In this chapter I will present two discussions:
In the first discussion, five aspects will be discussed:
And in the second discussion I will shed light upon their belief in the fundamentals of Iman.
The Ithna ‘Ashariyyah have included believing in the Twelve Imams in the definition of iman. In fact, they have considered it to be Iman itself. In Usul al Kafi the following narration appears:
الإسلام هو الظاهر الذي عليه الناس: شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له وأن محمدا عبده ورسوله… الإيمان معرفة هذا الأمر مع هذا، فإن أقر بها و لم يعرف هذا الأمر كان مسلما و كان ضالا
Islam is what we see prevalent in the lives of the people, viz. testifying that there is no deity but Allah, who has no partners, and that Muhammad is his servant and Messenger… (Thereafter he makes mention of the remaining fundamentals thereof and then states,) Iman is recognising this aspect [that the Imams are divinely appointed] with that; if a person accepts them without acknowledging this aspect he will be a Muslim but he will be deviated.
They also aver that reward in the hereafter is not purely upon Islam, rather upon iman. The author of al Kafi has established a chapter with the title, Amnesty of life is due to Islam and reward will be in lieu of iman. Concerning the following verse:
قُوْلُوْا آمَنَّا بِاللّٰهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلٰى إِبْرَاهِيْمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيْلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوْبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوْتِيَ مُوْسَىٰ وَعِيْسَىٰ وَمَا أُوْتِيَ النَّبِيُّوْنَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُوْنَ فَإِنْ أٰمَنُوْا بِمِثْلِ مَآ أٰمَنتُم بِهِ فَقَدِ اهْتَدَوْا وَّإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا هُمْ فِيْ شِقَاقٍ
Say, “We have brought faith in Allah, in that which is revealed to us, in that which was revealed to Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq, Ya’qub and the descendants, in that which was given to Musa and ‘Isa, and that which the rest of the prophets were given from their Lord. We do not differentiate between any of them and we are Muslims [in submission] to Him. If they bring faith just as you brought faith they are rightly guided and if they turn away, they are only in dissension.
They render the interpretation:
عن أبي جعفر قال: إنما عني بذالك عليا، والحسن، و الحسين، و فاطمة.وجرت بعدهم في الأئمة.قال:ثم يرجع القول من الله في الناس فقال: (فإن آمنوا) يعني الناس، (يمثل ما آمنتم به) يعني عليا و فاطمة و الحسن و الحسين و الأئمة من بعدهم،(فقد اهتدوا و إن تولوا فإنما هم في شقاق)
Abu Jafar al Baqir says, “‘Ali, Hassan, Hussain, and Fatimah are meant in this verse. After them the same applies to the Imams.”
He then said, “Then Allah addresses the people and says, “If they (the people) bring faith just as you have, i.e. ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, Hussain, and the Imams that followed, they will be rightly guided and if they turn away, they are only in dissension.
Therefore Ibn Mutahhar al Hilli states the following:
إن مسألة الإمامة (إمامة الاثني عشر )هي أحد أركان الإيمان المستحق بسببه الخلود في الجنان والتخلص من غضب الرحمان
The issue of Imamah (the leadership of the Twelve Imams) is one of the fundamentals of iman due to which a person will become worthy of everlasting bliss in Jannat and will be freed from the punishment of the Merciful.
Muhammad Jawwad al ‘Amili states the following:
الإيمان عندنا إنما يتحقق بالإعتراف بإمامة الأئمة الإثني عشر عليهم السلام، إلا من مات في عهد احدهم فلا يشترط في إيمانه إلا معرفة إمام زمانه و من قبله
Iman according to us is established when the Imamah of the Twelve Imams is acknowledged, with the exception of a person who lived in the era of one of the Imams; it will suffice for him to acknowledge the Imam of his time and the Imam before him.
Amir Muhammad al Qazwini (one of their contemporary scholars) says:
إن من يكفر بولاية علي وإمامته رضي الله عنه فقد اسقط إيمان من حسابه و أحبط بذلك عمله
Whoever denies the Wilayah and the Imamah of ‘Ali has discarded his faith and thereby destroyed his actions.
Naturally, due to the nature of their faith which is unknown but to them, they have contrived a third testimony of faith which is the hallmark of this new definition of Iman. It is:
أشهد أن عليا ولي الله
I testify that ‘Ali is the Wali of Allah.
They repeat this testimony in their adhan, after their salah, and they instruct their fatally ill to pronounce it. So acceptance of the Imams together with the Shahadatayn is pronounced after every salah. Al Hurr al ‘Amili has established an entire chapter to prove this.
It appears in their narrations that Zurarah reported the following from Abu Jafar ‘alayh al Salam al Baqir:
لو أدركت عكرمة عند الموت لنفعته، فقيل لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: بماذا كان ينفعه؟ قال: يلقن ما أنتم عليه
“If I was to meet ‘Ikrimah before his death I would have benefitted him.”
Abu ‘Abdullah was asked as to how his father would benefit him.
He said, “By urging him to read what you believe.”
Abu Basir narrates the following from Abu Jafar:
لقنوا موتاكم عند الموت شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله و الولاية
Instruct your fatally ill to attest the Shahadatayn and Wilayah at the time of death.
The deceased is instructed with the same when he is being entered into the grave, likewise when the people are leaving. Al Majlisi has established a chapter with the title, Chapter: Regarding the desirability of the relative instructing the deceased with the Shahadatayn and the acknowledgement of the Imams together with their names after the leaving of the people, he has cited a few narrations therein.
This new testimony is a testimony regarding the doctrine of Imamah regarding which Ibn Mutahhar al Hilli asserts the following:
أهم المطالب في أحكام الدين و أشرف مسائل المسلمين
The most important aspect of din and the noblest of the belief of the Muslims.
In conclusion, considering the doctrine of the Twelve Imams to be a fundamental component of Iman, or Iman itself, and the most important aspect of din; this is one of the unequivocal evidences and clear signs of the falsity of their dogma. And of the fact that they have inserted into the din of Allah that which He has not sanctioned as there is no evidence in this regard, neither in the Qur’an or in the Sunnah. Therefore, Ibn Taymiyyah opined that the belief of Imamah (just Imamah, without taking into account their belief in the Imamah of the Twelve Infallibles which is their exclusive position) amounts to disbelief and apostasy. Because it is categorically established that iman in Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are the pivotal parts of our din.
Furthermore if this is really the status of Imamah according to them then the Shia are the furthest away from adherence to it. For according to them any flag that is raised before the emergence of the non-existent Mahdi whom they call the ‘awaited’ is a flag of ignorance. They also dub all the Khalifas besides ‘Ali and Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhuma as disbelievers.
It should also be remembered that merely knowing the Imams is not sufficient to obtain the rank of honour, because a person will not attain honour if he merely knows the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and does not follow his instructions and obey his commands.
According to the Shia, iman is in essence acknowledging the Twelve Imams. They take it the an extent further by confirming that merely knowing the Imams is sufficient for the validity of one’s faith and for admission in to Jannat; thereby adopting the stance of the Murji’ah. Therefore, the author of al Kafi has established a chapter titled, With Iman no evil is harmful and with disbelief no good is of benefit. Therein he presents six narrations; one among them is the following:
الإيمان لا يضر معه العمل و كذالك الكفر لا ينفع معه العمل
With iman no action is harmful and with disbelief no action is beneficial.
And iman according to them is love and veneration of the Imams.
When Ibn Taymiyyah said, “Most of the Shia believe that the love of ‘Ali is such a virtue that thereafter no evil is harmful.” One of their scholars in contemporary times denied that saying the following:
ما نسبه إلي كثير من الشيعة من القول بأن حب علي حسنة ليس يضر معه سيئة فإنه بهتان منه فإنهم جميعا متفقون علي ذلك فتخصيصه الكثير منهم بهذه العقيدة ليس له وجه سوي الكذب.
What he has attributed to many of the Shia regarding the love of ‘Ali being a virtue after which no evil is harmful is a slander. Because this is not just the belief of some rather it is the unanimous belief of all of them. So for him to only identify a few of them with this belief has no other possible interpretation besides that of a lie.
Ibn Taymiyyah mentions:
وإذا كانت السيئات لا تضرمع حب علي فلا حاجة إلي الإمام المعصوم الذي هو لطف في التكليف فإنه إذا لم يوجد إنما توجد سيئات و معاص فإذا كان حب علي كافيا فسواء وجد الإمام أو لم يوجد.
If evil sins are of no harm with the presence of the love of ‘Ali then there exists no need for an infallible Imam who is a bounty in terms of a divine code of conduct. Because, if the Imam is non-existent there will obviously only be evil and vice, so if the love of ‘Ali is sufficient then the existence/non-existence of the Imam does not make much of a difference.
Hence, the issue of the leadership of an infallible which is based upon him being a bounty for the creation falls apart because of the issue of mere love for him. As a general rule, every view of theirs contradicts and violates another. And this is the nature of any creed which does not originate from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.
The only way in which the Shia are different from the Murji’ah is that the latter asserts that iman is the recognition of Allah whereas the former says that it is the recognition of the Imams.
Their narrations can be found in abundance in this regard. One of their narrations assert:
وهل الدين إلا الحب
And is religion anything else but love?
Al Majlisi has established a chapter named, Chapter: Regarding the reward of loving them and supporting them, and that they are a protection from hell. Another chapter is named as follows, Alliance with ‘Ali is a means of protection from the punishment of the All Powerful, and that if the people would all have united to love him, Allah would not have created the Fire. Likewise one of their narrations state:
لا يدخل الجنة أحد إلا من أحبه من الأولين والآخرين ولا يدخل النار أحد إلا من أبغضه من الأولين والآخرين
No person will enter Jannat besides the one who loves him from the first to come till the last to come. And no person will enter Jahannam besides the one who hates him from the first to come till the last to come.
Based on this narration, the very bases of iman on Allah, His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the religious doctrines, and all the Shar’i obligations and duties is discarded. Nothing but the love of ‘Ali remains. This type of fabrications has led many people astray, who have a passion for liberty and fulfilling their carnal desires.
These narrations necessitate that the Qur’an did not descend for the guidance of mankind but for their deviation, because no mention is made therein of loving ‘Ali or hating him whereas that is the principle on which a person will enter Jannat or Jahannam.
Al Suwaidi says:
وإذا كان حب الله ورسوله غير كاف في النجاة والخلاص من العذاب بلا إيمان وعمل صالح فكيف يكون حب علي كافيا وهذا مخالف لقوله سبحانه: مَن يَعْمَلْ سُوْءًا يُجْزَ بِهِ وقوله: وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ بل مخالف لأصولهم و رواياتهم، أما المخالفة للأصول، فلأنه إذا ارتكب رافضي الكبائر ولم يعاقبه الله علي ذلك يلزم ترك الواجب علي الله تعالي عندهم. واما المخالفة للروايات فلأن عليا والسجاد الأئمة الآخرين قد روي عنهم في أدعيتهم الواردة عندهم بطرق صحيحة البكاء والإستعاذة من عذاب الله تعالي. وإذا كان مثل هؤلاء الكرام خاشعين خائفين من عذاب الله فكيف يصح لغيرهم أن يغتر بمحبتهم ويتكل عليهم في ترك العمل.
If mere love for Allah and His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, without iman and good actions, is not sufficient for salvation and emancipation from the punishment, then how can love for ‘Ali be sufficient? This is against the verse of the Qur’an, Whoever does evil will be punished for it, and the verse, Whoever does an iota of evil will see it. In fact it violates their principles and traditions as well. As for violating their principles, if a Shia commits major sins and is not taken to task by Allah it amounts to Allah discarding an obligation according to them. And as for its violation of their tradition, it is reported through authentic chains of transmission that ‘Ali, al Sajjad, and the Imams would—in their authentically proven supplications to Allah—cry and seek his refuge from his punishment; hence, if they were so humbled and fearful of the punishment of Allah then how would it ever be permissible for anyone else to be deceived by their love and depend solely upon it for salvation without doing any action.
Likewise, look at their claim that no one will enter hell besides a person who hated him from the first to come to the last to come. You will realise that this clearly indicates that the likes of Firoun, Haman, Qarun, and all the Lords of disbelief will not enter hell because they did not hate ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, rather they did not know him. See to what extent has their extremism driven them. There is no doubt that in refuting this claim not much effort is required due to its falsity being clearly evident in Islam. If the reality was really as they state it to be, Messengers would not have been sent, Books would not have been revealed, and divine legislation not implemented.
Sadly, however, the remnants of these beliefs still have their mark in the Shia world which has led them to undermining the Shari’ah of Allah and has made them bold against His commandments.
Ibn Babuwayh al Qummi states:
إعتقادنا في الوعد أن من وعد الله علي عمل ثوابا فهو منجزه
Our belief is that whatever promise Allah has made upon any action He is bound to fulfilling it.
They have went to great lengths in defining the promises of Allah; they have thus fabricated narrations and reports which they have ascribed to Jafar al Sadiq and others. These narrations establish rewards for deeds regarding which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has not revealed any evidence. Instead, evidence suggests the improbability, prohibition, or even consideration of such deeds to polytheistic or heretic in their nature, such as: cursing the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum of the Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, which they have deemed the best act of worship, slapping the cheeks, tearing the garments, inflicting pain upon one’s self, and wounding oneself with knives and swords in the name of the commemoration of the martyrdom of Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu, which again, according to them, is the greatest of all devotions. Likewise, performing the pilgrimage to the tombs of the Imams, circummambulating around them, supplicating to them, and seeking help from them is also considered a very meritorious act of devotion according to them. And in this way do they concoct acts of devotion sanctioning that regarding which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has not revealed any proof and attaching to them tremendous rewards.
In addition, some of their narrations go on to mention that their Imams have the prerogative of entering their Shia into Jannat. In fact, they actually testified for some of their partisans specifically that they will enter Jannat. So they can promise reward and they can make that reward materialise.
A narration of this nature appears in Rijal al Kashshi. It reads as follows:
أن أبا الحسن قد ضمن له الجنه
Ziyad al Qandi narrates from ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin that the Imam Abu al Hassan gave him glad-tidings of Jannat.
Another narration states:
عن عبد الرحمان الحجاج قال: قلت لابي الحسن رضي الله عنه إن علي بن يقطين أرسلني إليك برسالة أسألك الدعاء له، فقال: في أمر الآخرة؟ قلت نعم، قالك فوضع يده علي صدره ثم قال:ضمنت لعلي بن يقطين ألا تمسه النار
‘Abd al Rahman al Hajjaj says that he said to Abu al Hassan that ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin sent me with a letter to him asking him to supplicate on his behalf.
He asked, “Regarding the affairs of the afterlife?”
To which I responded by saying yes.
He placed his hand on his chest and said thus, “I take responsibility that the fire will not touch ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin.”
Look at how they make covenants on behalf of Allah as if they have the treasures of the Mercy of Allah and in their hands are the keys to everything; hence, they can guarantee without even leaving the matter pending upon the decision of Allah, they can distribute the certificates of forgiveness and mercy. Do they have a plan in place with Allah? Or did any Messenger bring down revelation to them? Or were they able to acquire the knowledge of the unseen? Or do they have an agreement with Allah?
Claims of this sort clearly pronounce that their fabricators are a group of heretics who do not believe in the Qur’an and the Sunnah, and whose only purpose is to destroy Islam. They found no better ploy to carry out this agenda of theirs besides that of partisanship of the Ahlul Bayt. ‘Ali ibn Yaqtin for whom these heretics guaranteed Jannat probably is a member of their team, for Ibn Jarir al Tabari has mentioned that he was killed in 169 A.H upon his heretic beliefs.
Lastly, there are multiple narrations in the books of the Twelvers wherein the Imams guarantee their followers admission into Jannat.
Al Mufid says:
اتفقت الأماميه علي انالوعيد بالخلود في النار متوجه إلي الكفار خاصة دون مرتكبي الذنوب من أهل المعرفة بالله تعالي والإقرار بفرائضه من أهل الصلاة، وأنهم بارتكاب الكبيرة لا يخرجون عن الإسلام وإن كانوا يفسقون بما فعلوه من الكبائر والآثام.
The Imamiyyah are unanimous that the warning of remaining forever in the Fire of Jahannam is directed to the disbelievers specifically. The sinful among those who have obtained the recognition of Allah and acknowledged his commandments by carrying out their salah are not included. And they by their commission of major sins do not leave the fold of Islam even though they will be considered sinful because of their sins.
This statement outwardly is in accordance with the stance of the Ahlus Sunnah. They have however, failed in the implementation of this rule due their very broad definition of disbelief and things that render a person a disbeliever, such as the following:
اتفقت الإمامية علي أن صاحب البدع كلهم كفار، وأن علي الإمام أن يستتيبهم عند التمكن بعد الدعوة لهم وإقامة البينات عليهم. فإن تابوا عن بدعهم وصاروا إلي الصواب وإلا قتلهم لردتهم عن الإيمان، وإن مات منهم علي تلك البدعة فهو من أهل النار.
The Twelvers are unanimous that people aligned to innovated creeds are disbelievers, and that it is the duty of the Imam to compel them to repent after engaging with them and establishing evidence. If they repent from their innovations and move to the right path, well and good, or else they will be killed owing to their disbelief. And if any of them die upon his innovative beliefs he will be from the people of Jahannam.
Likewise they have unanimously dubbed as a disbeliever any person who opposed ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Likewise, all such people are disbelievers, they are astray and accursed due to their opposition of Amir al Mu’minin. And hence they will be doomed forever in the fire of Jahannam. This is the blanket ruling they pass regarding anyone who opposes them; therefore, Ibn Babuwayh al Qummi has said:
واعتقادنا في من خالفنا في شيئ واحد كاعتقادنا في من خالفنا في جميع أمور الدين.
Our stance regarding a person who has opposed us in one aspect of the categorically established aspects of din is that he is equal to the one who has opposed us in all aspects of din.
So they are in terms of this Wa’idiyyah (extremists in sounding warnings). Hence, Ibn Taymiyyah has asserted that the later Shia are Wa’idiyyah in the names of Allah and his commandments.
Al Ash’ari goes onto mention that a group of the Shia have the following approach:
يثبتون الوعيد علي من خالفهم ويقولون إنهم يعذبون ولا يقولون بإثبات الوعيد في من قال بقولهم، ويزعمون أن الله سبحانه يدخلهم الجنة، وإن أدخلهم النار أخرجهم منها. ورووا في أئمتهم أن ما كان بين الله وبين الشيعة من المعاصي سألوا الله فيهم فصفح عنهم، وما كان بين الشيعة وبين الأئمة تجاوزوا عنه، وما كان بين الشيعة و بين الناس من المظالم شفعوا لهم إليهم حتي يصفحوا عنهم.
They only establish the warnings against those who oppose them saying that they will be punished, etc., but they do not establish them against those who are in harmony with them. Rather they aver that Allah will enter them into Jannat, and if he admits them into Jahannam he will take them out. They have narrated about the Imams that they will intercede to Allah regarding the sins that the Shia have committed subsequent to which Allah will forgive them. And the sins the Shia committed against the Imams will be forgiven. Regarding the sins they committed against the people the Imams will intercede on their behalf to the implicated people who will consequently forgive them.
The exact same is conveyed by al Majlisi in his book. A chapter therein reads as follows, Chapter: Regarding the forgiveness of the Shia; therein he has cited ninety seven narrations and after citing them, it seems as if he considered them to be meagre so he reminds the readers that many more narrations of the same category have passed in the chapters of Ma’ad (afterlife), the pond of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, intercession, the state of the believers and criminals in the afterlife, and the chapters pertaining to the virtues of the Imams. The first narration that he cites in this chapter asserts the assessment of al Ash’ari. It reads as follows:
إذا كان يوم القيامة ولينا حساب شيعتنا، فمن كانت مظلمته فيما بينه وبين الله عز و جل حكمنا فيها فأجابنا، ومن كانت مظلمته فيما بينه وبين الناس استوهبناها فوهبت لنا، ومن كانت مظلمته فيما بينه وبيننا كنا أحق من عفا وصفح.
On the day of Judgment we will take charge of the accounting of our Shia. Hence, whoever is responsible of a crime between him and Allah we will decide regarding it and He will approve. And whoever is responsible of a crime between him and the people we will seek it as a gift from them which we will consequently be granted. And if someone is responsible of a crime between him and us then we are more rightful to forgive.
In conclusion, they are Wa’idiyyah (extremist in sounding warnings) when it comes to those who oppose them and Murji’ah when it comes to those who agree with them.
 Al Ash’ari has classed this to be the doctrine of majority of the Shia. (Maqalat al Islamiyyin 1/125)
 Usul al Kafi 2/24.
 Surah al Baqarah: 136, 137.
 Tafsir al ‘Ayyashi 1/62; Tafsir al Safi 1/92; al Burhan 1/157.
 Minhaj al Karamah fi Ma’rifah al Imamah p. 1.
 Miftah al Karamah 2/80.
 Al Shia fi ‘Aqa’idihim wa Ahkamihim p. 24.
 Wasa’il al Shia 4/1038, Chapter regarding the desirability of acknowledging the Imams together with the Shahadatayn.
 This refers to ‘Ikrimah the freed slave of Ibn ‘Abbas, a great scholar, narrator, and exegete (Siyar A’lam al Nubala’ 5/12). This is the value these people have for him (Rijal al Kashshi p. 216: therein it is mentioned that this suggests denigration).
 Furu’ al Kafi 1/34; Man La Yahduruhu al Faqih 1/41; Tahdhib al Ahkam 1/82; Rijal al Kashshi p.216; Wasa’il al Shia 2/665.
 Furu’ al Kafi 1/34; Tahdhib al Ahkam 1/82; Wasa’il al Shia 2/665.
 Furu’ al Kafi 1/53; Tahdhib al Ahkam 1/91; Wasa’il al Shia 2/843.
 Wasa’il al Shia 2/862.
 Minhaj al Karamah p. 1.
 Minhaj al Sunnah 1/20. More details will come in the chapter of Imamah.
 Minhaj al Sunnah 1/20.
 Al Nu’mani: al Ghaybah p. 7: chapter regarding a person who raises the flag before the appearance of the Mahdi being a devil.
 Minhaj al Sunnah 1/31.
 Those who make a clear distinction between iman and actions; who aver that iman is purely the recognition of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Amongst them some say, “No one from the people of the Qiblah will enter hell-fire despite the countless sins that he has committed (Maqalat al Islamiyyin 1/213; al Milal wa al Nihal 1/139; al Farq bayn al Firaq p. 202-207; al Tanbih wa al Radd p. 43; al Tabsir fi al Din p. 59; al Bad’ wa al Tarikh 5/144; I’tiqadat Firaq al Muslimin wa al Mushrikin p. 107; al Khutat 2/350-439.
 Usul al Kafi 2/463.
 Minhaj al Sunnah 1/31.
 Muhammad Mahdi al Kazimi: Minhaj al Shari’ah fi al Radd ‘ala Ibn Taymiyyah 1/98.
 Minhaj al Sunnah 1/31.
 Tafsir al ‘Ayyashi: 1/167; Bihar al Anwar 27/95.
 Bihar al Anwar 21/73-144.
 Bihar al Anwar 39/32.
 ‘Ilal al Shara’i’ p. 162.
 Naqd ‘Aqa’id al Shia p. 34 (manuscript).
 Surah al Nisa’: 123.
 Surah al Zalzalah: 8.
 Naqd ‘Aqa’id al Shia p. 34, 35.
 Al I’tiqadat p. 94; Awa’il al Maqalat p. 57; al Majlisi: al I’tiqadat p. 100.
 Bihar al Anwar 27/218.
 Al Zanjani: ‘Aqa’id al Imamiyyah 1/289; Muhammad Hussain Al Kashif al Ghita’: al Ayat al Bayyinat p. 4; Da’irat al Ma’arif al Shi’iyah 21/706.
 Refer to the discussion regarding their belief regarding the oneness of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.
 Bihar al Anwar, chapter regarding the deeds of the day and night of Ghadir and the supplications to be made therein 98/298-323, chapter regarding the actions of the day of Nowruz and whatever is linked to it 98/419; Wasa’il al Shia, chapter regarding the desirability of fasting on the day of Nowruz, bathing therein, and wearing fine clothing and perfume 7/346, chapter regarding the desirability of fasting on the twenty ninth of Dhi al Qa’dah and that it is an expiation for the sins of seventy years 7/333, likewise the chapters regarding the salah of Jafar 5/194, 197, the salah of Fatimah 5/243, the salah of the day of Mubahalah which is equal to a hundred thousand Hajjs as they allege 5/287.
 Rijal al Kashshi p. 430.
 Note that the Imam had to ask what the objective of the supplication was, whereas the narration suggests that he knew the abode of the seeker and took responsibility for him. This is a fabrication of dim-witted people. Or maybe it is just that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala wanted to expose the disgrace of their creed by way of such widespread contradiction which is found in their narrations.
 Rijal al Kashshi p. 431 (he has cited quite a few narrations of the same nature on p. 431-433.
 Tarikh al Tabari 8/190.
 Usul al Kafi 1/474,475; Rijal al Kashshi p. 447-448, 484; Rijal al Hilli p. 98, 185. In all these references mention is made of the Imams guaranteeing their partisans entry into Jannat; this is considered to be an authentication of that narrator by the Shia scholarship and thus they cite the narrations of such individuals in their books.
 Awa’il al maqalat p. 14.
 Al I’tiqadat p. 116; al Majlisi: al I’tiqadat p. 100.
 Al Fatawa 6/55.
 Maqalat al Islamiyyin 1/126.
 Bihar al Anwar 68/99; ‘Uyun Akhbar al Rida 2/68.
 Ibid 68/99; ‘Uyun Akhbar al Rida 2/68.