The Secured Monetary Rights of the Family of Rasulullah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam During the Khilafah of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq

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The Secured Monetary Rights of the Family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr al Siddiq

 

I consider it of paramount importance to now expound more extensively on the type of connections that were prevalent between Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Ahlul Bayt. In the past chapters all the covered issues were with regard to the ceremonial or household assistance he and his family offered to the family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam during his lifetime. In this chapter I shall touch on their relations being sound and rosy after he had passed on, during the caliphate of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The reason being that many a people have popularised false accusations regarding the first and the second khalifah, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, oppressing the Ahlul Bayt and expropriating their rights and privileges. I shall first touch on the issue of their monetary rights.

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had fulfilled the rights of his family and relatives. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu had likewise seen to their needs and fulfilled their rights. One considers his friend’s beloveds to be his beloveds. A true friend, keeping in mind the friendship he enjoyed with his friend, will go out of his way in taking care of his friend’s family and will consider it his moral responsibility to satisfy their needs. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu outstandingly epitomised this. He had with love and care looked after the Ahlul Bayt and fulfilled every right of theirs.

In this regard I shall cite a few narrations that satisfy the criterion of authenticity according to the scholars of hadith:

 

Narration 1:

.[1] عن عروة بن الزبير عن عائشة رضي الله عنها أن فاطمة أرسلت إلي أبي بكر تسأله ميراثها من النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم مما أفاء الله علي رسوله تطلب صدقة النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم التي بالمدينة و فدك وما بقي من خمس خيبر فقال أبوبكر إن رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم قال لانورث ما تركنا فهو صدقة إنما يأكل آل محمد من هذا المال يعني مال الله ليس لهم أن يزيدوا علي المأكل وإني والله لا أغير شيئا من صدقات النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم التي كانت عليها في عهد النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم ولأعملن فيها ما عمل رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم فتشهد علي رضي الله عنه ثم قال إنا قد عرفنا يا أبابكر فضيلتك وذكر قرابتهم من رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم وحقهم وتكلم ابوبكر وقال والذي نفسي بيده لقرابة رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم أحب إلي أن أصل قرابتي

 

Narration 2:

.[2] إن فاطمة والعباس أتيا أبابكر يلتمسان ميراثهما: أرضه من فدك وسهمه من خيبر فقال أبوبكر سمعت النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم يقول لانورث ما تركنا صدقة إنما ياكل آل محمد في هذا المال والله لقرابة رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم أحب إلي أن أصل قرابتي

 

Narration 3:[3]

إن عائشة أخبرته أن فاطمة بنت رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم أرسلت إلي أبي بكر تسأله ميراثها من رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم فيما أفاء الله علي رسوله صلي الله عليه وسلم وفاطمة حينئذ تطلب صدقة رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم بالمدينة و فدك وما بقي من خمس خيبر فقال أبوبكر إن رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم قال إنا لانورث ما تركنا صدقة إنما يأكل آل محمد في هذا المال. إني والله لاأغير شيئا من صدقة رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم عن حالها التي كانت عليه في عهد رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم ولأعملن في ذالك بما عمل فيها رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم.

 

Summary of all Three Narrations

Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha narrates that Fatimah and ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma came to Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu to demand their inheritance from the left over assets of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, viz. the alms of Madinah (Munawwarah), the income of Fadak and the Khums (a fifth of the booty) of Khaybar. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu said: “I have heard Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, ‘We the prophets are not inherited from, whatever we leave behind is sadaqah.’” He further added: “The needs and requirements of the family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, such as food, clothing and allowances, will most definitely be met from these assets just as they were met from them whilst Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was living, I will not make the slightest of changes in the manner in which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam seen to your needs (however, your demand of inheritance cannot be accepted).” ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu thereafter came and after testifying to the oneness of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and the nubuwwah of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “We acknowledge your excellence, O Abu Bakr!” and talked of the unique relation that he, Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, enjoyed with Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu thereupon remarked: “I take an oath in the name of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to maintain relations with the family of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is more beloved to me than maintaining relations with my own family.”

 

Conclusions of the Narrations

  1. It is evident from these narrations that the monetary rights of the Ahlul Bayt were fulfilled by Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu from the alms of Madinah Munawwarah, the income of Fadak and the booty of Khaybar during his caliphate. However, these assets were not handed over to them in inheritance due to the edict of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
  2. It is also understood from these narrations that Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not use his own discretion in fulfilling their monetary rights and hence did not expropriate their rights, rather he fulfilled them exactly as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did when he was alive.
  3. These narrations also establish that he gave preference to the Ahlul Bayt in (maintaining relations with them, being loyal to them and fulfilling their rights) over himself and his family. He cannot be belied in this regard, for he had taken a solemn oath. He gave more credence to them than anyone else. This is undeniable evidence of the veneration, love and care that he had for them which cannot be denied by the impartial and just.
 
 

NEXT⇒ The Share of the Dhu al Qurba (the Family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and Their Right in Khums, During the Caliphate of Abu Bakr


[1]  Al Bukhari: Sahih al Bukhari 1/526, chapter regarding the merits of the family of Rasul Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[2]  Al Bukhari: Sahih al Bukhari 2/576, chapter regarding Banu al Nadir

[3]  Al Tahawi: Sharh Ma’ani al Athar 1/290, chapter regarding the sadaqah of Banu Hashim

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