Theme Twelve: The Attitude of ‘Ali Towards Those who Denigrate Abu Bakr and ‘Umar
In the previous themes, narrations in which ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had directly praised Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were presented. Hereunder narrations which indicate the stance that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had taken with those who had either reviled both Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma or had considered him superior to them.
In a short, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had taken a very severe stance regarding these people. He had initially expressed his displeasure upon their assumptions and had refuted them very rigidly. When that did not aid in curbing their mischief he had them punished, sent into exile, and further announced in his sermons that if he heard anyone giving preference to him over Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma he would convict them for false testimony and punish them with eighty lashes, the punishment normally executed upon a person who falsely accuses an innocent woman of adultery.
These incidents are presented ahead. The stance of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu regarding Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, his love and veneration for them will thus become indubitably evident. An impartial person without doubt will not reach any other conclusion besides the above. Similarly, defamation and disparagement were not the manners with which they dealt with one another, nor could they tolerate any person who would have such assumptions regarding them. For they understood very well that due to these misdemeanours many vices will engulf the ummah (as is seen throughout the world today).
If the people of understanding and insight reflect over this, then they will most certainly appreciate the efforts of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in this regard. However, despite a person’s efforts, at times the desired results do not materialise and ultimately the decree of Allah reigns supreme: “Allah will most certainly bring his affairs to completion and has a set measure for everything.” Nonetheless, he had tried his best in curbing the tides of fitnah.
Having completed the intro, the narrations are now presented hereunder:
عن الاعمش عن ابي وائل ان عبد الله بن الكواء وشبيب بن ربعي وناسا معهما اعتزلوا عليا بعد انصرافه من صفين الي الكوفة لما انكر عليهم من سب ابي بكر و عمر رضي الله عنهما فمن بعدهما من اصحاب رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم فخالفوه و خرجوا عليه فخرج اليهم علي و حاجهم ورجع عن غير قتال. (في رواية زيادة منها)ايمان علي اني لا اساكنكم في بلدة حتي القي الله عز و جل.
Abu Wa’il narrates that ‘Abdullah al Kawwa’, Shabib ibn Rib’i and several other individuals disassociated themselves from ‘Ali upon his return from Siffin to Kufah because he had reproached them for reviling Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and other Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Hence, they opposed him and rebelled against him. ‘Ali thus, went to them, engaged them, defeated them and consequently returned without war. (In another narration it appears that ‘Ali said to them) “I pledge solemn oaths that I will not dwell in the same city as you until I meet Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.”
عن أبي الضحاك الحضرمي عن أبي حكيمة قال : كنا في المسجد فجاء رجل فتنقص أبا بكر رضي الله عنه ، وعمر رضي الله عنه ، وأظهر لعثمان رضي الله عنه الشتيمة قال : فدخلت على علي رضي الله عنه فقلت : يا أمير المؤمنين هذا رجل في المسجد تنقص أبا بكر وعمر وأظهر لعثمان الشتيمة فقال : علي به . فقال : من يشهد على هذا ؟ قال : فشهدت ومن كان معي ، فأمر به فديس ثم قال : أخرجوا هذا إلى السوق حتى يراه الناس فيعرفونه ثم أخرجوه فلا يساكنني ، ثم قام وقمنا معه حتى صعد المنبر فحمد الله وأثنى عليه ثم قال : « إن خير هذه الأمة بعد نبيها أبو بكر وعمر ولو شئت أن أسمي الثالث لسميته
Abu Hukaymah narrates, “We were in the Masjid when a person came and begun denigrating Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and criticising ‘Uthman. I thus went to ‘Ali and said, ‘O Amir al Mu’minin! Here is a person in the Masjid who is denigrating Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and criticising ‘Uthman.’ He said, ‘bring him to me!’ then demanded, ‘who testifies against this person?’ Subsequently, I and those who were with me testified against him. ‘Ali gave instructions regarding him and he was trampled upon. He then said, ‘take him to the market place so that people see him and know what he did. Thereafter send him into exile for he cannot reside with me.’ Consequently, he stood up and we stood with him he (advanced towards the Masjid) ascended the pulpit and said, ‘the best of this ummah after its Nabi were Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and I can disclose the third if I desire.’”
عن مغيرة عن ام موسي قالت بلغ عليا ان ابن سبا يفضله علي ابي بكر و عمر فهم علي بقتله فقيل له اتقتل رجلا؟انما اجلك و فضلك فقال لا جرم لا يساكنني في بلدة انا فيها قال عبد الله بن خبيق فحدثت به الهيثم بن جميل فقال لقد نفي ببلد بالمداين الي الساعة.
Umm Musa narrates that the news had reached ‘Ali that ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’ holds him in higher esteem than Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. He therefore intended to kill him. It was thus said to him, “do you intend killing a person who has merely exalted you and holds you in high esteem?” He said, “Definitely! He will not stay with me in the same city.” ‘Abdullah ibn Khabiq says that he informed al Haytham ibn Jamil of this who remarked, “he is in exile in one of the towns in al Mada’in till this very moment.”
حدثنا ابو الاحوص عن مغيرة عن شباك قال بلغ عليا ان ابن السوداء يتنقص ابا بكر و عمر فدعا به و دعا بالسيف وهم بقتله فكلم فيه فقال لا تساكنني في بلد انا فيه فسيره بالمدائن.
Translation similar to above cited narration.
عن ابراهيم قال بلغ عليا ان عبد الله بن اسود يتنقص ابا بكر و عمر فدعا بالسيف وهم بقتله فكلم فيه فقال لا تساكنني في بلد انا فيه فنفاه الي الشام.
Translation similar to the above cited narration.
Ibn Hajar al ‘Asqalani has cited a much more detailed narration in this regard in his book Lisan al Mizan (vol. 3: biography of ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’). The narration is presented ahead in order to clarify the incident completely:
عن ابي الزعراءعن زيد بن وهب ان سويد بن غفلة دخل علي علي في امارته فقال اني مررت بنفر يذكرون ابا بكر و عمر يرون انك تضمر لهما مثل ذالك منهم عبد الله بن سبا و كان عبد الله اول من اظهر ذالك فقال علي ما لي ولهذا الخبيث الاسود ثم قال معاذ الله ان اضمر لهما الا الحسن الجميل ثم ارسل الي عبد الله بن سبا فسيره الي المدائن وقال فقال لا يساكنني في بلد ابدا ثم نهض الي المنبر حتي اجتمع الناس فذكر القصة في ثنائه عليهما بطوله و في آخره الا ولا يبلغني عن احد يفضلني عليهما الا جلدته حد المفتري.
Zaid ibn Wahb mentions that Suwaid ibn Ghaflah once came to ‘Ali during his rule and said, “I just passed by a people who were talking about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar (negatively) because they assume that you also perceive of them to be just as they perceive of them; among them is ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’.” And ‘Abdullah was the first person to contrive such ideas. He said, “what do I have to do with this wretched black man!?” He then said, “I seek the protection of Allah from perceiving anything but good regarding them.” He exiled ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’ to al Mada’in and said, “he will never reside with me in one city.” Subsequent to that he ascended the mimbar and everyone thronged around him. The narrator then reported the lengthy sermon of ‘Ali wherein he praised Abu Bakr and ‘Umar at the end of which he said, “if ever I learn of anyone holding me in more esteem than them I shall carry out on him the punishment of one who gives false testimony.”
ان سويد بن غفلة دخل علي علي بن ابي طالب في امارته فقال يا امير المؤمنين!اني مررت بنفر يذكرون ابا بكر و عمر بغير الذي هما اهله من الاسلام فنهض الي المنبر وهو قابض علي يدي فقال والذي فلق الحبة و برء النسمة لا يحبهما الا مؤمن فاضل ولا يبغضهما ولا يخالفهما الا شقي مارق فحبهما قربة و بغضهما مروق ما بال اقوام يذكرون اخوي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم ووزيريه و صاحبيه و سيدي قريش وابوي المسلمين و انا بريء ممن يذكرهما بسوء وعليه معاقب.
Suwaid ibn Ghaflah came at one occasion to ‘Ali during his rule and said, “O Amir al Mu’minin! I happen to pass by a group of people who were talking about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar in manner not befitting their status in Islam.” Hence, he ascended the mimbar whilst holding my hand and said, “by that being who has split the seed and has created the soul, only a virtuous believer will love them and no one save a wretched deviant person will despise them and oppose them; love for them is virtue and enmity towards them is deviation. What is the matter with people who make negative remarks regarding the two brothers of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, his ministers, his companions, the leaders of Quraysh and the fathers of the Muslims? I am free from any person who denigrates them and I will chastise any such person.”
Note:- The above cited narration is a truncated version. For those who are keen on studying the entire narration they should refer to Kanz al ‘Ummal (6/369-370). I have refrained from citing it here in order not to prolong the discussion.
قال حدثنا يوسف عن ابيه عن ابي حنيفة ان رجلا اتي عليا رضي الله عنه فقال ما رأيت احدا خيرا منك فقال له هل رايت النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم قال لا !قال هل رأيت ابا بكر و عمر قال لا!قال لو اخبرتني انك رايت النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم ضربت عنثك و لو اخبرتني انك رأيت ابا بكر و عمر لاوجعتك عقوبة.
Abu Hanifah narrates that a person came to ‘Ali and said, “I have not seen anyone more virtuous than you.” ‘Ali said to him, “Have you seen Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? Have you seen Abu Bakr? Have you seen ‘Umar?” each time the reply was in the negative. He further said, “Had you said that you saw Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam (and yet made such a claim) I would have killed you and had you said you saw Abu Bakr and ‘Umar I would have punished you very severely.”
Note:- This narration appears through the following chains of transmission as well:
 ثنا الحسين بن أبي زيد نا بهلول بن عبيد نا الحسن بن كثير عن أبيه قال أتي عليا…
 عن الحسن بن كثير عن أبيه قال أتي عليا رجل…
حدثنا حفص بن ابي داود عن هيثم بن حبيب عن عطيه العوفي قال قال علي بن ابي طالب لو اتيت برجل يفضلني علي ابي بكر و عمر لعاقبته مثل حد الزاني.
‘Attiyah al ‘Aufi narrates that ‘Ali would say, “any person who holds me in higher esteem than Abu Bakr and ‘Umar if brought to me, I will carry out upon him a punishment similar to that of the punishment of a fornicator.”
حدثنا ابو بكر الهذلي …….عن ابن سرين عن عبيدة السلماني قال بلغ علي بن ابي طالب رضي الله عنه ان رجلا يعيب ابا بكر و عمر فأرسل اليه فأتاه فعرض له بعيبهما عنده ففطن الرجل فقال له علي رضي الله عنه اما والذي بعث رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم بالحق لو سمعت منك ما بلغني عنك او شهدت عليك لا لقيت اكثرك شعرا قال ابن عرفة يعني ضرب العنق.
‘Ubaidah al Salmani narrates that ‘Ali learnt of a person who was reviling Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. He thus summoned him where after he sarcastically made negative remarks regarding them. The person understood to what ‘Ali was hinting. ‘Ali, thereafter, said, “By the oath of that being who has sent Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with the truth if I ever again hear the comments that you have made or you are officially convicted for such, I shall slay you.”
عن ابن شهاب عن عبد الله بن كثير قال قال لي علي بن ابي طالب افضل هذه الامة بعد نبيها ابو بكر و عمر ولو شئت ان اسمي لكم الثالث لسميته و قال لا يفضلني احد علي ابي بكر و عمر الا جلدته جلدا وجيعا وسيكون في أخر الزمان قوم ينتحلون محبتنا و التشيع فينا هم شرارا عباد الله الذين يشتمون ابا بكر و عمر.
‘Abdullah ibn Kathir mentions that ‘Ali said to him, “the best of this ummah after its Nabi are Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and I can divulge the third best in merit if I so desire. I will inflict a very agonizing torment on any person who holds me in higher esteem than Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. Towards the end of time, there will emerge a group of people who will outwardly claim to love us and support us, they will be the most wretched of the servants of Allah who will criticise Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.”
عن الحكم بن الحجل قال قال علي لا يفضلني احد علي ابي بكر و عمر الا جلدته حد المفتري.
‘Ali said, “No person will hold me in greater esteem than Abu Bakr and ‘Umar but that I will lash him the punishment of a calumniator.”
واخرج ابن عساكر عن ابن ابي ليلي قال قال علي لا يفضلني احد علي ابي بكر و عمر الا جلدته حد المفتري
Translation similar to above narration.
عن علي قال سبق رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم و ثني ابو بكر و ثلث عمر وقد خبطتنا فتنة فهو ما شاء الله فمن فضلني علي ابي بكر و عمر فعليه حد المفتري من الجلد و اسقاط الشهادة.
‘Ali said, “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam surpassed everyone. Abu Bakr followed him in merit. Subsequent to him in merit was ‘Umar. Thereafter a fitnah engulfed us and what Allah desired, transpired. Therefore, whoever gives preference to me over Abu Bakr and ‘Umar; I will lash him the punishment of a calumniator and will rescind his testimony.”
عن الحجاج بن دينار عن ابي معشر عن ابراهيم قال قال علقمة خطبنا علي كرم الله وجهه فحمد الله و اثني عليه ثم قال انه بلغني ان ناسا يفضلوني علي ابي بكر و عمر و لو كنت تقدمت في ذالك لعاقبت و اكره العقوبة قبل التبليغ فمن اتيت به بعد مقامي هذا قد قال شيئا من ذالك فهو مفتر عليه ما علي المفتري خير الناس كان بعد رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم ابو بكر و عمر.
‘Alqamah narrates, “Having begun with the praises of Allah, ‘Ali addressed us and said, ‘it has reached me that a group of people give precedence to me over Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. Had I made an official announcement in this regard previously I would have punished these people. I do not approve of punishment before sounding a warning. Therefore, any person who makes such claims is a calumniator; the punishment of a calumniator will be executed upon him. The best of people after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.”
In the variation which appears in Izalat al Khafa’ the following pertinent addition also appears. I therefore find it apt to cite it here. It reads as follows:
قال الراوي وفي المجلس الحسن بن علي فقال والله لو سمي الثالث لسمي عثمان.
Hassan ibn ‘Ali was present in the gathering he thereupon said, “by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had he mentioned the third after Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam he would have mentioned ‘Uthman.”
A Shia Narration
At the culmination of this theme, I cite before you a Shia narration wherefrom it can clearly be understood that some of the Shia scholars have also conceded the virtue of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma and that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had, during his rule, went all out in refuting the claims of those people who had held him in higher esteem than them and that he had enumerated the various feats and merits that they had acquired. He had likewise threatened to punish those people who were unwilling to relinquish their position regarding him; to the extent that he had announced it publicly as a policy of his rule. This is clearly understood from the narrations cited above. And will further be crystallised by this narration that is to be presented.
عن سويد بن غفلة انه قال مررت بقوم ينتقصون ابا بكر و عمر فأخبرت عليا و قلت لو لا انهم يرون انك تضمر ما اعلنوا ما اجترءوا علي ذالك منهم عبد الله بن سبا و كان اول من اظهر ذالك فقال علي اعوذ بالله رحمهما الله تعالي ثم نهض و اخذ بيدي و ادخلني المسجد فصعد المنبر ثم قبض علي لحيته و هي بيضاء فجعلت دموعه ليتجاوز علي لحيته و جعل ينظر لبقاع حتي اجتمع الناس ثم خطب فقال ما بال اقوام يذكرون اخوي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم ووزيريه و صاحبيه وسيدي قريش و ابوي المسلمين و انا برء مما يذكرون و عليه اعاقب صحبا رسول الله بالجد و الوفاء في امر الله يأمران و ينهيان و يقضيان و يعاقبان لا يري رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم كرأيهما رايا ولا يحب كحبهما حبا لما يري من عزمهما في امر الله فقبض وهو عنهما راض و المسلممون راضون فما تجاوزوا في امرهما و سيرتهما رأي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم و امره في حياته و بعد موته و قبضا علي ذالك رحمهما الله تعالي فوالذي فلق الحبة و برء النسمة لا يحبهما إلا مؤمن فاضل و لا يبغضهما الا شقي مارق و حبهما قربة و بغضهما مروق.
Suwaid ibn Ghaflah narrates, “I passed by a group of people who were besmirching Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. I thereupon informed ‘Ali and said, “they would never have dared to denigrate them if they would not have assumed that you hold the same stance regarding them; among them is ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’ (he was the first to spread this notion). ‘Ali remarked, “I seek the refuge in Allah! May Allah, have mercy upon them.” He then held my hand and took me to the Masjid. He ascended the mimbar took hold of his beard which had then turned white. His tears started trickling down his beard. His gaze kept falling on the vacant spots in the Masjid till eventually the people had convened. He then said, “What is the matter with some people who make ill mention of the two brothers of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, his ministers, his companions and the leaders of Quraysh. I am free from what they claim and will punish any person who speaks ill of them. They accompanied Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with devotion and earnestness. They would enjoin good and prohibit evil based on the law of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would not equate the view of any person to theirs and would not love anyone as much as he loved them due to noticing their sternness in the injunctions of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam left this world and he was pleased with them. Thereafter they had not transgressed the way of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in their ways and mannerisms, during his lifetime and after his demise. By the oath of Allah! Only a devout believer will love them and none save a wretched imposter will despise them; love for them is virtue and hatred for them is deviance.”
In the eleventh and twelfth theme, the narrations in which ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had made some mention of the virtues of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were cited. These narrations have reached the status of Shuhrah (popularity), or Tawatur (Mass transmission) which engenders categorical evidence, as was alluded before in the beginning of the eleventh theme with reference to al Suyuti and Shah Wali Allah. Ahead, a brief analysis of all the narrations that we have studied thus far is presented.
The Narrations and the Amount of Narrators
The sum of the narrations presented in the eleventh theme is thirty six and in the twelfth theme is sixteen. Approximately twenty-seven narrators narrate these narrations and countless people further narrate them from these transmitters. It all boils down to two aspects:
- In light of the statements of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were the most meritorious individuals of the ummah.
- Any person who denies Abu Bakr and ‘Umar this position is a criminal worthy of being prosecuted, is far from the school of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and has nothing to do with him whatsoever.
The Attitude of the Shia Toward the Statements of ‘Ali
The acclaimed Shia scholarship was also incapable of refuting these statements of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. They, therefore, took to interpreting them in various ways which are incoherent with reality. The most powerful of interpretations according to them is that of Taqiyyah, i.e. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu — the lion of Allah and the bearer of the Dhu al Fiqar sword — was applying double standards, he was outwardly praising them whereas inwardly he despised them. Implying that even during his rule he was helpless and coerced to make such statements thereby commending Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum publically during his rule.
The readers should contemplate which approach is more apt in safeguarding the integrity of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. I have presented all the narrations above. Decide for yourself what you take to be the correct stance.
An Incident Worthy of Reflection
Hereunder I present a story in which the outcome of a person who denigrates Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma is highlighted. Sheikh ‘Abbas al Qummi al Shia has narrated this incident in his book Tatimmah al Muntaha. It reads as follows:
از تاریخ مصر نقل شدہ کہ حسام الدولہ (مقلد بن مسیب) را شعر نیکو ورفض فاحش بود تا آنکہ ازاو نقل ست کہ بیک از حاجیاں وصیت کردہ بود کہ چوں بمدینہ طیبہ برسی سلام من بحضرت رسول برساں۔ وبگو کہ اگر شیخین در جوار تو مدفون نہ بودند ہر آينہ بسر چشم بزیارت تومی آمدم ولیکن جناب علامہ حلی در اجازہ کبیرہ کہ بہ بنی زہرہ دادہ نقل کردہ کہ مقلد بن مسیب (حسام الدولہ) پیغام جسارت آمیز وکلمات کفریہ براۓ قبر آنحضرت فرستاد آں شخص مبلغ تبلیغ کرد ولکن در خواب دید حضرت رسول و امیرالمومنین را آنکہ جناب امیر المونین اورا بقتل رسانید آں خواب را تاریخ برداشت چوں برگشت از حجاز مقلد بن مسیب را کشتہ بودند در ہماں شب کہ تاریخ برداشتہ بود۔
It is recorded in Tarikh Misr that Husam al Dowlah (Muqallid ibn Musayyib) was a good poet but an extremist Shia. It is said regarding him that on one occasion he requested a Haji, “convey my regards to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and tell him that if Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were not buried by your side I would gladly come to pay him a visit at every possible opportunity. However, ‘Allamah Hilli has written in his book al Ijazah al Kabirah that although he had sent this preposterous message filled with words of disbelief to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Haji had conveyed it on his behalf, the Haji saw Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali in a dream in which ‘Ali had killed him (Husam al Dowlah). Upon awakening this person documented the date in which he saw the dream and investigated. To his amazement, Muqallid ibn Musayyib had been killed the very same night.
By the grace of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala Chapter four has come to an end and we now move on to chapter five, which is the last chapter of this book.
 Mustadrak Hakim 3/146.
 Kitab al Kuna of al Dulabi 1/155.
 Hilyat al Auliya’ 8/253.
 Fada’il Abi Bakr al Siddiq p 9.
 Kanz al ‘Ummal 6/371.
 Lisan al Mizan 3/290.
 Hilyat al Auliya’ 7/201; Sirah ‘Umar ibn al Khattab of Ibn al Jowzi, p. 32; Kanz al ‘Ummal 6/369-370.
 Kitab al Athar of Imam Abu Yusuf p. 207: Narration no. 924
 Fada’il Abi Bakr al Siddiq p. 8.
 Kanz al ‘Ummal 6/370.
 Fada’il Abi Bakr al Siddiq p. 8; Kanz al ‘Ummal 6/370.
 Fada’il Abi Bakr al Siddiq p. 7.
 Kanz al ‘Ummal 6/366.
 Al Isti’ab 2/244; al I’tiqad ‘ala Mazhab al Salaf, p. 184; Kanz al ‘Ummal 6/371.
 Tarikh al Khulafa’ p. 35.
 Kanz al ‘Ummal 6/366.
 Fada’il Abi Bakr al Siddiq p. 8; al I’tiqad ‘ala Mazhab al Salaf p. 187; Kanz al ‘Ummal 6/369; Izalat al Khafa’ ‘an Khilafah al Khulafa’ 1/68, 317. These are few references that I have cited here for the narration of ‘Alqamah. In the text above I have chosen the version of Abu Talib al ‘Ashari and have translated it. The variations of the other references might be slightly different but the meaning of all the narrations amount to the same as that of the above cited narration.
 Izalat al Khafa’ 1/317.
 Atwaq al Hamamah of Imam Mu’ayyad Bi Allah Yahya ibn Hamzah al Zaidi. This narration appears towards the end of the book. I have cited this narration with reference to Tuhfah Ithna ‘Ashariyah. Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz al Dehlawi has cited this narration in the third chapter under the theme: the state of the predecessors of the Shia.
 Tatimmah al Muntaha of ‘Abbas al Qummi p. 325-326.Back to top