The subject of contention and dispute between the Muslims after the murder of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu can be can be analysed in two ways:
The first: The blame in that Fitnah in general of course was upon the killers of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu. Because the sin of all the Muslims who were killed at the hands of their brothers will be upon them; they were the people who opened the door of Fitnah, and whatever happened subsequent to that, the sin thereof will be upon them due to them being the direct cause of it. They were the transgressive group because of who every person who was killed in Jamal and Siffin got killed. Subsequent to that, the events, opinions, and standpoints that followed opened the door of division and disunity amongst them Muslims.
It is evident that the enemies of Islam who grew despondent from combatting Islam in the battlefield realised that cunningly plotting against this Din would prove more effective. Hence, they started orchestrating their plots in secrecy, for they had outwardly expressed Islam and inwardly remained upon their disbelief. It is by way of this disguise and hypocrisy that they gave rise to issues and calamities in the Islamic empire, placed obstacles and barriers in its path, and carried out countless destructive procedures toward it, as is obvious from the events which paved the way to the Fitnah, fuelled its fire, and brought about disunity between the Muslims. The dangers of this plotting lay in the fact that the extent and boundaries of this opposing force were not clear, and in that it was clandestinely included into the ranks of the Muslims, and that it was capable of becoming invisible after any destruction that it caused.
The Qur’an has warned against the ploys of the hypocrites and their danger upon the Muslim society. It has also alluded to the means and distorted and clandestine ways which they deploy to destroy Islam and put an end to its progress. This is so that the Muslims always remain vigilant regarding them and do not become victims of their deception. Therefore, it is not surprising that the verses pertaining to hypocrisy and the hypocrites cover 340 verses of the Qur’an.
There is no doubt that the Jews were the first people to tread this heinous path, i.e. the path of igniting hypocrisy and hiding behind it in order to convulse the pillars of Islam. ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’ and his cult were the most prominent hypocrites who plotted against Islam. He was the one who orchestrated the instigation of the Fitnah during the Caliphate of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu `anhu and he and his cohorts contributed to the Fitnah during the Caliphate of ‘Ali radiya Llahu `anhu after the Muslims agreed to reconcile.
The second: Whatever transpired from the side of the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum in this Fitnah should be interpreted as stemming from noble intentions, difference of analyses and Ijtihad. Similarly, it should be interpreted as error and rightness occurring therein. But they were nonetheless people of Ijtihad, and due to their sincerity, they will be rewarded in both instances of error or rightness, even though the reward of the right is double that of the one in error. Because every group had a viewpoint which it was defending with noble intentions, because the dispute between them was not due to vying over the worldly things, but it originated from their Ijtihad regarding the implementation of the rulings of Shari’ah.
Some of the Salaf were asked regarding the blood that was shed between the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum and he said:
تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ وَلَا تُسْـَٔلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُواْ يَعْمَلُونَ
That was a nation which has passed on. It will have what it earned and you will have what you earned. And you will not be asked about what they used to do.
And when ‘Abdullah ibn al Mubarak was asked regarding what transpired between ‘Ali and Muawiyah radiya Llahu `anhuma he said:
فتنة قد عصم الله منها سيوفنا فلنعتصم منها ألسنتنا
That was a Fitnah from which Allah kept our swords safe, so we should keep are tongues safe.
In other words, we should keep them safe from falling into error and passing judgements regarding some of them which might not be incorrect.
And Ibn Furak said:
ومن أصحابنا من قال: إن سبيل ما جرى بين الصحابة من المنازعات كسبيل ما جرى بين إخوة يوسف، ثم إنهم لم يخرجوا بذلك عن حد الولاية والنبوة، فكذلك فيما جرى بين الصحابة
Among our scholars some have suggested that the way of dealing with the disputes which occurred between the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum is like the way of dealing with what transpired between the brothers of Yusuf `alayh al Salam. For that had not disqualified the latter from being the friends of Allah and His prophets, likewise can be said regarding what occurred between the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum.
And al Hassan al Basri said the following regarding their fighting:
قتال شهده أصحاب محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم وغبنا، وعلموا وجهلنا، واجتمعوا فاتبعنا، واختلفوا فوقفنا
This is fighting which the Sahabah of Muhammad salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam witnessed and we did not. They knew and we did not. When they were united, we followed, and when they disputed, we suspended judgement.
And al Muhasibi said:
فنحن نقول كما قال الحسن البصري، ونعلم أن القوم كان أعلم بما دخلوا فيه منا، ونتبع ما اجتمعوا عليه، ونقف عند ما اختلفوا فيه، ولا نبتدع رأيا منا، ونعلم أنهم اجتهدوا وأرادوا الله عز وجل، إذ كانوا غير متهمين في الدين.
So, we say what al Hassan al Basri said. And we know that they knew better what they got involved in. Hence, we follow that which they united upon and stop at what they disputed in. We do not invent an opinion from our side, and we know that they practiced Ijtihad and intended the pleasure of Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala, for they were not people who can be suspected in their Din.
And it has occurred in a Sahih hadith:
لا تقوم الساعة حتى تقتتل فئتان عظيمتان تكون بينهما مقتلة عظيمة دعوتهما واحدة
The last hour will not come until two great groups fight. There will be a great battle between them, and their claims will be one.
Commenting upon this Ibn Hajar say:
والمراد بالفئتين فئة علي ومن معه، وفئة معاوية ومن معه، والمراد بالدعوة الإسلام على الرجح، وقيل المراد اعتقاد كل منهما أنه على الحق.
By the ‘two groups’ the group of ‘Ali and those who were with him and the group of Muawiyah and those who were with him are meant. And by ‘claim’ Islam is meant according to the preferred opinion. And it is also suggested that the belief of each of them that it is upon the truth is meant.
And al Bukhari has narrated the following in his Tarikh from Umm ‘Umarah, the caretaker of ‘Ammar radiya Llahu `anhu:
اشتكى عمار، قال: لا أموت في مرضي، حدثني حبيبي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أني لا أموت إلا قتلا بين فئتين مؤمنتين
‘Ammar radiya Llahu `anhu fell ill. He said, “I will not pass away in my sickness, for my beloved Rasul Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam told me that I will not die but after being killed in a feud between two believing groups.”
And Ibn al ’Arabi has said what will follow in the exegesis of the verse:
وَإِن طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُوا فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا فَإِن بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الْأُخْرَىٰ فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِي تَبْغِي حَتَّىٰ تَفِيءَ إِلَىٰ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ فَإِن فَاءَتْ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ. إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ. إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ.وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ
And if two factions amongst the believers should fight, then make settlement between the two. But if one of them opposes the other, then fight against the one that opposes until it returns to the ordinance of Allah. And if it returns then make settlement between them in justice and act justly. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly. The believers are but brothers, so make settlement between your brothers. And fear Allah that you may receive mercy.
فلم يخرجهم عن الإيمان بالبغي والتأويل ولا سلب عنهم اسم الأخوة بقوله بعده: . إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ فهذه كلها أمور جرت على رسم النزاع، ولم تخرج عن طريق من طرق الفقه، ولا عدت سبيل الاجتهاد الذي يؤجر فيه المصيب عشرة والمخطئ أجرا واحدا، وما وقع من روايات في كتب التاريخ-عدا ما ذكرنا- فلا تلتفتوا إلى حرف منها فإنها كلها باطلة.
Allah did not remove them from iman because of rebellion or exercising Ijtihad, nor did he take away from them the title of brotherhood, for he says thereafter, “The believers are but brothers, so make settlement between your brothers.” So, all these matters transpired as per the norms of argumentation. They did not exit a valid method from the many method of jurisprudence, nor did they exceed the path of Ijtihad wherein a correct individual gets ten rewards and erring individual gets one reward. Whatever else has featured in the books of history, other than what we have cited, do not pay attention to even a letter of it, for it is all false.
And al Nawawi says:
اعلم أن الدماء التي جرت بين الصحابة رضي الله عنهم ليست بداخلة في هذا الوعيد -يعني قول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: إذا التقى المسلمان بسيفيهما فالقاتل والمقتول في النار. ومذهب أهل السنة والحق إحسان الظن بهم، والإمساك عما شجر بينهم، وتأويل قتالهم، وأنهم مجتهدون متأولون لم يقصدوا معصية، ولا محض الدنيا، بل اعتقد كل فريق أنه المحق، ومخالفه يأثم، فوجب عليه قتاله ليرجع إلى الله، وكان بعضهم مصيباً وبعضهم مخطئاً معذوراً في الخطأ، لأنه اجتهاد، والمجتهد إذا أخطأ لا إثم عليه
Know that the blood which was shed between the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum is not included in this warning (i.e. in the hadith of Nabi salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam: “When two Muslims meet with their swords than the killer and the killed will be in Hell-fire.” The stance of the Ahlus Sunnah and the people of truth is to entertain good assumptions regarding them, withdraw from discussing what transpired between them, and to interpreted their fighting saying that they had exercised Ijtihad and did not intend vice nor the worldly things. Each party thought that it was correct and that its opposition was incorrect and sinful, and thus it was necessary for it to fight it till it returned to Allah. Some of them were correct and others among them had erred but are excused in that erring. Because it is Ijtihad, and when a person who exercises Ijtihad errs there is no sin upon him.
Ibn Taymiyyah as well presents the stance of the Ahlus Sunnah in this issue, deeming very unlikely the views of the innovators like the Khawarij, the Shia, and the Mu’tazilah who all have considered fighting to necessitate either Kufr (disbelief) or Fisq (sinning). He, thus, states that the Ahl al Hadith concur upon the upstanding nature of the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum and thereafter say:
وأهل السنة والجماعة وأئمة الدين لا يعتقدون عصمة أحد من الصحابة، بل يمكن أن يقع الذنب منهم، والله يغفر لهم بالتوبة ويرفع بها درجاتهم و وَالَّذِي جَاءَ بِالصِّدْقِ وَصَدَّقَ بِهِ أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ لَهُمْ مَا يَشَاءُونَ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ ذَلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ لِيُكَفِّرَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ أَسْوَأَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا وَيَجْزِيَهُمْ أَجْرَهُمْ بِأَحْسَنِ الَّذِي كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ. إن الأنبياء معصومون فقط، أما فأما الصديقون والشهداء والصالحون فليسوا بمعصومين وهذا في الذنوب المحققة وأما ما اجتهدوا فيه فتارة يصيبون وتارة يخطئون فإذا اجتهدوا وأصابوا فلهم أجران وإذا اجتهدوا وأخطئوا فلهم أجر واحد على اجتهادهم، وجمهور أهل العلم يفرقون بين الخوار ج المارقين وبين أصحاب الجمل والصفين ممن يعد من البغاة المتأولين، وهذا مأثور عن الصحابة وعامةأهل الحديث والفقهاء والأئمة.
The Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah and the scholars of Din do not believe in the infallibility of any of the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum, rather it is possible for a sin to occur from them. But Allah will forgive them by virtue of their repentance and will raise their stages. ‘And the one that brought the truth (i.e. the prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and they who believed in it, they are the righteous. They will have whatever they desire with their lord. That is the reward of the doers of good. That Allah may remove from them the worst of what they did, and reward them they due for the best of what used to do.’ Only the Prophets `alayhim al Salam are infallible. As for the Siddiqin (those who resemble the Prophets most), the martyrs, and the pious, they are not infallible. This is pertaining to established sins. As for their Ijtihad, at times they will be correct and at times they will err. So, when they exercise Ijtihad and reach the correct conclusion, for them will be double reward, and if they err, for them will be a single reward for their Ijtihad. Then, most scholars differentiate between the Khawarij whose tendency was to quickly exit the Din and the people of Jamal and Siffin who were rebels who exercised Ijtihad. This is reported from the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum, and majority of the scholars of Hadith, the jurists, and the Imams.
So, Ibn Taymiyyah has deemed this to be mere rebelling whose people will not be excommunicated according to the consensus of the scholars of Din. Because the Qur’an has emphatically announced their iman and their brotherhood despite the presence of fighting and rebellion in them. Also, mere rebelling, oppression, and transgression do not render ordinary people out of the fold of iman and do not necessitate cursing them, so how would they render the people of the best generations out of the fold.
In another place he says:
فمن جزم في واحد من الصحابة بأن له ذنبا يدخل به النار قطعا فهو كاذب مفتر، فإنه لو قال ما لا علم له به لكان مبطلا، فكيف إذا قال ما دلت الدلائل الكثيرة على نقيضه، فمن تكلم فيما شجر بينهم، وقد نهى الله عنه من ذمهم أو التعصب لبعضهم بباطل، فهو ظالم معتد
So, whoever assertively says regarding any Sahabi that he has done a sin because of which he will definitely enter Hell-fire, he is a liar and a slanderer. Because if he had to say something about which he had no knowledge it would be untenable, so what then would be the case if he says something the opposite of which is supported by substantive evidence? Hence, whoever discusses what occurred between them, whereas Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala has prohibited him from reviling them or unrightfully and fanatically supporting one of them, then he is a sinful transgressor.
And al Dhahabi says:
فبالله كيف يكون حال من نشأ في إقليم لا يكاد يشاهد فيه إلا غالياً في الحب مفرطاً في البغض؟! ومن أين يقع له الإنصاف والاعتدال؟! فنحمد الله على العافية، الذي أوجدنا في زمان قد انمحص فيه الحق، واتضح من الطرفين، وعرفنا مآخذ كل واحدة من الطائفتين، وتبصرنا فعذرنا واستغفرنا، وأحببنا باقتصاد، وترحمنا على البغاة بتأويل سائغ في الجملة، أو بخطأ إن شاء الله مغفور، وقلنا كما علمنا الله: وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالإِيمَانِ وَلا تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلًّا لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ. وترضينا أيضاً عمن اعتزل الفريقين: كـ سعد بن أبي وقاص، وابن عمر، ومحمد بن مسلمة، وسعيد بن زيد وخلق، وتبرأنا من الخوارج المارقين، الذين حاربوا علياً، وكفروا الفريقين
For the sake of Allah, what would the situation of a person who grew up in a region where he probably only witnessed a fanatic lover and an extremist hater be? How will he ever have justice and balance? So, we praise Allah for his wellbeing, for he has created us in a time wherein the truth has become pure and clear from both sides, and we have come to learn the evidences of each one of the two groups. We analysed and thereafter excused and sought forgiveness, we loved with moderation, and sought mercy for those who rebelled based on a justifiable rationale, or on the basis of an error which if Allah wills is forgiven. And we said as Allah has taught us: ‘And those who came after them, saying, “Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith and put not in our hearts resentment toward those who have believed. Our Lord, indeed you are the kind and merciful.’ We also sought the pleasure of Allah for those who stayed away from both groups, like Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Ibn ‘Umar, Muhammad ibn Maslamah, Sa’id ibn Zaid, and many others, and we disassociated from the Khawarij who fought ‘Ali radiya Llahu `anhu and excommunicated both the groups.
And Ibn Hajar says:
واتفق أهل السنة على وجوب منع الطعن على أحد من الصحابة بسبب ما وقع لهم من ذلك ولو عرف المحق منهم لأنهم لم يقاتلوا في تلك الحروب إلا عن اجتهاد وقد عفا الله – تعالى -عن المخطئ في الاجتهاد بل ثبت أنه يؤجر أجراً واحداً وأن المصيب يؤجر أجرين
The Ahlus Sunnah concur upon it being obligatory to refrain from criticising any of the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum because of what occurred from them of that sort, even if the one who was correct amongst them is known. Because they did not fight in those battles but on the basis of Ijtihad, and Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala has forgiven the one who errs in his Ijtihad. In fact, it is established that he will be rewarded with one reward and that the one who is correct will be rewarded with a double reward.
Furthermore, the Ahlus Sunnah have interpreted the warning mentioned in this hadith: ‘When two Muslims face one another with their swords, then both of them will be from the people of Hell-fire’ to refer to the individual who fights without an acceptable reason and fights only to seek kingdom or the worldly treasures. For al Bazzar has narrated an addition to the narration: ‘Then the killer and the killed will be in Hell-fire’ which clarifies this. That addition is: ‘When you will fight over the worldly things, then the killer and the killed will be in Hell-fire’. This is also supported by what Muslim has narrated with the wording, “The world will not perish until there comes upon the people a time wherein the killer will not know why he killed and the killed will not know why he was being killed.” It was asked, “How will that happen?” He replied, “Confusion will become predominant. The killer and the killed will be in Hell-fire.”
Nonetheless, it only befits us in this matter to hold on to the verse:
وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالإِيمَانِ وَلا تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلًّا لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ
Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith and put not in our hearts resentment toward those who have believed. Our Lord, indeed you are the kind and merciful.
In conclusion, I would like to say that writing the history of the Rightly Guided Khalifas radiya Llahu `anhum specifically, and the history of the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum in general, according to the Islamic perspective, is a necessity which is binding upon the Muslim Ummah; it is not something optional which is dispensable. This is because the era of the Khalifas surely is the golden era from the eras of the Islamic history which extends over 14 centuries.
Therefore, it is important to meticulously study it in the correct way so that it produces its desired results and actualises for the Ummah its much desired aspiration. For from it lessons can be drawn and from its exemplars and role models guidance can be sought.
Having said that, I hope that I was successful in eliminating confusion from many of the historical events which occurred in this time which is dear to the heart of every Muslim. Hopefully, through it much of what has been forcibly shoved in to history at the hands of personalities driven by sinister motives will become exposed. For history, and specifically Islamic history has remained one of the primary targets of the Orientalists who have paid much attention to it.
I consider it my obligation to announce my gratitude to Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala who gave me the ability to bring many realities to the fore and to eliminate many misconceptions from personalities whose ranks those misconceptions could have sabotaged from the hearts of those who read and study history without thorough research and analyses.
Also, it does not behove me, after Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala having given me the ability to complete this study, but to turn to Him by thanking Him for the favours He has blessed me with. All praise and thanks are for Him all the time.
I do not claim infallibility for myself from erring, nor do I claim uncompromised perfection as well. Because Al ’Imad al Asfahani says, “I have observed that no person will write a book today, but that the next day he will say: if he changed this it will be nice, and if this is added it will seem better, and if this is brought forward it will be better, and if this is left it will be more pleasant. This is from the greatest of lessons, for it is a sign that deficiency prevails over most of humanity.” So Pure is the One who exclusively enjoys perfection, and is beyond all deficiency and forgetting.
Also, I hope that I have to the possible extent fulfilled the right of this study and that I have managed to shed light on new aspects. If I have done good, then it is from Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala, and if I have done bad, then it is from me and from Shaitan and I seek the forgiveness of Allah.
In the end I ask Allah subhanahu wa ta `ala with His beautiful names and His lofted attributes to make this action of mine good, sincerely for His pleasure, in accordance with the truth, a source of benefit for the Muslims, and a deed by way of which He increases my good deeds on the Day of Reckoning.
O Allah do not punish a tongue that informs about You, an eye that looks into sciences that lead to You, a foot that walks to serve You, and a hand that writes about Your path. I beseech you with your might and grandeur, please do not enter me in to Hell-fire, and enter me into Jannat with the pious. Amin.
وآخر دعوانا أن الحمد لله رب العالمين
وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه وسلم.
 Surah al Baqarah: 134.
 Al Qurtubi: al Jami’ li Ahkam al Qur’an, 16/322.
 Muhammad ibn al Hassan ibn Furak al Ansari al Asfahani al Shafi’i, Abu Bakr. From the scholars of Tafsir, Hadith, and the principles of Shari’ah. He was from the jurists of the Shafi’i School. He has written many books, some being: Gharib al Qur’an, Hall al Ayat al Mutashabihat, Mushkil al Hadith wa Gharibuh, al Imla’ fi al Idah wa al Kashf ‘an Wujuh al Ahadith al Waridah, Risalah fi ‘Ilm al Tawhid. He passed away in 406 A.H/1015 A.D. See: al Subki: Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, 3/52; Ibn Taghri Bardi: al Nujum al Zahirah, 4/240; Ibn Khallikan: Wafayat al A’yan, 4/272.
 Al Qurtubi: al Jami’ li Ahkam al Qur’an, 16/322.
 Al Harith ibn Asad al Muhasibi al Baghdadi, Abu ‘Abdullah, the ascetic and the admonisher. He was from the senior Sufis. He would say, “The best of this Ummah are those whom their afterlife does not keep busy from their worldly life, and their worldly life does not keep busy from their afterlife.” He has written: Adab al Nufus, al Ri’ayah li Huquq Allah ‘Azz wa Jall, Mu’atabah al Nafs, al Masa’il fi A’mal al Qulub wa al Jawarih. He passed away in 243 A.H/857 A.D. See: al Khatib: Tarikh Baghdad, 8/211; Abu Nuaim: al Hilyah, 10/73; Ibn al Jawzi: Sifah al Safwah, 2/207.
 Al Qurtubi: al Jami’ li Ahkam al Qur’an, 16/322.
 Sahih al Bukhari, 8/101, chapter of Fitan.
 Ibn Hajar: al Fath, 12/303.
 Al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Saghir, 1/80.
 Surah al Hujurat: 9, 10.
 Ibn al ’Arabi: al ’Awasim, p. 169-171.
 Sharh al Nawawi ‘ala Sahih Muslim, 18/11.
 Surah al Zumar: 33, 34.
 Ibn Taymiyyah: Majmu’ al Fatawa, 35/50, 54, 56, 69.
 Ibid. 35/74-75.
 It is narrated in a Sahih hadith from Jabir radiya Llahu `anhu that a slave of Hatib ibn Abi Balta’ah radiya Llahu `anhu came to Rasul Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam and said, “O Rasul Allah! Hatib is surely going to enter the fire.” Rasul Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said, “You have lied. He will not enter it, for he participated in Badr and Hudaybiyyah.” See: Sahih Muslim with the commentary of al Nawawi, 16/57, chapter regarding the merits of the Sahabah radiya Llahu `anhum.
 Ibn Taymiyyah: Majmu’ al Fatawa, 4/432.
 Surah al Hashr: 10.
 Al Dhahabi: Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, 3/128.
 Ibn Hajar: al Fath, 13/34.
 Ibid. 13/34.
 Surah al Hashr: 10.