Firstly, we will quote those Shia narrations which discuss the gifting of Fadak. Thereafter, we will point out the contradictions and inconsistencies.
It appears in Bihar al Anwar:
فيما احتج الرضاء في فضل العترة الطاهرة قال و الآية الخامسة قال الله عز و جل و آت ذا القربى حقه خصوصية خصهم العزيز الجبار بها و اصطفاهم على الأمة فلما نزلت هذه الآية على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال ادعو لي فاطمة رضي الله عنها فدعيت له فقال يا فاطمة قالت لبيك يا رسول الله فقال فدك هي مما لم يوجف عليه بخيل و لا ركاب و هي لي خاصة دون المسلمين و قد جعلتها لك لما أمرني الله به فخذ بها و لولدك
One of the proofs al Rida’ uses to prove the superiority of the pure family is that he says: The fifth verse. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares: And give the relative his right.
This is a speciality which the Mighty and Over-Powering has reserved for them and favoured them with over the ummah. When this verse was revealed, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Call Fatimah for me.”
Accordingly, she was called.
He said, “O Fatimah!”
“I am present in your service, O Messenger of Allah,” she said.
He continued, “Fadak is that which was not conquered by the spurring on of horses or camels. It is specially for me, to the exclusion of the Muslims. I have given it to you after Allah commanded me to do so. So take it for yourself and your progeny.”
It appears in the Tafsir al Qummi from Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah:
روي عن أبي عبد الله أن رسول الله خرج في بعض الطريق فبينا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يطعم و الناس معه إذ أتاه جبريل عليه السلام فقال يا محمد قم فاركب فقام النبي فركب جبريل معه فطويت له الأرض كطي الثوب حتى انتهى إلى فدك فلما سمع أهل فدك … وقع الخيل فظنوا أن عدوهم قد جاءوهم تغلقوا أبواب المدينة و دفعوا المفاتيح إلى عجوز لهم خارج من المدينة و لحقوا برؤس الجبال فأتى جبريل العجوز حتى أخذ المفاتيح ثم فتح أبواب المدينة و دار النبي في بيوتها و قراتها فقال جبريل عليه السلام يا محمد هذا ما خصك الله به و أعطاكه دون الناس و هو قوله تعالى ما أفاء الله على رسوله من أهل القرى فلله و للرسول و لذي القربى و ذلك قوله فما أوجفتم عليه من خيل و لا ركاب و لكن الله يسلط رسله على من يشاء و لم يعرف المسلمون و لم يطؤوها و لكن الله أفائها على رسوله و طاف به جبريل عليه السلام في دورها و حيطانها و فلق الباب و دفع المفاتيح إليه فجعلها رسول الله في غلاف سيفه و هو معلق بالرحل ثم ركب و طويت به الأرض كطي الثوب فأتاهم رسول الله و هو على مجالسهم و لم يتفرقوا و لم يبرحوا فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قد انتهيت إلى فدك و إني قد أفائها الله علي فغمز المنافقون بعضهم بعضا فقال رسول الله هذه مفاتيح فدك ثم أخرج من غلاف سيفه ثم ركب رسول الله و ركب معه الناس فلما دخل المدينة دخل على فاطمة رضي الله عنها فقال يا بنية إن الله قد أفائها على أبيك بفدك و اختصه بها فهي لي خاصة دون المؤمنين أفعل بها ما شاء و إنه قد كان لأمك خديجة على أبيك مهر و إن أباك قد جعلها بذلك و انحلتكها لك و لولدك بعدك فدعا بأديم و دعا علي بن أبي طالب فقال اكتب لفاطمة فدك نحلة من رسول الله فشهد على ذلك علي بن أبي طالب و مولى لرسول الله و أم أيمن فقال رسول الله إن أم أيمن امرأة من أهل الجنة و جاء أهل فدك إلى النبي فقاطعهم على أربعة و عشرين ألف دينار في كل سنة
It is reported from Abu ‘Abdullah that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went on a Jihad campaign. While Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was eating, and others were with him, Jibril ‘alayh al Salam came to him and said, “O Muhammad. Stand up and mount.”
Accordingly Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stoop and mounted, and Jibril ‘alayh al Salam mounted with him. The earth was folded up for him just as a cloth is folded until he reached Fadak. When the inhabitants of Fadak heard the sound of horses, they thought that an enemy of theirs is about to attack them, so they locked the gates of the city and handed the keys over to an old woman living on the outskirts of the city and they climbed the mountain. Jibril ‘alayh al Salam came to the old woman, took the keys from her, and opened the gates of the city. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam toured the houses there and the villages. Jibril then said, “O Muhammad! This is what Allah has exclusively given you, to the exclusion of all others. This is the meaning of Allah’s words:
مَّا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلىٰ رَسُوْلِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرىٰ فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُوْلِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبىٰ
And what Allah restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns – it is for Allah and for the Messenger and for [his] near relatives.
And His statement:
فَمَا أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلَا رِكَابٍ وَلٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ عَلىٰ مَنْ يَشَاءُ
You did not spur for it [in an expedition] any horses or camels, but Allah gives His messengers power over whom He wills.
The Muslims were unaware and did not set foot on that ground. But Allah restored it to His Messenger. Jibril ‘alayh al Salam then circuited the houses and farms and locked the gates. He then handed the keys over to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who put them in the sheathe of his sword attached to his luggage. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then mounted his conveyance and the earth was folded up for him like how a cloth is folded until he reached the Muslims. People were still sitting at their places; they had not yet moved or gone anywhere. Just then, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced, “I went to Fadak and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala gave it to me as booty.”
The hypocrites began nudging one another. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then said, “These are the keys to Fadak.”
He took them out of his sheathe and displayed them. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mounted and the people mounted with him and departed. As soon as they reached Madinah, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam went to Fatimah and said, “O my daughter! Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala gave your father Fadak exclusively as booty. It belongs exclusively to me, to the exclusion of other Muslims. I can do as I please with it. Your father still owes your mother, Khadijah, dowry. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has given this to her in lieu of that and gifted it to you and your progeny after your demise.”
He then called for leather and summoned ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. He instructed, “Write: Fadak is a gift from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to Fatimah.”
‘Ali ibn Abi Talib was witness to this, as well as Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam freed slave and Umm Ayman. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then affirmed, “Umm Ayman is a woman from Jannat.”
The inhabitants of Fadak came to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He came to a compromise with them upon 24000 gold coins every year.”
This narration explains how Fadak came into Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam possession.
فنزل و آت ذا القربى حقه قال و ما هو قال اعط فاطمة فدكا و هي من ميراثها من أمها خديجة فحمل إليها النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم ما أخذ منه و أخبرها بالآية فقالت لست أحدث فيها حدثا و أنت حي و أنت أولى بي من نفسي و مالي لك فقال أكره أن يجعلوها عليك سبة فيمنعوك إياها من بعدي فقالت انفذ فيها أمرك فجمع الناس إلى منزلها و أخبرهم أن هذا المال لفاطمة كذلك و ياخذ منه قوتها فلما دنا وفاته دفعه إليها
The verse And give the relative his right was revealed. He enquired, “What is it?”
He replied, “Give Fadak to Fatimah. It is her inheritance from her mother Khadijah.”
Thus, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam carried to her all the wealth he took from it and informed her of the verse. She said, “I will not innovate something new in it while you are alive. You have more right over me than my own self and my wealth belongs to you.”
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “I dislike that they will discredit you for it and prevent you from it after my demise.”
She said, “Implement your instruction therein.”
Subsequently, he gathered the people at her house and informed that this wealth belongs to Fatimah and he will take her substance from here. When his demise drew close, he handed it over to her.”
لما نزل الله تعالى و آت ذا القربى حقه و المسكين قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يا جبريل عليه السلام قد عرفت المسكين فمن ذوي القربى قال هم أقاربك فدعا حسنا و حسينا و فاطمة عليهم السلام فقال صلى الله عليه و سلم إن ربي أمرني أن أعطيكم ما أفاء الله علي قال أعطيتكم فدك
After Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed, “And give the relative his right and the needy,” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam enquired, “O Jibril ‘alayh al Salam, I understand the needy, but who does the relative refer to?”
He answered, “They are your relatives.”
Consequently, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam summoned Hassan, Hussain, and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. He then said, “My Sustainer has commanded me to give you what Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has restored to me.” He continued, “Accordingly, I give you Fadak.”
‘Abdullah ibn Sinan has narrated an extremely lengthy narration from Imam Jafar al Sadiq which will we reproduce verbatim in the discussion of the claim over Fadak which mentions the testimony of Sayyidah Umm Ayman radiya Llahu ‘anha. It says that when Jibril ‘alayh al Salam took Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to show him the boundaries of Fadak and then returned, Sayyidah Fatimah asked him where he went. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam answered, “Jibril took me to show me the boundaries of Fadak.” Upon this Sayyidah Fatimah submitted:
يا أبي إني اخاف العيلة و الحاجة من بعدك فصدق بها علي فقال هي صدقة عليك فقبضتها
O my father, I fear need and want after your demise, so donate it to me. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “It is charity for you.” She then took possession of it.
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then told Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidah Umm Ayman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma to be witness.
The narrations we have quoted above are not contradictory in minor and unnecessary aspects but are conflicting each other in significant matters and affect the incident itself. After studying them, it appears as if the fabricators concocted ahadith to suit every occasion and to answer every objection, but their abundant fabrications has led to inconsistencies which cannot be resolved.
a) The first narration which we referenced to ‘Uyun al Akhbar and Bihar al Anwar says that after the revelation of the verse, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed that Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha be called. The second narration referenced to Tafsir al Qummi mentions that when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam brought the keys of Fadak to Madinah, he went himself to Fatimah and told her that he gives her and her children Fadak in lieu of the dowry he owes her mother.
b) It appears in the first narration that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said that Allah commanded him to give Fadak to her. Whereas in the second narration he says that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala gave him Fadak exclusively and he may give it to whomsoever he wishes. And he then chose to give it to her in lieu of her mother’s dowry.
c) The third narration referenced to Manaqib Ibn Shaharashub from Bihar al Anwar mentions that upon the revelation of the verse, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked Jibril ‘alayh al Salam who the relative refers to. Jibril ‘alayh al Salam told him to give Fadak to Fatimah since it was the inheritance of her mother Khadijah and her sister Hind bint Abi Halah. This narration states that Fadak was given to Fatimah as her mother’s inheritance. The second narration mentions that it was given as her mother’s dowry. Besides this, consider the fact that the income of Fadak was 24000 gold coins annually, but the amount of Sayyidah Khadijah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha dowry has not been clarified. Maybe 24000 gold coins annually was stipulated as her dowry.
d) The third narration mentions that when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam intended to give it to Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, she submitted, “I do not wish to innovate anything new in it. You are free to do with my life and wealth as you please.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Probably people will snatch it away from you after my demise.” So Fatimah agreed that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam should do as he pleases. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam called all the people to his house and told them that this is Fatimah’s wealth. This shows that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gathered many people and announced that Fadak was hers in their presence. It is astonishing that the Shia write in those narrations which mention that when witnesses were demanded from Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, she presented Sayyidina ‘Ali, Hassan, Hussain, and Umm Ayman radiya Llahu ‘anhum and did not present any other man. If this incident did take place in front of a large gathering, then many witnesses would have been alive at the time. So when she was asked for more witnesses, she should have brought few more. Either she would have secured Fadak for herself thereby, or had sufficient evidence against Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. It is reported by them that Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu demanded that the quota be fulfilled. So why did she not fulfil it?
e) The third narration proves another significant point. After gifting Fadak, it remained in the possession of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He was in full control of its administration and spent the income on whomever he wished, giving Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha only what was sufficient for her. This narration falsifies the narration which mentions that after gifting Fadak, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha had possession over it and appointed her agent, who was evicted by Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu
f) This narration mentions that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam called the people to her house and announced to them that Fadak is her wealth, while another narration mentions that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu wrote the gift document in her name; and only he and Umm Ayman radiya Llahu ‘anha witnessed it. It is amazing that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam apprehending that in the future, people should not find any reason to deprive her, he called all the people and announced in their presence that the wealth belongs to her, but at the same time orders ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to write the document on which only his name and Umm Ayman’s name appear. Why did he not write the names of the others who were called whereas making them witness was more sensible and necessary to remove any future objections and so that Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu would be forced to accept their testimony?
g) Although, this third narration mentions that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam returned Fadak to Fatimah prior to his demise, but there is no detail of the method of returning it and how did she take possession of the same. It devolves upon the Shia to prove how, when, and in whose presence did Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha take possession of Fadak.
h) The fourth narration contradicts all the others. Other narrations mention that when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked Jibril ‘alayh al Salam as to who the relative refers to, he specifically mentioned Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha from Allah’s side. This hadith however states that he did not take the name of anyone specifically but only restricted it to the relatives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, not the relatives of the rest of the ummah. As to who those relatives are and to whom should he give their right, this was left to the choice of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam justice demanded that he give only Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhum, to the exclusion of all others.
Other narrations which mention the specification can be answered by affirming that it was the command of Allah which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam simply carried out. However, this hadith shows that the specification was applied by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, so no answer can be given to it.
It is unbelievable from the status, behaviour, and conduct of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not to show fairness; that he only favours his one daughter and her sons and deprives everyone else, May Allah forbid. We do not know how the Shia will remove this imperfection their belief and ideology has tarnished the noble image of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with.
If anyone objects: Was this the fairness, justice, and unbiased nature of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that he discards everyone else and only favours 3 of his relatives whom he selected with all of that he received at the time. What answer will the Shia present? Our hairs stand on end thinking of such a thing. We regard it as disrespectful and blasphemous to the personality of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and a type of accusation against him. May Allah forbid!
i) Besides this, many narrations mention that when Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu demanded witnesses, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha presented Sayyidina Hassan and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who gave testimony. The above narration debunks this one. The fact is that when taking into consideration the fourth narration, the claimant can not only be Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. Sayyidina Hassan and Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma are also claimants. So how can they be claimants and witnesses at the same time?
j ) The fifth narration totally razes their building to the ground. It mentions that when Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha complained of poverty and want after Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam demise, he told her, “It is charity for you.” He then told Sayyidina ‘Ali and Umm Ayman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma to bear witness to it. This clearly shows that she begged for Fadak complaining of poverty and as a result, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam favoured her with it. This narration is in conflict to the narrations mentioning the revelation of the verse and Jibril’s explanation that relative refers to Fatimah etc., as well as the narrations which say that it was given to her from her mother’s inheritance or dowry.
We cannot fathom how the Shia wish to prove the gifting of Fadak with such inconsistent narrations. What face can they show in front of such glaring discrepancies and irregularities?
k) Besides the above contradictory reports, there is yet another narration in al Shafi from Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah which says that dhawi al qurba (relatives) refers to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his right is the wasiyyah made in his name, coupled with the grand name, inheritance of knowledge, and the effects of the knowledge of Nubuwwah he was given. This hadith appears in chapter 47, of Kitab al Hujjah in al Shafi. This is a grand hadith which affirms that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would always mention the virtues of the Ahlul Bayt and express the verses revealed in their favour.
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam recited the verse:
إِنَّمَا يُرِيْدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيْرًا
Allah intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet’s] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification.
And then said that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares:
وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ
And know that anything you obtain of war booty – then indeed, for Allah is one fifth of it and for the Messenger and for [his] near relatives.
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then declared, as appears in al Kafi:
ثم قال جل ذكره و آت ذا القربى حقه فكان عليا و كان حقه الوصية التي جعلت له و الاسم الأكبر و ميراث العلم و آثار علم النبوة
The Persian translation of the above appears in the following words in al Safi, Sharh Usul al Kafi:
بعد ازاں گفت جل ذکرہ سورہ بنی اسرائیل بدہ صاحب نزدیک تر را حق او پس حاضر شد علی رضی اللہ عنہ براۓ اخذ حق خود و بود حق او وصیتی از رسول صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم کو گردانیدہ شد براۓ او بمعنی انکہ آں حق باور سانیدہ شد و اسم اکبر و میراث علم و آثار علم نبوت
He Whose remembrance is Magnificent then declared in Surah Bani Isra’il: And give the relative his right. It referred to ‘Ali and his right was the wasiyyah made in his name, coupled with the grand name, inheritance of knowledge, and the effects of the knowledge of Nubuwwah.
If this hadith is sahih, then it is clear that the verse was revealed commanding the fulfilment of Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu right; thus relative refers to him. In this case, those narrations which mention the verse’s revelation concerning the gifting of Fadak are falsified.
Probably the Shia will assert that both the narrations are sahih. Dhawi al qurba and haqq refers to Sayyidah Fatimah and her right of Fadak as well as Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma and his right of wasiyyah, etc. However, this assertion is incorrect. It is evident from other narrations that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was unaware of the reality of dhawi al qurba and the right so he asked Sayyidina Jibril ‘alayh al Salam who informed him, by Allah’s command, that it refers to Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and her right of Fadak. So both these narrations cannot be reconciled.
This hadith has been quoted under the verse of Surah Bani Isra’il is Tafsir al Safi. Most probably the author realised that the two narrations are contradictory, so he said the following to remove the possible objection:
أقول لا تنافي بين هذا الحديث و بين الأحاديث السابقة و لا بينهما و بين تفسير العامة كما يظهر للمتدبر العارف بمخاطبات القرآن و معنى الحقوق و من الذي له الحق و من الذي لا حق له و الحمد لله
I say: There is no contradiction between this hadith and the previous ahadith, nor any contradiction between them and the tafsir of the Ahlus Sunnah as is apparent for one with deep meditation who is cognisant of the forms of address of the Qur’an, the meaning of rights, who is deserving of them, and who is not. And all praise belongs to Allah.
However, he did not explain the reason. He just praised Allah and kept silent and left the reconciliation upon the contemplator and expert in the Qur’an. The only thing apparent to the contemplator and expert of the meanings of the Qur’an is that all these narrations are fabricated and in polarity to the context of the Qur’an.
We have now shown and proven the inconsistencies and irregularities between the Shia narrations which makes it impossible to believe them. We will now demonstrate to you that one who is cognisant of the Qur’an’s mode of address and realises that this verse is Makki, not Madani, will understand all the explanations of the Imamiyyah regarding this verse as a form of tahrif ma’nawi (adulteration of meaning). Considering the place of revelation of the verse and its mode of address does not establish the gifting of Fadak.
We have presented all the narrations of the Shia dealing with the gifting of Fadak and confirmed that due to their inconsistencies, they are do not meet the requirements of the principles of evidence. Now we will prove that the verse does not support the Shia’s claim for the following reasons.
 Bihar al Anwar, Kitab al Fitan, bab nuzul al ayat fi amr Fadak pg. 89. Extracted from ‘Uyun al Akhbar.
 Bihar al Anwar pg. 90.
 Ibid from Manaqib Ibn Shaharashub; Tarjamah Urdu Hayat al Qulub pg. 666, 668.
 Bihar al Anwar from Tafsir ‘Ayyashi pg. 19.
 Ibid, Kitab al Ikhtisas pg. 101.
 Surah al Ahzab: 33.
 Surah al Anfal: 41.Back to top