is the author of Nahj al Balaghah.

Khuwanasari states that he was the erudite scholar of his time in terms of knowledge, understanding, theology, poetry, and status. As for his compilations they are considered to be the sources and foundations which were unparalleled. Namely Kitab al Shafi which deals with Imamah. He furthers states that his book is decisive and sufficient in the true sense. (Rawdat al Jannat vol. 4 pg. 295)

Al Qummi states that he is the head of the scholars of this nation. Reviver of the statements of the Imams. Very diligent. He was a unique scholar in the sense that he possessed knowledge that no one had. Those who are in agreement with him and those who oppose him attest to his virtue. From amongst the books that he had authored is al Shafi, the likes of which no one has authored, wherein he discusses Imamah. Al Hilli states that the Shia have benefited from this book as he is their support and their author. (Al Kuna wa l-Alqab vol. 2 pg. 39-40)

[20] Al Shafi pg. 171.

[21]Talkhis al Shafi vol. 2 pg. 428.

[22]  Al Tabarsi: Al Ihtijaj.

[23]Firaq al Shia pg. 41; Tafsir al Qummi vol. 1 pg. 156 Surah al Nisa’ 137.

[24]Kitab al Rawdah Min al Kafi vol. 8 pg. 254.

[25]Rijal al Kashshi, pg. 55 under the chapter heading ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Abbas.

[26]  He is Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al Nu’man al Abkuri al Baghdadi (337-413). His funeral prayer was led by al Sayedal Murtada. He was better known as al Mufid, as the Mahdi who is in occultation had nicknamed him with that. (Ma’alim al Ulama’ pg. 101)

He was from amongst their exalted scholars, their leader, and teacher. Everyone who came after him benefited from his proficiency in jurisprudence, theology, and transmission of hadith. He cannot be adequately described, most reliable and knowledgeable of scholars, the leading Imam of his time. He has authored approximately 200 books in total which consist of major and minor works. (Rawdat al Jannat vol. 6 pg. 153)

They would also say that the Imam who is in occultation had addressed him in his book with “well-advised brother and guided scholar. O scholar who is sincere in his love for us, our victor, the one who would be inspired with the truth and its evidences, the righteous slave, assister of the truth, and the caller to Allah with truthful speech.” (Muqaddimat Al Irshad pg. 14)

[27]Al Irshad pg. 14.

[28]Nasikh al Tawarikh vol. 5 pg. 143-144.

[29]‘Uyun al Akhbar vol. 1 pg. 313 Kitab Ma’ani al Akhbar pg. 110

[30]Muntaha al Amal vol. 2 pg. 212.

[31]  Surah al Hashr: 8

[32]  Surah al Hashr: 9

[33]  Surah al Hashr: 10

[34]Kashf al Ghummah vol. 2 pg. 78. By al Arbili

[35]  Al Arbili he is Baha’ al Din Abu al Hassan ‘Ali ibn al Hussain Fakhr al Din ‘Isa ibn Abi al Fath al Arbili.

[36] Kashf al Ghummah vol. 2 pg. 147.

[37]Al Burhan vol. 2 pg. 125.

[38]  He is Abu Mansur Ahmed ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib from Tabarstan, “He is from our sublime and respectable predecessors he has authored the book Al Ihtijaj a very famous and recognised book amongst some groups.” He is also mentioned in ‘Amal al ‘Amili as, “Virtuous scholar, reliable Muhaddith; the author of Al Ihtijaj which contains many benefits.” (Rawdat al Jannat vol. 1 pg. 65)

Al Tabarsi, “He was a virtuous, honourable scholar, jurist, exalted, and a reliable Muhaddith’. (Al Kuna wa al Alqab vol. 2 pg. 404)

[39]Al Ihtijaj pg. 230.

[40]  He is Nur Allah ibn al Sharaf al Din al Shushtari a renowned Shia scholar from India. He was a Judge in Lahore under the rule of Jahanghir, the Mughal Sultan. He was a Muhaddith and theologian. He was decisive and noble. A researcher. He has authored many books in aiding the Shia faith and refuting its opposition. He was executed on account of accusations laid against him of Rafd in Akbarabad in the eleventh century. He is also referred to as the Third Martyr. (Rawdat al Jannat vol. 8 pg. 160)

He has authored the following: Majalis al Mu’minin, Ihqaq al Haqq, and Masa’ib al Nawasib. His book Ihqaq al Haqq is sufficient as a proof of his virtue, knowledge, familiarity, and acquaintance with the different sciences. He was a contemporary of Sheikh al Baha’i. He was executed on account of his Shiasm in Akbarabad Hind. (al Kuna wa al Alqab vol. 3 pg. 45)

[41] Ihqaq al Haqq vol. 1 pg. 16.

[42]Al Furu’ min al Kafi’ vol. 5 pg. 68.

[43]Kashf al Ghummah vol. 2 pg. 161.

[44]Firaq al Shia pg. 78 by al Nawbakhti.

[45] Kitab al Shafi pg. 238, Sharh Nahj al Balaghah vol. 4 pg. 140.

[46]Tafsir al Hassan al ‘Askari pg. 164.

[47]  Al Irshad pg. 268, under the chapter ‘mentioning his (Baqir) brothers.

[48]  Ibid.

[49]  He is Abu al Faraj ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn Muhammad, born in 284 A.H in al Asfahan. He then moved to Bagdad and grew up there. He attained high positions and died in 356 A.H. He was also very beloved to the Banu Buwayh, and perhaps the reason for that was their spending in the course of Shiasm. He had authored many well-known books of narratives and poetry. The most prominent of his works are al Aghani and Maqatil al Talibiyin. Muhammad Muhsin al Amin mentions him in the category of Shia poets and historians. (A’yan al Shia vol. 1 pg. 175)

[50] Maqatil al Talibiyin pg. 129

[51]Nasikh al Tawarikh by Mirza Taqi Khan Saybhar 132.

[52]Nasikh al Tawarikh vol. 2 pg. 590

[53]  Ibid

[54]Rijal al Kashshi pg. 18-20

[55]Rijal al Kashshi pg. 80

[56]Majalis al Mu’minin pg. 89 by al Shushtari

[57]Kashf al Ghummah vol. 1 pg. 190.

[58]Nahj al Balaghah pg. 366-367.

[59]Nasikh al Tawarikh.

[60]  He is Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al Thaqafi al Kufi al Asbahani al Shia d.283 A.H. He was one of the exalted transmitters and authors of the Shia as transmitted by al Nuri al Tabarsi. As for Ibrahim al Thaqafi it is known that many scholars rely on him as he is one of the most exalted transmitters and authors as could be deduced from his biography and many senior and sublime scholars transmits from him. (Al Mustadrakat vol. 3 pg. 549-550)

Khuwanasari refer to him in Rawdat al Jannat as al Sheikh, al Muhaddith, the promoter, and righteous. Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al Thaqafi al Asfahani the author of al Gharat which is often transmitted from in al Bihar. He has authored approximately 50 concise booklets. (A’yan al Shia section 2 pg. 103)

[61]Nahj al Balaghah pg. 81.

[62]  Taqiyyah according to the Shia is a form of religious dissimulation, or a legal dispensation whereby a believing individual can deny his faith or commit otherwise illegal or blasphemous acts, especially while they are in fear or at risk of significant persecution.

[63]Manar al Huda pg. 373 by ‘Ali al Bahrani al Shia; Nasikh al Tawarikh vol. 3 pg. 532.

[64] Sharh Nahj al Balaghah pg. 488 by Ibn Maytham.

[65]  He is Muhammad ibn al Hassan ibn ‘Ali al Tusi (b.385 d.460) in Najaf. Nicknamed al Sheikh al Ta’ifah. (Tanqih al Maqal vol. 3 pg. 105)

He is the support and raiser of the flag of the Shia, one of their leading scholars without exception. The one towards whom heads would turn. He has written in every science of religion and he was an exemplar and a leader in that regard, his books are widespread. He was also a student of al Mufid, al Sayedal Murtada, and others. (Al Kuna wa al Alqab vol. 2 pg. 357)

He is also the author of al Tahdhib and al Istibsar from amongst the four authentic compilations. He has authored in all Islamic sciences, he had also refined their creed, in primary and secondary matters, and all virtues are attributed to him. (Rawdat al Jannat vol. 6 pg. 216)

[66] Is the caliph someone who is divinely elected? It is evident that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not of the opinion that the khalifah and Imamah is something that is divinely appointed. “Indeed Imamah is a promise of Allah which shifts from one person to the other.” (Al Usul min al Kafi the book on Hajj vol. 1 pg. 277) “Indeed, it is a promise from Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which shifts from person to person thereafter.” (Al Usul min al Kafi vol. 1 pg. 277)

For more detail refer to the Shia books Asl al Shia wa Usuluha by Muhammad Hussain Al Kashif al Ghita, al I’tiqadat by Ibn Babawayh al Qummi, al Fayn by al Hilli, and Bihar al Anwar by al Majlisi, etc.

If ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was of that opinion he would not have attested to the Caliphate of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and he would not have been part of his council. In addition to that he would not have said to the people of Jamal, “You came to me without me calling you or forcing any of you.” Because if selection of the Khalifah was something decreed by Allah then he would have continued calling to it and he would not have made the remarks when they wished to pledge their allegiance to him after the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, “Leave me and look for someone else, as we are facing a matter that has many sides to it and which the hearts and minds of the people are not ready for,” until he went on to say, “If you were to leave me I would be one of you, and perhaps I will be the most attentive and obedient from amongst you to the person who you elect. For me to be an adviser is better for you than for me to be the Khalifah or leader.” This was his statement when people wanted to give their allegiance to him after the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. (Nahj al Balaghah pg. 136)

Is there any proof more reliable than his own words stating that he did not want the Caliphate? Whereas today the Shia considers those who deny his Imamah even more astray than the Jews, Zoroastrians, Christians, and polytheist; as mentioned by al Mufid. He states that the Imamiyyah have concurred that the person who denies and rejects the leadership of any of the Imams which Allah had made compulsory is a disbeliever and worthy of spending eternity in the Hell Fire.” (Bihar al Anwar vol. 23 pg. 390, transmitting from al Mufid).

Al Kulayni falsely attributes to Muhammad al Baqir that he said, “Only he who knows Allah can truly worship Him, as for the he who does not know Him, he is unable to do so.” Abu Hamzah then said, “May I be sacrificed for you, what is the gnosis of Allah?” Abu Jafar replied “It is believing in Allah and His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, supporting ‘Ali, and considering him (only) as leader and the Imams, along with having hatred for the enemies of Allah. This is the gnosis of Allah.” (Al Usul min al Kafi vol. 1 pg. 180, Bab Ma’rifat al Imam wa l-Radd Ilayh).

Based upon that al Saduq ibn Babawayh al Qummi states clearly, “Our belief regarding the one who denies the Imamah of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the other Imams after him is as if he had denied the prophet hood of all the Messengers, and he who attests to the leadership of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and rejects any of the other Imams it is as though he believes in all the messenger and has rejected the prophethood of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.” (Al I’tiqadat pg. 130)

Whose statements should be taken into consideration? Especially when ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu himself had rejected the Imamah and the text is from one of their most revered and sacred books.

Yes, their most sacred texts Nahj al Balaghah since ‘Ali al Murtada has stated, “For me to be an adviser is better for you than for me to be the Khalifah or leader,” and he said, “If you were to leave me I would be one of you, and perhaps I will be the most attentive and obedient from amongst you to the person who you elect. For me to be an adviser is better for you than for me to be the Khalifah or leader.” (Nahj al Balaghah pg. 132)

What also supports the fact that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not understand this matter in the manner they do is what is transmitted by Ibn Abi al Hadid from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas that ‘Ali came from the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the people asked him about his health. He replied, “All praise belongs to Allah, he is in a stable condition,” then he said, “Thereafter ‘Abbas took ‘Ali’s’ hand and said, ‘O ‘Ali you will be a subject after three days. I swear I have seen death on his face and I know the signs of death on the faces of Banu ‘Abd al Muttalib. So go to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and mention to him this matter (of leadership) and ask that he should inform us. If it is for other than us then he should entrust us with it.’ ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu responded, ‘I will not do that if he were to deny us this today then the people will not give it to us thereafter.’” Then he said that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away that day.(Sharh Nahj al Balaghah vol. 1 pg. 132)

After Ibn Abi al Hadid mentioned the incident of Saqifah and the pledge of Abu Bakr, he states: “Understand well that the reports in this regard [concerning Imamah] are many however he who contemplates over them and is just will know well that there is no clear and definitive text that is unambiguous and carries no other possible meaning.”(Sharh Nahj al Balaghah pg. 135)

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu also said when addressing Talhah and Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, “By Allah I had no inclination or desire for the khalifah nor any desire for leadership, however, you called me to it and burdened me with it.” (Nahj al Balaghah pg. 322)

Nasr ibn Muzahim al Shia transmits something similar stating that Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent Habib ibn Maslamah al Fahri, Sharahbil ibn Samt, and Ma’n ibn Yazid to request that ‘Ali hand over the killers of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. ‘Ali S replied after praising and thanking Allah, “Indeed Allah had sent the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to deliver them from misguidance and destruction, and united them after they were disunited, then Allah caused him to pass away after he had accomplished his task.

Thereafter Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were appointed as leaders and they were just. Then ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu took responsibility of the people’s affairs and he did certain things that some people were not pleased with thus they killed him. The people came to me whereas I was secluded from them and their affairs, and they said to me, “Let us give you the pledge,” but I refused. They then repeated and added, “People will only be pleased with you and we fear that if you do not assume leadership then it will cause a spilt amongst the people,” thereafter they gave their pledge.

A Shia historian mentions that when Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu intended to appoint ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu as the Khalifah after him, some people objected. ‘Ali then said to Talhah, “If Abu Bakr were to appoint anyone other than ‘Umar after him we would not obey him.” (Tarikh Rawdat al Safa’ pg. 206 Persian text)

[67] Al Amali vol. 2 pg. 121 by al Tusi.

[68] Al Ihtijaj pg. 50.

[69]Asl al Shia wa Usuluha pg. 91.

[70]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah vol. 1 pg. 132 by Ibn Abi al Hadid.

[71]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah vol. 1 pg. 134-135.

[72]Nahj al Balaghah pg. 136.

[73]  He is Ahmed ibn Abi Ya’qub ibn Jafar al Katib al ‘Abbasi al Shia. His grandfather was a freed slave of Abu Mansur. He liked travelling and had travelled the Muslim lands from the east to west. He entered Armenia in the year 260 A.H. Thereafter, he went to Ramlah, then returned to Egypt and the Western lands. He has authored Kitab al Buldan and his famous book on history known as Tarikh al Ya’qubi. He died in 284 A.H. (Al Kuna wa l-Alqab vol. 3 pg. 246)

[74]Tarikh al Ya’qubi vol. 2 pg. 132-133.

[75]Tarikh al Tawarikh vol. 2 bk. 3 pg. 158, titled ‘The decision of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

[76]Tarikh al Ya’qubi vol. 2 pg. 138.

[77]  The Ahlus Sunnah wa l-Jama’ah have many such reports where Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu would consult his comrades and thereafter he would give preference to the opinion of ‘Ali over the rest. Refer to al Bidayah wa l-Nihayah, Riyadat al Nadrah by al Muhib al Tabari, Kanz al ‘Ummal, Tarikh al Muluk wa l-Umam by al Tabari, Tarikh ibn Khaldun, and others; which we will not be quoting from, as we have vouched to only use their literature as references.

[78]Al Irshad pg. 107.

[79]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah vol. 4 pg. 228.

[80]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah vol. 4 pg. 718; ‘Umdat al Talib pg. 361.

[81]Al Irshad pg. 186.

[82] ‘Umdat al Talib ch. 3 pg. 352; Haqq al Yaqin pg. 213.

[83]  Abu Dawood transmits a report from ‘Ali saying, “‘Abbas, Fatimah, Zaid ibn Harithah, and I were with Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. I then said to him, “O Rasulullah! salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam What do you say about putting me in charge of the fifth, which is mentioned in the Book of Allah so that I may distribute it in your lifetime, thus no one will be able to dispute with me regarding it after you!” He then did so. I distributed the fifth in the lifetime of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and in the Caliphate of Abu Bakr. However towards the latter part of the Caliphate of ‘Umar, there was an influx of wealth and resources. He set our lot aside and sent for me. I said, “We are not in need of it whereas there are people who are in need of it, so give it to them.” and that is what ‘Umar did”. Abu Dawood, Kitab al Kharaj; Musnad Ahmed, Musnad ‘Ali.

[84]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah vol. 4 pg. 118 by Ibn Abi al Hadid.

[85]Al Ihtijaj; Kitab Sulaim ibn Qais pg. 253; Mir’at al ‘Uqul pg. 388.

[86]Talkhis al Shafi pg. 354.

[87]Al Amali vol. 1 pg. 38.

[88] How truthful and thoughtful were the Companions of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam! They would contemplate over the affairs of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to such an extent that whatever concerned him became their concern. They would then strive to assist him in fulfilling it. What a wonderful leader and what wonderful followers!

[89] Look at the love, affection, and compassion they had for each other despite the Shia trying to portray differently.

[90]  They have no shame in forging and attributing statements such as these, which are shameful and demeaning, to such blessed personalities. When will they ever stop?

[91] What poverty was he referring to? Some extremist Shias—the likes of al Qummi and al Majlisi—report that when the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam intended to marry Fatimah to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma he told her in secret and she replied, “Do what you think is best, however, I have heard some women from Quraysh speaking about him, saying that he is short and fat, has long forearms, a large head and eyes, with deep hair recesses above the temples, his shoulder joints are like that of a camel, always laughing, and he has no money.”

While they attribute this insulting statement to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam—as it appears in their narration—did not object to any of these descriptions, rather he said (according to their narrations), “O Fatimah! Do you not know that Allah looked at the universe and he has chosen me out of all males and He has chosen you out of all the females of this universe? When I was taken to the heavens on the night journey, I found written on the rock of Bayt al Maqdis, ‘There is none worthy of worship except Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and I have assisted and aided him with his minister.’ I enquired who is my minister? Then Allah replied, “‘Ali ibn Abi Talib”. Tafsir al Qummi vol. 2 pg. 336; Jala’ al ‘Uyun vol. 1 pg. 185.

[92] Jala’ al ‘Uyun vol. 1 pg. 169, Persian translation.

[93]Al Amali vol. 1 pg. 39; Manaqib vol. 2 pg.20 by Shaharashub al Mazandarani; Jala’ al ‘Uyun vol. 1 pg. 176, Persian text.

[94]  He is Abu al Muayyid al Muwaffiq ibn Ahmed al Khawarizmi: a Shia jurist, muhaddith, orator, and poet. He has authored a book discussing the virtues of the Ahlul Bayt. He died in 568 A.H. Khawarizmi is the name of a village in Zamakhshar. (Al Kuna wa l-Alqab vol. 2 pg. 11 and 12)

[95] Al Manaqib pg. 251 and 252; Kashf al Ghummah vol. 1 pg. 358; Bihar al Anwar vol. 10 pg. 38, 39; Jala’ al Uyun vol. 1 pg. 184.

[96] Kashf al Ghummah vol. 1 pg. 348-349; Bihar al Anwar vol. 1 pg. 47 and 48.

[97]Tarikh al Ya’qubi vol. 2 pg. 117.

[98]Tarikh al Ya’qubi vol. 2 pg. 117.

[99]Al Amali vol. 1 pg. 107.

[100]Jala’ al ‘Uyun pg. 235, 242.

[101]  Ibid pg. 237

[102]Kashf al Ghummah vol. 1 pg. 504.

[103]Kitab Sulaim ibn Qais pg. 353.

[104]  Ibid pg. 255.

[105]  Surah al ‘Ankabut 41.

[106]Majalis al Muminin by al Shushtari, al Majlis al Rabi’; Haqq al Yaqin; Al Irshad pg. 186; Jala’ al ‘Uyun.

[107]Al Usul fi l-Kafi, Kitab al Hujjah, vol. 1 pg. 472, and similar reports in al Firaq of al Nawbakhti.

[108]  He is Jamal al Din Ahmed ibn ‘Ali ibn al Hussain al Hassani the author of ‘Umdat Talib. Al Qummi states regarding him: “Respectable leader, expert in genealogy”. He was from the scholars of the Imamiyyah and was under the tutelage of al SayedMa’iyyah for 12 years learning jurisprudence, prophetic tradition, and genealogy. He died in 828 A.H in Kirman. (Al Kuna wa l-Alqab vol. 1 pg. 350; ‘Ayan al Shia vol. 2 pg. 135 under the title The genealogist from the Shia.

[109]’Umdat al Talib pg. 190

[110]Al Irshad 253 by al Mufid, similar reports in Kashf al Ghummah and Muntaha Al Amali vol. 2 pg. 3 by sheik ‘Abbas al Qummi.

[111]  He is Sa’id ibn Hibat Allah ibn al Hassan, born in the sixth century A.H d. 573 and buried in al Qumm, ‘The erudite scholar jurist, muhaddith, reliable scholar, researcher and exegete’. He had authored ‘al Khara’ij wa l-Jara’ih, Qasas al Ambiya and Sharh al Nahj. He was from among the senior hadith scholars of the Shia. al Kuna wa l-Alqab vol. 3 pg. 58.

[112]Jala’ al ‘Uyun pg. 673 and 674 from the Persian text.

[113]Al Durat al Najfiyah by al Dunbuli al Shia Sharh Nahj al Balaghah pg. 113.

[114]Al Irshad pg. 186.

[115]Tarikh al Ya’qubi vol. 2 pg. 213.

[116] Maqatil al Talibiyin pg. 142 by Abu al Faraj al Asbahani al Shia. Similar reports have been narrated in Kashf al Ghummah vol. 2 pg. 63; Jala’ al ‘Uyun pg. 582.

[117]Tarikh al Ya’qubi vol. 2 pg. 228; Muntaha al Amal vol. 1 pg. 240.

[118] Maqatil al Talibiyin pg. 87.

[119]Al Tanbih wa l-Ashraf pg. 263.

[120]Kashf al Ghummah vol. 2 pg. 74.

[121] Maqatil al Talibiyin pg. 188

[122]Kashf al Ghummah vol. 2 pg. 217.

[123] Maqatil al Talibiyin pg. 188

[124]Al Irshad pg. 302 and 303, al Fusul al Muhimmah pg. 242; Kashf al Ghummah vol. 2 pg. 237.

[125]Kashf al Ghummah vol. 2 pg. 90.

[126]  Op.cit pg. 334; al Fusul al Muhimmah pg. 383.

[127] Maqatil al Talibiyin pg. 123.

[128]  Fadak is a piece of land at Khaybar, which Allah had granted to His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Some suggest that it is on the outskirts of Khaybar, in it there are springs and date palm trees. (Lisan al ‘Arab vol. 10 pg. 473)

[129]  He is Kamal al Din Maytham ibn ‘Ali Maytham al Bahrani, born in the seventh century A.H. The pious scholar, philosopher, researcher, wise, scrutinizer, possessor of the both logical and transmitted sciences, praiseworthy teacher and poet. Author of Sharh Nahj al Balaghah, he transmits from al Tusi… it is said that Khawajah Nasir al Din al Tusi had studied fiqh (jurisprudence) under Kamal al Din Maytham, who in turn had learnt philosophy from him. He died in 679 A.H. his grave is in Hilta, a village in Mahudh. (Al Kuna wa l-Alqab vol. 1 pg. 419)

[130]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah vol. 5 pg. 107 by Ibn Maytham al Bahrani.

[131]  Ibid pg. 331, 332.

[132]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah vol. 4, vol. 5 pg. 107 by Ibn Maytham al Bahrani, al Durrat al Najafiyyah pg. 332; Sharh al Manhaj vol. 5 pg. 960 by ‘Ali al Naqi, Persian text.

[133] Very seldom would one find someone as bold as al Majlisi in cursing and insulting. He would not mention a Companion except that he curses him. He writes about Fadak and states that when Abu Bakr sought witnesses who would bear testimony for Fatimah, ‘Ali asked him, “Are you requesting witnesses?” He replied in the affirmative. Thereafter ‘Ali asked, ‘If people were to bear witness that Fatimah had fornicated, what would you have done?” to which Abu Bakr replied, “We would have carried out the capital punishment on her, as would be done with everyone else.” Haqq al Yaqin pg. 193. Look at his audacity, precipitance, and the manner in which he speaks! Does he not have any shame?

[134] Haqq al Yaqin pg. 191, Criticism against Abu Bakr, by Mulla Majlisi, Persian text.

[135]Al Usul min al Kafi, vol. 1 pg. 34, the book on the virtue of knowledge under the chapter ‘The reward of the teacher and the student’.

[136]Al Usul min al Kafi, vol. 1 pg. 32 ,the book on ‘The quality of knowledge its virtue, and the virtue of the scholars’.

[137]Kitab al Khisal pg. 77 by al Qummi.

[138]  Ibid.

[139]Al Furu’ min al Kafi, Kitab al Wasaya, vol. 7 pg. 47, 48.

[140]Al Furu’ min al Kafi, kitab al Mawarith vol. 7 pg. 137.

[141]Al Furu’ min al Kafi, kitab al Fara’id wa l-Mawarith vol. 4 pg. 347.

[142]  Check their books on jurisprudence.

[143]Haqq al Yaqin pg. 201, 202, translated from the Persian text.

[144]Al Shafi pg. 231 by al Murtada; Sharh Nahj al Balaghah vol. 4 by Ibn Abi al Hadid.

[145]Sharh Nahj al Balaghah vol. 4 pg. 82 by Ibn Abi al Hadid.

[146]  Ibid.

[147]Al Usul min al Kafi, Kitab al Hujjah, Bab al Fay’ wa l-Anfal, vol. 1 pg. 539.

[148]Al Usul min al Kafi, Bab al Fay’ wa l-Anfal, vol. 1 pg. 539.