Shattering the Mirage: A Response to ‘Abdul Hussain Sharaf al Din’s al Muraja’at: Letter 61 and 62

Shattering the Mirage: A Response to ‘Abdul Hussain Sharaf al Din’s al Muraja’at: Letter 59 and 60
July 17, 2018
The Contemporary Shia and Their Link with Their Predecessors – Introduction:
August 3, 2018

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Letter 61

 

Safar 1, 1330

 

Requesting Texts Narrated by Shi’a Sources

 

As long as the honour and dignity of the good ancestors are protected, then there is nothing wrong with considering all the ahadith regarding the Imam ‘alayh al Salam, the ones to which you have referred, including hadith al­Ghadir or any other one, without the need for an interpretation.

You may also know other ahadith relevant to this subject with which the Sunnis are not familiar; so, may I request you to narrate them so that we may acquaint ourselves therewith? Wassalam.

 

Sincerely,

S

 
 

Letter 62

 

Safar 2, 1330

 

Forty Ahadith

 

Yes, we will narrate to you consecutively reported ahadith with which the Sunnis are not familiar. These are narrated by members of the purified progeny of Muhammad salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam, of which we relate forty:1

 

1) Al Saduq Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn al Hussain ibn Babawayh al­Qummi has included in his book Ikmal ad­Din wa Itmam al­Ni’mah, as transmitted by ‘Abdul­Rahman ibn Samrah, one particular hadith in which the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, addresses ‘Abdul­Rahman thus: “O Abu Samrah! If views differ and opinions vary, then refer to ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib, for he is my nation’s Imam, and my successor over them after me.”

 

2.2) In the same reference, i.e. the Ikmal, Al Saduq quotes Ibn ‘Abbas narrating one hadith in which the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, says: “Allah, the Praised One and the Sublime, cast a scrutinizing look at the inhabitants of the earth and chose me from among them to be the Prophet, then he cast another look and chose ‘Ali as the Imam and commanded me to take him as my brother, and appoint him as the wali and vizier.”

 

3) Al Saduq, also in the Ikmal, traces one hadith to Imam al­Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam who quotes his father and ancestors citing the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, saying: “Gabriel has told me that the Lord of Power, exalted is His Greatness, has said: ‘Whoever comes to know that I am the Lord without any partner, and that Muhammad is my Servant and Messenger, that Ali ibn Abu Talib is Muhammad’s successor, and that the Imams from his descendants are My Arguments, then I would let him enter Paradise through My Mercy.’“

 

4) Al Saduq, also in his Ikmal, traces another hadith to Imam al­Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam who quotes his father and grandfather citing the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, saying: “The Imams after me are twelve: The first is ‘Ali and the last is al­Qa’im [al­Mahdi]; they are my successors and the executors of my will.”

 

5) Al Saduq, also in his Ikmal, traces yet another hadith to al Asbagh ibn Nabatah who says that the Commander of the Faithful ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib ‘alayh al Salam once approached, his hand in the hand of his son al­Hassan, and said: “The Messenger of Allah once came to us and his hand was in mine like this, saying: ‘The best of creation after me, and their master, is this brother of mine who is the Imam of every Muslim, the prince of every believer after me.’”

 

6) Al Saduq, also in his Ikmal, tracing one hadith to Imam al­Rida ‘alayh al Salam who quotes his forefathers citing the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, saying: “Whoever likes to uphold my religion and embark upon the Ark of Salvation after me, let him follow the example of ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib, for he is the executor of my will, and my vicegerent over my nation during my lifetime and after my demise.”

 

7) Al Saduq, also in his Ikmal, attributes another hadith by the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, to Imam al­Rida ‘alayh al Salam who quotes his ancestors stating that the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam once said: “I and ‘Ali are the fathers of this nation; whoever knows us very well also knows Allah, and whoever denies us also denies Allah, the Unique, the Mighty. And from ‘Ali’s descendants are my grandsons al­Hassan and al Hussain, who are the masters of the youths of Paradise, and from al Hussain’s descendants shall be nine: whoever obeys them obeys me, and whoever disobeys them also disobeys me; the ninth among them is their Qa’im and Mahdi.”

 

8) Al Saduq, also in his Ikmal, traces another hadith through isnad to Imam al­Hassan al­’Askari ‘alayh al Salam who quotes his ancestors up to the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, addressing Ibn Mas’ud thus: “O Ibn Mas’ud! ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib is your Imam after me; he is my successor over you.”

 

9) Quoting one hadith related by Salman, Al Saduq, also in his Ikmal, says that once Salman visited the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, and found al Hussain ibn ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam sitting on his lap, and the prophet was kissing him and saying: “You are a master, son of a master, an Imam and son of an Imam, brother of an Imam, father of Imams, and you are Allah’s Argument, the son of His Argument (Hujjah), and father of nine Arguments from your loins, the ninth of them is their Qa’im.”

 

10) Al Saduq, also in his Ikmal, quotes another hadith traced also to Salman who quotes a lengthy hadith by the Messenger of Allah in which he salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam says: “O Fatima! Have you not come to know that we are Ahlul Bayt? Allah has made the Hereafter dearer to us than this life, and Allah the Exalted, Praised is His Name, cast a look at the inhabitants of the earth and chose me from among His creation; then he cast a second look and chose your husband and inspired me to marry you to him and take him as wali and vizier, and to make him my successor over my nation. So, your father is the best of prophets, your husband is the best of wasis, and you are the first to join me.”

 

11) Al Saduq, also in his Ikmal, quotes a lengthy hadith and mentions in it that a meeting of over two hundred men from the Muhajirun (Meccan Immigrants) and the Ansar (Medenite Supporters) were seeking knowledge and studying jurisprudence, and that each one of them started bragging about himself, while ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam remained silent.

They asked him: “O father of al­Hassan, what stops you from saying something?” In response to their question, he ‘alayh al Salam only reminded them of a statement made by the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam in which he said: “‘Ali is my brother, vizier, heir, executor of my will, successor over my nation, and the wali of every believer after me; so, admit all of this about him.”

 

12) Al Saduq, also in his Ikmal, quotes a lengthy hadith narrated by ‘Abdullah ibn Ja’far, al­Hassan, al Hussain, ‘Abdulllah ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Umar ibn Abu Salamah, Usamah ibn Ziyad, Salman, Abu Tharr al Ghifari, and al­Miqdad who all say that they heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam saying: “I have more authority over the believers than the believers themselves have; my brother ‘Ali has after me more authority over the believers than the believers themselves have.”

 

13) Al Saduq, also in his Ikmal ad-Din wa Itmam al Ni’mah, quotes al Asbagh ibn Nabatah who cites Ibn ‘Abbas saying that he heard the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, saying, “I, ‘Ali, al­Hassan, al Hussain, and nine from the progeny of Hussain are Purified.”

 

14) Al Saduq has also quoted in his Ikmal Ibn Abayah ibn Rab’i citing Ibn ‘Abbas saying that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, has said: “I am the master of the Prophets, while ‘Ali is the master of the wasis.”

 

15) Al Saduq has also quoted in his Ikmal one hadith transmitted by Imam al­Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam through isnad stating that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam has said: “Allah, the Exalted, the Almighty, favoured me over all other prophets, and favoured ‘Ali over all other wasis, and favoured from ‘Ali’s descendants al­Hassan and al Hussain, and chose from al Hussain’s progeny the wasis who safeguard the faith against the distortion of extermists, the adulteration of liars, and the misinterpretations of those who have strayed.”

 

16) Al Saduq, also in his Ikmal, has quoted ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam citing the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, saying: “The Imams after me are twelve: the first of them is ‘Ali, and the last is al­Qa’im through whom Allah, the Exalted and the Mighty, shall open the east of the earth as well as the west.”2

 

17) Al Saduq has also quoted in his Amali a lengthy hadith narrated by ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam in which the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, says, “‘Ali is of me, and I am of ‘Ali who is created of my own mould; he solves people’s disputes regarding my Sunnah; he is the Commander of the Faithful, the leader of the foremost among all men, and the best of wasis.”

 

18) Al Saduq, also in his Amali, has quoted another lengthy hadith reported by ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam in which the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, says: “‘Ali is the Commander of the Faithful according to the Wilayat of Allah, the Exalted and the Mighty, which He tied in a knot upon His Throne and required the angels to witness; ‘Ali is Allah’s Vicegerent and Proof [Hujjatullah]; he is the Imam of the Muslims.”

 

19) Al Saduq, also in his Amali, has quoted Ibn ‘Abbas relating that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, has said: “O ‘Ali! You are the Imam of the Muslims, the Commander of the Faithful, the leader of the foremost renowned of all men, Allah’s Proof after me, and the master of all wasis.”

 

20) Al Saduq, also in his Amali, has cited Ibn ‘Abbas quoting the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam saying: “O ‘Ali! You are my successor over my nation, and you are to me like Seth to Adam.”

 

21) Al Saduq, also in his Amali, has quoted Abu Tharr al­Ghifari saying, ““We were once in the company of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam at his mosque when he said: ‘A man will enter through this door who is the Commander of the Faithful and the Imam of the Muslims,’ whereupon ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib came in, and the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam welcomed him, turned his glorious face to us and said: ‘This is your Imam after me.’“

 

22) In his Amali, Al Saduq has cited Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah al­Ansari quoting the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam saying: “‘Ali ibn Abu Talib is the foremost among them in accepting Islam, and he is the most learned… He is the Imam and successor after me.”

 

23) In his Amali, Al Saduq has also quoted one hadith correct through isnad related by Ibn ‘Abbas who quotes the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam saying: “O people! Whose words are better than Allah’s? Your Lord, Mighty is His Grace, has commanded me to assign ‘Ali over you as the most outstanding Imam, as my own successor and executor of my will, and that you should regard him as my brother and vizier.”

 

24) In his Amali, Al Saduq also quotes one hadith correct through isnad narrated by Abu ‘Ayyash who says: “The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam once ascended the pulpit and delivered a sermon in which he said: ‘My cousin ‘Ali is also my brother, vizier, successor, and the one who pays my dues on my own behalf.’“3

 

25) In his Amali, Al Saduq has also quoted one hadith correct through isnad reported by the Commander of the Faithful who says: “Once, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam delivered a sermon in which he said: ‘O people! The month of Allah has approached,’ and he continued his sermon recounting the attributes of the month of Ramadan. I asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! What is the best of deeds in this month?’ He replied: ‘It is staying away from whatever Allah has forbidden you,’ then he burst weeping, so I inquired: ‘What grieves you, O Messenger of Allah?’ and he answered: ‘O ‘Ali! I am grieving at what horrible forbidden things that will happen to you in the same month,’ adding, ‘You are my wasi, the father of my descendants, and my successor over my nation during my lifetime and after my death; your bidding is as good as mine, and so is your forbidding.’“

 

26) In his Amali, Al Saduq has quoted another hadith narrated by ‘Ali, peace be upon him, thus: “The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam has said: ‘O ‘Ali! You are my brother and I am yours; I have been chosen to be the Prophet while you have been chosen to be the Imam; I take charge of the revelation [of the Holy Qur’an] while you take charge of its implementation; you are the father of this nation. O ‘Ali! You are my wasi and vicegerent, my vizier and heir, and the father of my offspring.’“

 

27) In his Amali, Al Saduq has also quoted one hadith the isnad of which is authentic as transmitted by Ibn ‘Abbas who says: “While the Ansar were assembling at Quba’ Mosque, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said: ‘O ‘Ali! You are my brother and I am yours; you are the executor of my will and my own successor, and the Imam of my nation after me: Allah will assist whoever assists you, and He will be the enemy of whoever antagonizes you.’”

 

28) In his Amali, Al Saduq has also quoted a lengthy hadith narrated by Ummu Salamah in which the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam addresses her thus: “O Ummu Salamah! Listen and bear witness: This ‘Ali ibn Abu Tlib is the executor of my will; he is my successor, the one who tries my enemies, and the one who safeguards my Pool [of al­Kawthar].”

 

29) In his Amali, Al Saduq has also quoted Salman al Farisi saying, “I have heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam saying: ‘O Muhajirun and Ansar! Shall I lead you to that which, as long as you adhere to, shall never let you stray after me?’ They said: ‘O yes, Messenger of Allah!’ He salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam said: ‘This ‘Ali is my brother and the executor of my will, my vizier, heir and successor; he is your Imam; therefore, love him as much as I love him, and respect him as much as I respect him, for Gabriel has enjoined me to say so to you.’”

 

30) In his Amali, Al Saduq has also quoted through isnad one hadith related by Zaid ibn Arqam in which the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam is quoted saying: “Shall I lead you to that which, as long as you adhere to, will protect you against annihilation and straying? Your Imam and wali is ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib ‘alayh al Salam; therefore, do support him, listen to his counsel, and believe in him, for Gabriel has ordered me to say so to you.”

 

31) In his Amali, Al Saduq has quoted Ibn ‘Abbas relating one hadith in which the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam says: “O Ali, You are the Imam of my Ummah and my Khalifah upon them after me.”

This hadith Has been omitted from the English translation, thus the numbering (in black) of the next two hadith, 31 and 32, does not correspond with the original Arabic. The refutation follows the numbering of the original Arabic.

 

32) [31] In his Amali, Al Saduq has quoted Ibn ‘Abbas relating one hadith in which the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam says: “Allah, the Praised, the Sublime, has inspired to me: ‘I have selected from your nation a brother and heir for you, a successor and executor of your will.’ I inquired: ‘O Lord! Who is he?’ He replied: ‘It is he who loves me and I love him…,’ till He said in His divine statement: ‘It is ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib.’”

 

33) [32] In his Amali, Al Saduq has quoted Ibn ‘Abbas citing another hadith related by his ancestors in which the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam says: “During my isra’ (night journey), my Lord, Exalted is His Might, promised me that ‘Ali is the Imam of the pious, the leader of the foremost among renowned men, the religion’s chief.”

 

34) [34] In his Amali, Al Saduq has quoted one hadith through isnad to Imam al­Rida ‘alayh al Salam who quotes his ancestors citing the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam saying: “‘Ali is of me, and I am of ‘Ali; may Allah wage war against those who fight ‘Ali; ‘Ali, indeed, is the Imam of creation after me.”

 

35) Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn al­Hassan al­Tusi, the sect’s Sheikh, in his Amal quotes one hadith narrated by ‘Ammar ibn Yasir in which the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam is quoted telling ‘Ali, “Allah has decorated you in a way that is most dear to Him: through asceticism to the extent that you do not feel deprived of any of this life’s pleasures, and none of them feels deprived of you, and He has endowed you with the love for the destitute, making their fellowship welcomed by you, and they welcome you as their Imam; therefore, congratulations to whoever loves you and believes in you, and woe unto whoever hates you and tells lies about you.”

 

36) In his Amali, Sheikh Al Saduq has also quoted one hadith through isnad to ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam who has said while preaching from Kufa’s pulpit: “O people! The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam granted me ten attributes that are dearer to me than anything upon which the sun shines: He salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam has said to me: ‘O ‘Ali! You are my brother in this life and the life hereafter, and you are the closest to me among all creation on the Day of Resurrection; your residence in Paradise faces mine; you are my heir, the executor of my will after me, faring with both my foes and family; you protect my family on my own behalf during my absence; you are my nation’s Imam; you execute justice among my followers; you are my friend, and my friend is the friend of Allah; your enemy is my enemy, and my enemy is surely the enemy of Allah.’”

 

37) In Al Saduq’s book titled Al Nusus ‘ala al A’imma, which contains texts relevant to the Imams, al­Hassan ibn ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam is quoted saying: “I have heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam say the following to my father: ‘And you are the inheritor of my knowledge, the substance of my own judgment, and the Imam after me.’”

 

38) Also in his work containing texts about the Imams, Al Saduq quotes ‘Umran ibn Hasin saying: “I have heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam say to ‘Ali, ‘You are the Imam and successor after me.’”

 

39) Also in his same work, Al Saduq quotes ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam citing the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam saying to him: “O ‘Ali! You are the wasi over those who have died among my household, and the caliph of those who are alive among my nation.”

 

40) Also in the same reference cited above, Al Saduq quotes al Hussain ibn ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam saying: “When Allah revealed the verse: ‘And those who are kin of each other are more worthy of each other in the Book of Allah,’ I asked the Messenger of Allah to interpret it, and he said: ‘You are the kin; when I die, your father ‘Ali is the most worthy of me and my station; when your father dies, your brother al­Hassan is most worthy of it; and if al­Hassan dies, then you are most worthy of his station.’”

 

This is the conclusion of what we wanted to quote in such a hurry. Its ratio to the remainder of the texts is like that of one bouquet to the remainder of all flowers, or the drop of water to the ocean; yet a portion should suffice; praise be to the Lord of the worlds, Wassalam.

 

Sincerely,

Sh

 

Footnotes

  1. This much suffices due to the fact that we have narrated quite a few ahadith from sources such as the Commander of the Faithful ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib ‘alayh al Salam, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, Abu Sa’id al Khudri, Abul-Darda’, Abu Hurairah, Anas ibn Malik, Ma’ath ibn Jabal, quoting various sources, all stating that the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him and his progeny, has said: “Whoever teaches my nation forty ahadith related to its faith, Allah will resurrect him on the Day of Judgment in the company of the faqihs and the learned.” In another wording of the same hadith, “Allah will resurrect him as a learned faqih.” According to Abul-Darda’, the statement reads: “I will include him in my intercession on the Day of Judgment, and he shall be a witness.” According to Ibn Mas’ud, “It will be said to him: ‘Enter Paradise from whichever gate you please.’“ According to Ibn ‘Umar’s narration, “… he will be included with the men of knowledge, and be resurrected in the company of martyrs.” Suffices us in learning these forty ahadith and others included in all our Letters his statement, peace be upon him and his progeny, “Allah will look after whoever listens to my statement, comprehends it and conveys it just as he heard it.” And also his hadith: “Let those of you who witness [my Sunnah] convey it to those who are absent.”
  2. This hadith and the ones before it exist in a chapter containing what has been narrated about the Prophet salla Llahu `alayhi wa sallam regarding the Qa’im, and that he is the twelfth in the line of Imams; it is Chapter Twenty-Four of Ikmal ad-Din wa Itmam al Ni’mah, pages 149-167.
  3. This hadith, together with the four preceding it, is quoted from al Saduq’s Ghayat al Maram. These are quite lengthy, and we have quoted from them whatever testifies to our argument. As regarding the ahadith which succeed it, they are to be found in Chapter 13 of Ghayat al Maram.
 
 
 

Discussions

 

Hadith of the Shia

If one considers the fact that the sermon at Ghadir Khumm is inadmissible as an argument to prove Imamah along with the fact that the narrations of the Imams themselves are inadmissiable as evidence for their own Imamah, the portrayal of the Sheikh al Azhar is out of character with someone who is intent on debating such a contentious issue of creed.

‘Abdul Hussain’s fascination with citing forty narrations has prompted him to request—with the pen of Sheikh Salim al Bishri—textual evidence from Shia sources that support the interpretation that he has given.

Before we analyze the narrations in light of Shia sources let us gain some insight into the nature of Shia Hadith. Do these narrations emanate from the Imams to begin with, or are there telling signs that these are fabrications against them? Why is their Hadith legacy so different from that of the Ahlus Sunnah?

 

Below is a translation of an article on the subject by Abu Muhammad al Afriqi: [1]

 

Background

The Ahlus Sunnah and Shia both share in taking the Qur’an as a source of religious legislation (tashri’), and despite the opinion of the Qur’an being tampered being common among the Shia, they are nonetheless ordered to rely upon the Qur’an currently in our midst, until the Hidden Imam appears.

Likewise, just as both groups deem the Qur’an a source of religious legislation, they also both rely upon the Sunnah, except that the Shia concept of Sunnah differs with that of the Ahlus Sunnah. We can disregard the finer distinction between the concepts of Sunnah according to each group, and for practical reasons, conclude that the Sunnah according to the Ahlus Sunnah is that which the hadith books of Ahlus Sunnah comprise. At the forefront of these books are the Six Books—the two Sahihs and the four Sunan collections—and the Musnad and Mujam collections. On the other hand, the Sunnah according to the Shia is that which their Hadith sources comprise, the most important of them being the Four Books (Al Kutub Al Arbaah): Al Kafi of al Kulayni; Man La Yahduruhu al Faqih of Al Saduq ibn Babawayh; Tahdhib al Ahkam; and al Istibsar, both by Abu Jafar al Tusi.

Whatever the case, both groups claim they are exclusively upon the truth which was revealed to Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and that other groups besides them have erred from this truth, because they took the Sunnah from the wrong people and trusted unreliable sources which were distorted at the hands of fabricators. It was hence vital to carefully consider what each group considers a reliable source of religious legislation.

As the Qur’an is a common denominator for both groups, albeit at a superficial level[2], the only option was to look at the Sunnah and see which is the real Sunnah of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam: the Sunnah of the Ahlus Sunnah or that of the Imamiyyah Shia (Twelvers)? With this purpose in mind, we shall shed some light upon the Sunnah tradition according to the Shia.

And with Allah lies all success.

 

The Concept of Imamah

The core belief of the Imamiyyah[3] is Imamah, the belief that Allah Most High appointed twelve Imams after Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam whose duty was to take charge of the heritage of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and to protect and convey it; the Imam is the sole conveyor from the Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. And to ensure his conveying was sound from lapses or mistakes, Allah Most High granted them inerrancy (‘Ismah), making them infallible (Ma’sum) Imams, conveying one after the other in a manner that is divinely-protected by Allah from every human deficiency.

This succession continued through twelve Imams, each Imam having students who recorded the Sunnah which they took from them. And why should they not record it, seeing that they are the inerrant Imams and custodians of the heritage of their grandfather, the Chosen One salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? How can they not write on their authority, when they are the treasurers of the knowledge of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; specifically appointed by Allah Most High to convey on behalf of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; with them are the Tawrah, Injil and the Qur’an written by Amir al Mu’minin; their and their forefathers’ status is greater than that of the Prophets of Great Resolve (Ulu al ‘Azm); and every atom in the universe humbles itself before their power? For this reason, every Imam was the sole infallible authority, with respect to the Sunnah, in his lifetime, whereas others were merely narrators who were either right or who had erred.

Hence, whatever books the students of a particular Imam compiled during his lifetime, when a new Imam would take the former Imam’s place after his demise and become the new sole authority of the Sunnah, it left no need for what his father’s[4] students had compiled.

Based on this, one would expect after a golden chain of infallible Imams, each with his own students who recorded the Sunnah from him, that the Sunnah of the followers of these Imams would all trace back through this chain: the Twelfth Imam, from his father, from his father, from his father, until it reaches ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu from Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

A Shia poet has actually boasted about this:

If you wish to choose a school for yourself,

Which shall deliver you from the flames of the Fire on the Day of Gathering,

Leave the opinions of Shafi’i, Malik, Ibn Hanbal, and what Ka’b al Ahbar has related,

Take from people whose statements and narrations are: Our grandfather narrated from Jibril from the Creator.

 

Furthermore, the basis for the claim that the Sunnah in its entirety should be narrated through this golden chain is that Allah’s care towards the Shari’ah being soundly conveyed meant that He did not suffice upon average narrators to preserve the Shari’ah from being lost and to transmit it to future generations. Rather, Allah chose for this Ummah divinely-guided guides and infallible Imams. All of this was to ensure no mistake or lapse could seep into this great heritage. Thus, Allah was not going to let the Ummah depend on the narrations of human transmitters who were prone to human error and forgetfulness, as long as He had appointed for them those regarding whom none of the above was ever imaginable. This is the philosophy of infallibility (‘Ismah) which the Shia claim for their Imams.

 

Nonexistence of Shia Hadiths Through the Infallible Chain

After explaining the concept, we move towards the ground reality and turn to the Shia books of hadith, to examine the extent of conformance to this concept. It is at this point we are left utterly surprised to realise we cannot find even one narration which has been related through this golden infallible chain.

Let us take a few chapters from Usul al Kafi [5]as an example:

Chapter on the Incumbence of Obeying the Imams. There are seventeen hadiths in this chapter:

  1. On the authority of Zurarah from Imam al Baqir
  2. On the authority of Abu al Sabbah from Imam al Sadiq
  3. On the authority of Bashir al ‘Attar from from Imam al Sadiq
  4. On the authority of Hussain ibn al Mukhtar from one of our companions from Imam al Sadiq
  5. On the authority of Abu al Hassan al ‘Attar from Imam al Sadiq
  6. On the authority of Abu al Sabbah al Kinani from Imam al Sadiq
  7. On the authority of Hussain ibn Abi al ‘Ala’ from Imam al Sadiq
  8. On the authority of Ma’mar ibn Khallad from Imam al Rida’
  9. On the authority of Abu Basir from Imam al Sadiq
  10. On the authority of Muhammad ibn Zaid al Tabari from Imam al Rida’
  11. On the authority of Abu Salamah from Imam al Sadiq
  12. On the authority of Muhammad ibn Fudayl from Imam al Baqir
  13. On the authority of Ismail ibn Jabir from Imam al Baqir
  14. On the authority of Abu Ishaq from one of the companions of Amir al Mu’minin
  15. On the authority of Muhammad ibn Hazm from Imam al Sadiq
  16. On the authority of Hussain ibn Abi al ‘Ala’ from Imam al Sadiq
  17. On the authority of ‘Abdul A’la’ from Imam al Sadiq

Although this is just one chapter, we chose it randomly upon opening the book, not through selection or browsing its pages. What the reader notices in the narrations of this chapter, namely that most of the chains converge at Imam al Sadiq and Imam al Baqir through the chains of their students and not the Imams from their progeny, is a phenomenon which is reflected throughout the book, and in fact, all four of their books.

If you find this issue surprising, what is more surprising is that there is not a single narration from the Twelfth Imam in Al Kafi, despite al Kulayni being a contemporary of all four of his emissaries (Safir)[6]. Why does al Kulayni rely on secondary narrators when he is able to take the Sunnah from his contemporaries from Imam al Mahdi, who had only been given infallibility so he can convey “from his grandfather from Jibril from the Creator”?[7]

And if this left you astonished, here is something which will surprise you even more: ‘Uthman ibn Sa’id al ‘Amri was the first emissary who benefitted from being in contact with the Hidden Imam, hence he was by virtue of this contact, the best narrator from the Hidden Imam from his forefathers. Despite this, we do not find a single narration of his from the Twelfth Imam in the Four Books. In fact, not even from the eleventh Imam, whom he was known to have served. In Jami al Ruwat [8], al Ardabili mentions five of his chains in Al Tahdhib and Al Kafi, but none of them reach Hassan al ‘Askari [the eleventh Imam] or the Hidden Imam.

Below are these five chains:

  1. ‘Uthman ibn Sa’id al ‘Amri — from Muhammad ibn Sulaiman — from Maymun al Ban — from Imam al Sadiq
  2. ‘Uthman ibn Sa’id al ‘Amri — from ‘Abdul Karim al Hamadani — from Abu Tumamah — from Imam al Jawad
  3. ‘Uthman ibn Sa’id al ‘Amri — from a man — from Imam al Sadiq
  4. ‘ ibn Sa’id al ‘Amri narrates from his dream of al Qa’im
  5. ‘Uthman ibn Sa’id al ‘Amri — from ‘Abdul Hamid ibn ‘Ali al Kufi — from Muhajir al Asadi — from Imam al Sadiq

This will definitely raise many questions in the reader’s mind. Did al ‘Amri not have any occupation besides amassing wealth and producing letters?[9] Did al Kulayni, his contemporary in Baghdad, not find in these letters anything worthy of inclusion in his book? Was there nothing more to those letters besides cursing the accursed individuals who competed with al ‘Amri and his son to be emissaries of the Hidden Imam, and praising those emissaries who were entrusted with collecting the Khums[10] and the share of the Imam?

Let us leave the father and move to the son, Muhammad ibn ‘Uthman, the second emissary who remained at this post for close to half a century. Al Ardabili tells us that Sheikh al Tusi has mentioned in Al Fihrist that Muhammad [ibn ‘Uthman] ibn Sa’id did not narrate from any of the Imams, and this was by writing the symbol لم with his name.[11] Fifty years yet not a single narration from the Imam he claims to meet.

As for the single narration al Ardabili[12] narrated from the third emissary, Abu al Qasim Hussain ibn Ruh al Nawbakhti, in al Tahdhib[13], it is by way of Abu al Qasim — from Muhammad ibn Ziyad — from Abu al Hashim al Jafari — from Imam al Jawad.

The fourth emissary, Abu al Hassan al Samarri, is the most destitute among them in narration: no narration from him in the books of Hadith nor any mention of him in the earlier biographical collections. According to Jami al Ruwat, his first listing as a narrator appears as late as Ibn Mutahhar’s eighth century list, Al Khulasah.[14]

 

The Real Sources of Shia Hadiths

It is established from what has passed that the infallible chain has not played—for the Shia—the role for which Allah had made it infallible. So we ask: if the authors of the four books did not rely upon this chain in acquiring the Sunnah, what did they rely upon? And if they did not take Hadith directly from the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt, whom did they take it from? The answer to this has been briefly alluded to in some of what he mentioned previously, but now we shall answer in detail.

The sources from which these authors acquired the Sunnah are the books which the students of the Imams, in particular Imams al Baqir and al Sadiq, compiled. These books are known by the Shia as the Four Hundred Sources (al Usul al Arbaumi’ah). Sheikh al Saduq and Sheikh al Ta’ifah Abu Jafar al Tusi have, in a very lucid and satisfactory manner, explained to us that they rely upon these sources, as they do not quote any Hadith in their books with their own complete chains of transmission, but rather the chain starts by mentioning the author of the particular relied-upon amongst the Four Hundred Sources. They have mentioned at the end of Al Faqih [i.e., Man La Yahduruhu al Faqih], Al Tahdhib and Al Istibsar the Sheikhs through whom their chains trace back to the authors of the Four Hundred Sources, albeit some discrepancy in these chains of their teachers too. In short, their reliance upon these sources is true beyond any doubt.

As for al Kulayni, his methodology in narrating Hadith is different to that of his two colleagues; he narrates the full chain from himself to the Imam. If this casts a doubt on al Kulayni’s reliance upon these sources, al Taqi al Majlisi has affirmed that al Kulayni is no different to Ibn Babawayh and al Tusi with respect to relying upon the Four Hundred Sources.

He says in his commentary of al Faqih, entitled Rawdat al Muttaqin:

It is apparent that the two Sheikhs transmitted everything in the two books from the Four Hundred Sources, upon which the True Sect relies, as stated by al Saduq. The same is understood from the words of Thiqat al Islam [al Kulayni].[15]

 

To emphasise further, we relate what one of the eminent Shia scholars said in this regard. Al Shahid al Thani Zayn al Din al ‘Amili says in his book, Al Dirayah:

The earlier scholars compiled the Hadiths which had reached them from our Imams—may Allah’s peace be upon them—into four hundred books they named the Sources (al Usul) and upon which they relied, such as the Asl of Jamil ibn Darraj, the Asl of Zurarah, and so forth. Some of our elders embarked on compiling and sequencing them into specific books, to make them more accessible to the reader. The best of them are the Four Books which are relied upon in this era. They are Al Kafi of Muhammad ibn Ya’qub al Kulayni (d. 329 A.H), in which he gathered different types of hadith; Man La Yahduruhu al Faqih of Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Babawayh al Qummi (d. 381 A.H), in which he gathered the Hadiths of rulings from the Sources; and Al Tahdhib and Al Istibsar of Sheikh Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn al Hassan al Tusi (d. 460 A.H) in which he also gathered just Hadiths of rulings.[16]

 

Hence, the reliance of the authors of the Four Books on the Four Hundred Sources and their taking therefrom is an undisputed matter.

Let us now move to defining the period in which the Four Hundred Sources were compiled. Here too, Shia scholars have saved us the difficulty of investigating the matter.

Al Mamaqani states in Miqbas al Hidayah fi Ilm al Dirayah:

It is commonly stated by the scholars, rather in their books too, that the Four Hundred Sources were compiled in the era of our master al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam according to some, or in the era of both (i.e. al Baqir and al Sadiq) according to another, or in the era of al Sadiq and al Kazim ‘alayh al Salam as mentioned by al Tusi in I’lam al Wara, where he says: ‘Four thousand people among the renowned people of knowledge narrated from al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam. Four hundred famous books were compiled from his answers to questions, known as al Usul, and which were narrated by his students and the students of his son, Musa ‘alayh al Salam.’[17]

 

One who has read the beginning of this article must note the connection between what al Mamaqani has mentioned here, on the authority of al Tabarsi, and the chapter of Al Kafi which we presented as an example.

 

Inconsistency in Shia Hadith

It is clearly established from what has already passed that with respect to the Sunnah, the Shia rely on their books, the most important of them being the Four Books, just as it is established that these books trace their origins back to the Four Hundred Sources, and that these four hundred compilations appeared in the era of Imam al Sadiq, his father al Baqir, and his son al Kazim.

From this point we move to another very critical phenomenon, which is the issue of inconsistency in Shia hadith. However, before going to the depths of this discussion, we would like to digress by postulating another issue, namely that these sources should enjoy a high level of credibility and authenticity. This is because it is supposed that their authors compiled them in light of what they took from the Imams, and at times they would also present these books to them. For this reason, reliance upon these books was widespread amongst the early Shia scholars.

The first Majlisi [the father of Baqir al Majlisi] says in his Sharh al Faqih:

Undoubtedly, the reliance of our early scholars was on the books narrated by the reliable companions of the Imams… They recorded what they heard from them in their books, and these books were authentic according to the scholars.[18]

 

This is what also prompted the authors of the Four Books to place uncritical reliance upon the Four Hundred Sources.

Ibn Babawayh said in the introduction to Al Faqih:

I wrote this book by removing the chains, so that its paths of transmission are not too many… Everything contained in it has been extracted from renowned books which are relied upon and which are referred back to.[19]

 

Thus, he had every right to say in the preface to his book that he will only include in the book that which he agrees with, affirms as authentic and considers a proof (Hujjah) between him and his Lord.

Likewise, Al Tusi paid great attention to giving preference to and reconciling between differing hadiths. However, you will rarely see him preferring one hadith over the other due to one being weak.

It is also clear from al Kulayni’s preface that he trusts what he has narrated in his book. He addresses the person who requested him to compile the book as follows:

And you said you would like to have a book which suffices, gathering therein from all branches of religious knowledge that which the student can suffice upon, and to which a seeker of guidance can refer, and from which he may take who seeks knowledge of the religion and wishes to act upon authentic narrations of the truthful (alayhim al salam) and practiced sunan… And Allah made easy, and to Him belongs praise and favour, compiling what you asked. I hope it is as you anticipated.[20]

 

Moreover, when the Four Hundred Sources were trusted, it is only logical that we should find therein the knowledge of the family of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, pure and impeccable, and harmonious without any crookedness or discrepancy, as “had it been from other than Allah, they would have found much discrepancy therein”. It was also expected that the Four Books, due to their content being taken from the Four Hundred Sources, will reflect the same harmony and consistency.

However, what the reader of these books will encounter is something starkly different. What you will find when looking into them is discrepancy in its most ugly form. If you think I have fallen into this extreme mode of expression due to becoming a victim of bias, listen with me to what al Tusi said in the beginning of his book, al Tahdhib, immediately after praising Allah and sending blessings on the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

One of my friends amongst those whose right upon me is binding—may Allah support him—discussed with me the hadiths of our people—may Allah support them and have mercy on the predecessors among them—and the difference, incongruity, contradiction, and disparity which has occurred in them, to the extent that rarely will there be a narration except that in opposition to it, there is that which contradicts it, and no hadith is safe from being opposed by that which negates it. Our opponents have made this one of the biggest attacks on our school and have used this as a route to nullify our creed. They said, ‘Your Sheikhs, from the predecessors and the successors, have always criticised their opponents for the differences they follow, and they vilify them over disunity in subsidiary matters, mentioning that it is impermissible for a person of wisdom to adopt this as a religion, and for a person of knowledge to allow this to be practiced. However, we have found you to differ even more than your opponents and to conflict with each other more than your adversaries. The existence of this difference on your part, despite your believing this to be falsehood, is a proof of the invalidity of the source.’ This reached the extent that doubts crept into a group of them who are not strong in knowledge nor do they have insight into the modes of contemplation and meanings of words. Many of them retracted from the truth when the reason behind this [i.e. this difference] was unclear to them and they were unable to solve the doubt therein. I heard my Sheikh, Abu ‘Abdullah [al Mufid]—may Allah support him —mention that Abu al Hussain al Haruni al ‘Alawi used to believe the truth and follow the belief of Imamah. However, he retracted from it, when the matter of differences in hadith became confusing for him. He left the school and practiced something else, when the different meanings therein were not clear to him.[21]

 

It was this phenomenon of gross and ubiquitous discrepancy that spurred Sheikh al Tusi to compile Al Tahdhib. Once his book Al Tahdhib became renowned, some asked him to separately compile the hadiths in which there was discrepancy. Hence, he wrote his second book Al Istibsar, whose full name Al Istibsar fi ma ukhtulifa min al akhbar (Contemplating the narrations in which there is discrepancy) discloses its real essence. Specifying two books amongst four books of hadith, due to inconsistency in the texts, is the clearest proof of the true extent of this discrepancy. However, we cannot stop here out of astonishment, but rather pose another bitter question: what could the cause of this unsightly discrepancy be, which was condemned by this group among the Imamiyyah, whose disavowing of Imamiyyah Shi’ism and its beliefs was lamented by al Tusi? This is where the heart of the matter lies.

As a preface to uncovering this secret, I would like readers to imagine the following scene: a man is sat with us, and surrounding him are a group of people who are speaking in his name, except that they are all essentially lying and fabricating against him what he did not say. Each one of them is speaking independently of the other, without them conspiring amongst themselves to achieve a uniform statement. Even if this unification occurs at times, it is non-existent for the majority of the time. So I ask you in the name of Allah: is it not natural that there will be discrepancy and inconsistency between what these liars all say in the name of this one person?

Take into consideration how many liars had gathered around the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt, to the extent that Imam al Sadiq said, “Not a single one of us (Imams of the Ahlul Bayt) is safe from liars.” Consider the extent to which these narrators were affiliated to extremist sects, regarding whom Imam al Sadiq said, “Amongst them are those who lie, to the extent that even Satan is in need of their lies.”[22] Also consider the fact that a number of the authors of the Four Hundred Sources were of heterodox belief.

Al Mamaqani states:

Al Mawla al Wahid related from his maternal uncle, al Majlisi (the second), and also his grandfather al Majlisi (the first) that being an author of one of the Sources is amongst the causes of excellence, but he himself scrutinised this, considering that many of the authors of the Sources had adopted incorrect beliefs, albeit their books are reliable, as clearly stated at the beginning of Al Fihrist.[23]

 

Thereafter, al Mamaqani presents ‘Ali ibn Abi Hamzah al Bata’ini as an example, who wrote many books and a complete commentary of the Qu’ran, except that Ibn Faddal said about him, “A liar, accused [of lying], accursed… I do not consider it lawful to relate even one hadith from him.”[24]

If you consider all of this, it will become totally clear to you, Allah willing, that this huge heritage which the Shia boastfully attribute towards the Imams from the family of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is nothing but a caricature of what Allah said: “So woe to those who write the “scripture” with their own hands, then say, “This is from Allah,” in order to exchange it for a small price. Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for what they earn.”[25]

And if you want proof for this, look for it in the principle which Allah Most High informed us of when He said, “If it had been from [any] other than Allah, they would have found within it much contradiction.”[26]

And if you want to find out the identity of those who are accused of this great lie, look at what al Mamaqani said:

It is commonly stated by the scholars, rather in their books too, that the Four Hundred Sources were compiled in the era of our master al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam according to some, or in the era of both Sadiqs ‘alayh al Salam (i.e., al Baqir and al Sadiq) according to another, or in the era of al Sadiq and al Kazim ‘alayh al Salam.[27]

 

Having read this, you will now hopefully realise:

  • why there are so few narrations from the latter Imams in the books of the Shia,
  • why they completely ignored the divinely-infallible chain of narration of the Imams,
  • why, in transmitting the Sunnah, their exclusive reliance is upon suspicious and mendacious persons who turned Imam Jafar al Sadiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu into the pseudo-source for the lies which they then spread in his name,
  • and how all of that turned into the self-contradictory mass of narrations that is the Hadith of the Shia.

When you see al Kulayni turn away from narrating the Hadith of the Ahlul Bayt through the chain of Imam al Mahdi — from Imam al ‘Askari — from Imam al Hadi — from Imam al Jawad — from Imam al Rida — from Imam al Kazim — from Imam al Sadiq; but you see he is very happy to acquire the Sunnah from ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim al Qummi — from Ahmed ibn Muhammad al Barqi — from ‘Ali ibn al Hakam — from ‘Ali ibn Abi Hamzah al Bata’ini — from Abu Basir — from al Sadiq; then know the secret behind this and do not be from the absentminded!

We ask Allah to protect our religion for us.

All praise belongs to Allah in the beginning and the end. May Allah bless and send peace on our leader Muhammad, his family and his companions. [End Quote]

 

It is clear that the Shia Hadith tradition rests on very shaky foundations and is subject to immense internal criticism. The primary sources of Shia Hadith suffer from such irregularity and inconsistency by their own admission, that some of their early scholars have desperately attempted to bring about some semblance of reconciliation. What function does it serve if fallible individuals have to sift out, what they believe are, the reliable statements attributed to the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

Forty narrations

Let us set the epistemological issue of whether the statements of the Imams hold authority or not aside for the moment since it has already been dealt with, and we have demonstrated that the argument for the authority of the Imams is based on circular reasoning.[28] Instead, let us evaluate the narrations cited by ‘Abdul Hussain. For the sake of objectivity, fairness, and faithful representation let us subject these narrations to the standards of Shia Hadith evaluation and base our findings primarily on Shia Hadith literature. We shall list the narrations in the order which they appear in ‘Abdul Hussain’s letter.

 

1. The narration ascribed to Abdul Rahman ibn Samurah

Al Saduq and al Majlisi record this with a common chain by way of Muhammad ibn Ali al Sayrafi al KufiMuhammad ibn Sinan —Mufaddal ibn ‘Umar — Jabir ibn Yazid al Ju’fi — Said ibn al MusayyabAbdul Rahman ibn Samurah that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[29]

Appearing in this chain is Muhammad ibn Ali al Sayrafi, whose Kunyah is Abu Saminah. He is known for lying and deceiving. Al Kashshi quotes al Fadl ibn Shadhan that Abu Saminah, Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al Sayrafi is a well-known liar.[30]

Al Khu’i is also on record for having called him weak and a liar.[31] This was mentioned in disproving a narration on the topic of Tahrif al Qur’an (Interpolation of the Qur’an). When dismissing it, Muhammad al Sayrafi is boldly declared a liar, but ‘Abdul Hussain appears to have no issue in citing his narration when it comes to proving ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Imamah!

Also appearing in this chain is Muhammad ibn Sinan, Abu Jafar al Hamadani. Ibn al Ghada’iri declares him an extremist, weak, one who forges Hadith and one whose narrations deserve no attention.[32] Ibn Dawood al Hilli also declares him weak and an extremist whose narrations are riddled with errors.[33] ‘Allamah al Hilli stops short of grading him and withholds his opinion on his narrations.[34]

Thirdly, they consider Said ibn al Mussayyab a Nasibi, an opponent of Ahlul Bayt and opinions varied over the acceptance or rejection of his narrations.[35]

Al Mamaqani identifies Abdul Rahman ibn Samurah as a Sahabi, but grades him Majhul. Al Khu’i states that opinions vary on ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Samurah but he prefers to withhold his opinion due to insufficent information.[36]

For all the reasons above, this narration is clearly unreliable by Shia standards.

 

2. The narration ascribed to Ibn Abbas

Al Saduq, al Majlisi, and Hashim al Bahrani record this narration by way of Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Mutawakkil — Muhammad ibn Abi ‘Abdullah al Kufi — Musa ibn Imran al NakhaiHussain ibn YazidHassan ibn Ali ibn Salim — his father — Abu Hamzah — Sa’id ibn Jubayr — Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[37]

Al Mamaqani declared Musa ibn Imran al Nakhai Majhul.[38]

‘Allamah al Hilli claims that he could not find data on him from the early scholars in the matter of narrator criticism.[39]

Hassan ibn Ali ibn Salim, also refered to as Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Hamzah al Batai’ni is described as weak, a liar, and accursed.

Al Kashshi quotes Muhammad ibn Mas’ud, who asked ‘Ali ibn Hassan ibn Fadal about Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Hamzah al Batai’ni and he responded, “He is an accursed liar! I recorded many Hadith from him, as well as the Tafsir of the entire Qur’an. However, I do not deem it permissible to transmit even one Hadith from him.” He goes on to quote Abu al Hassan Hamdwayh ibn Nasir, who states on the authority of a number of his teachers that Hassan ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Hamzah al Batai’ni is an evil person.[40]

Ibn al Ghada’iri states that he is a Waqifi,[41] the son of a Waqifi. He is weak, and his father is narrowly more reliable than he is.[42]

Al Mamaqani says, “It is absolutely necessary to discard his narrations. At best, he was a Waqifi; not reliable and therefore included among the weak [narrators].”[43]

Another unreliable narration.

 

3. The narration ascribed to Jafar al Sadiq — from his father — from his fathers

This naration is recorded by al Saduq — and with his chain, al Khazzaz al Qummi as well as al Tabarsi — by way of Muhammad ibn Musa ibn Mutawakkil — Muhammad ibn Abi ‘Abdullah al Kufi — Musa ibn Imran al NakhaiHussain ibn Yazid Hassan ibn Ali ibn Abi Hamzah — his father — al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam — his father ‘alayh al Salam — His fathers ‘alayh al Salam that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[44]

The issues which rendered the previous narration unreliable are present in this narration as well.

 

4. The narration ascribed to Jafar al Sadiq, from his father, from his fathers

This naration is recorded by al Saduq — and with his chain, al Khazzaz al Qummi, al Tabarsi, al Hurr al ‘Amili, al Majlisi — by way of ‘Ali ibn Ahmed — Muhammad ibn Abi ‘Abdullah al Kufi — Musa ibn Imran al NakhaiHussain ibn YazidHassan ibn Ali ibn Abi Hamzah — his father — Yahya ibn Abi al Qasim — al Sadiq ‘alayh al Salam — his father ‘alayh al Salam — his grandfather ‘alayh al Salam that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “The Imams after me are twelve. The first of them is ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, and the last of them is al Qa’im. They are my Khulafa’ and Awsiya’, and Allah’s proof over my Ummah after me. Those who accept them are believers and those who reject them are disbelievers.”[45]

The problematic narrators from the previous two narrations are present in this one as well, Musa ibn Imran al Nakhai, Hussain ibn Yazid, and Hassan ibn Ali ibn Abi Hamzah.

Muhaammad Baqir al Bahbudi has omitted it from his critical rendition of Man La Yahduruhu al Faqih, titled Sahih al Faqih, which means that he deemed it unreliable.

It is interesting to note that ‘Abdul Hussain—who believes this narration to be Mutawatir—omitted the last phrase of the Hadith, “Those who accept them are believers, and those who reject them are disbelievers.” His omission of this phrase, and his belief of the mass-transmission of this Hadith have revealed his pleasantries to be nothing more than an act for his audience. If he really believed in this narration it would mean that he considers, not only the Ahlus Sunnah, but all other Shia sects who do not believe in the Imamah of these twelve, to be disbelievers. He amputated the tail-end of the narration to keep up appearances.

 

5. The narration ascribed to Ali

This narration is recorded by al Saduq — and with his chain, al Tabarsi and al Majlisi — by way of ‘Ali ibn Ahmed ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed ibn Abi ‘Abdullah al Barqi — his father — his grandfather, Ahmed ibn Abi Abdullah — his father, Muhammad ibn Khalid — Muhammad ibn DawoodMuhammad ibn Jarud al Abdi — Asbagh ibn Nubatah — ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[46]

Objections have been raised against Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid for being careless about whom he takes narrations from, often omitting the person whom he actually received the narration from.[47]

Muhammad ibn Dawood is a name shared by a number of narrators, all of whom are weak and unreliable. Even though it is not possible to identify the actual narrator of this report, he, and all his namesakes are considered unreliable.[48]

Muhammad ibn al Jarud is considered Majhul, and his name doesn’t even appear in most early books on narrator biographies.[49]

Considering the above factors, this narration is also unreliable.

It is worthy of noting that the narration as it appears in al Murajaat is extremely truncated. ‘Abdul Hussain conveniently omitted the statement wherein the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam allegedly states that anyone who rejects the Imamah of any of the twelve has effectively rejected him. If one accepts this narration then it stands to reason that such a person considers any Sunni a disbeliever.

 

6. The narration ascribed to Ali al Rida, from his father, from his fathers

This narration has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him by Hashim al Bahrani — by way of Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Majilawayh — ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim — his father — Ali ibn MabadHussain ibn Khalid — ‘Ali ibn Musa al Rida — his father — his fathers that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[50]

The teacher of al Saduq, ‘Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Majilawayh, is a narrator whom the Shia Hadith authorities differ over greatly. Al Jawahiri calls him Majhul.[51] Al Tusturi and al Khu’i have objected very firmly to those scholars who accepted the narration of any narrator simply because he was a teacher of al Saduq. They argue that the blanket acceptance of his teachers is misplaced, and that many of his teachers were found to be weak and unreliable.[52] This is consistent with the grading of al Mamaqani, “Al Saduq invoked mercy upon him, and he was one of his teachers. Notwithstanding that, the man is Majhul and ignored.”[53]

Ali ibn Mabad is considered Majhul as established by al Mamaqani.[54] Similarly, Al Khu’i states that Hussain ibn Khalid al Sayrafi cannot be proven to be a reliable narrator.[55]

This is yet another narration which fails the test according to Shia Hadith standards. If one were to accept it, then it ought to be accepted in its entirety as the narration continues further than what is stated in al Murajaat. The narration goes on to state that whoever leaves ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu after the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passing will not see the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the Day of Judgement, nor will the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam want to look at such a person. Furthermore, anyone who opposes ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu will be forbidden to enter Jannat and will be destined for Jahannam. ‘Abdul Hussain selectively cited the passage that supports his argument and withheld the segment of the narration that reveals how the Shia actually view their Sunni ‘brothers’: destined for Hell!

 

7. The narration ascribed to Ali al Rida, from his father, from his fathers

This narration has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him, by al Majlisi — by way of Ahmed ibn Ziyad ibn Jafar — ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim — his father — Ali ibn MabadHussain ibn Khalid — ‘Ali al Rida — his father — his fathers — that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[56]

The critical appraisal of both ‘Ali ibn Ma’bad and Hussain ibn Khalid have been discussed under the previous narration.

 

8. The narration ascribed to Hassan ibn Ali al Askari, from his father, from his grandfather

This narration has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him, by Hashim al Bahrani — by way of Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ishaq — Ahmed ibn Muhammad al Hamadani — Muhammad ibn HishamAli ibn Hassan al Sa’ih — Hassan ibn ‘Ali al ‘Askari — his father — his father — his grandfather, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[57]

Al Jawahiri states that the reliability of Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al Talaqani cannot be established.[58]His being a teacher of al Saduq is inconsequential as elaborated under narration no. 6.

There is no mention of Ali ibn Hassan [or Hussain] al Sa’ih. The manuscripts have his name spelled differently. Despite this he cannot be traced in the narrator literature.

The expert Shia scholars cannot decide whether Muhammad ibn Hisham is reliable or not. The abbreviation in his biographical entry in the early books has perplexed the Shia experts on Hadith. Some say that he was an ‘Ammi, which literally translates as a layperson or commoner but is used by Shia scholars to refer to Sunnis. Others have interpreted the abbreviation to mean ‘Alim, refering to him being a scholar.[59]

‘Abdul Hussain has been consistent in only exposing his readers to a portion of the narration. He could not risk citing the entire narration, especially when it states that if any person were to reject any one of the Imams, it would be tantamount to rejecting the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala!

 

9. The narration ascribed to Salman al Farisi

This has been recorded by Sulaim ibn Qais, and al Saduq narrates it with varying chains from him.[60] Hashim al Bahrani narrates it by way of al Saduq, from Sulaim ibn Qais.[61]

The version in Kamal al Din is narrated by way of Aban ibn Taghlib — Sulaim ibn Qais — Salman.

The version in by way of Hashim al Bahrani, and the way it is found in Kitab Sulaim ibn Qais mentions Aban ibn Abi ‘Ayyash as the narrator from Sulaim.

There is an interruption between Aban ibn Taghlib and Sulaim ibn Qais as the two of them did not meet and there is an intermediary between them. So, if this is the preferred version it would mean that the chain of transmission is interrupted.

On the other hand, appearing in the second version is Aban ibn Abi Ayyash who is suspected of forging the book of Sulaim ibn Qais and ascribing it to him. Ibn al Ghada’iri states that he is absolutey weak and unreliable.[62]

Al Barqa’i states that both Aban ibn ‘Ayyash and Sulaim are both Majhul; and that the book of Sulaim is filled with forgeries and lies.[63]Muhammad Baqir al Bahbudi has absolutely no doubt about the fact that his book is a forgery.[64]

If the narration of Aban ibn Taghlib is taken, it suffers two flaws: interruption and the unreliability of Sulaim. If the version of Aban is taken, the unreliability of both Aban ibn Abi ‘Ayyash and Sulaim is a problem. Either way, the narration is unreliable.

 

10. The narration ascribed to Salman al Farisi

This narration has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him by Hashim al Bahrani — by way of Muhammad ibn Hassan ibn Ahmed ibn Walid — Muhammad ibn Hassan al Saffar — Ya’qub ibn Yazid — Hammad ibn ‘Isa — ‘Umar ibn Udhaynah — Aban ibn Abi AyyashIbrahim ibn Umar al YamaniSulaim ibn Qais — Salman radiya Llahu ‘anhu who heard the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam[65]

Aban ibn Abi ‘Ayyash and Sulaim ibn Qais have been discussed under the previous narration. There is another disputed narrator who appears in this chain, Ibrahim ibn Umar al Yamani. Al Najashi has vetted him, whereas ibn al Ghada’iri has declared him extremely weak.[66] Most of the scholars have not mentioned any details about his reliability.[67]

Therefore, the presence of Ibrahim ibn ‘Umar al Yamani either adds to the intensity of the weakness, or does not affect the fact that is already extremely weak, if not forged.

 

11. The scene ‘observed’ by Sulaim ibn Qais al Hilali

This narration has been recorded by al Saduq by way of his father and Muhammad ibn Hassan — Sa’d ibn ‘Abdullah — Ya’qub ibn Yazid — Hammad ibn ‘Isa — ‘Umar ibn Udhaynah — Aban ibn Abi AyyashSulaim ibn Qais al Hilali[68]

The problems with this chain have been discussed under Hadith no. 9.

 

12. The narration ascribed to Abdullah ibn Jafar

This narration has bee recorded by both al Saduq and al Kulayni with a common chain by way of Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa — Ibn Abi ‘Umair — ‘Umar ibn Udhaynah — Aban ibn Abi AyyashSulaim ibn Qais — ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar…[69]

Both narrators have been discussed under narration no. 9

Majlisi states that the scholars differed about this narration.[70] It is evident that al Bahbudi considered it weak since he excluded it from his revised edition of al Kafi, titled Sahih al Kafi.

It is interesting to note that this narration describes a heated discussion in the presence of Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu as well as Hassan, Hussain, ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, ‘Umar ibn Abi Salamah, and Usamah ibn Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhum. During this discussion ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar radiya Llahu ‘anhu allegedly states that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam appointed ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu as his successor, and if he is martyred then his son, Hassan, then Hussain; and if he were to be martyred then his son, ‘Ali [ibn al Hussain]. Could there be any vindication for Hassan ibn ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu abdicating in favour of Muawiyah after being divinely appointed?

 

13. The narration ascribed to Abdullah ibn Abbas

This has been recorded by al Saduq — and later on by al Majlisi — by way of Ali ibn Abdullah al Warraq al Razi — Sa’d ibn ‘Abdullah — Haytham ibn Abi Masruq al Nahdi — Hussain ibn AlwanUmar ibn Khalid[71]Sad ibn Tarif — Asbagh ibn Nubatah — ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[72]

Al Mamaqani considers Ali ibn Abdullah al Warraq unreliable.[73]

Hussain ibn Alwan is not an Imami. Al Tusi[74] objects to a narration about washing the feet in Wudu[75] which is transmitted by way of Hussain ibn ‘Alwan — from ‘Amr ibn Khalid — from Zaid ibn ‘Ali stating that this chain comprises of Ammis and Zaidis.[76] So this narrator is fine when it comes to proving Imamah, yet problematic when it pertains to a matter of practise which goes contrary to the established practise among the Twelvers.

Amr ibn Khalid is also refered to as a Batri,[77] a Shia who does not reject the Khulafa’ before ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. There is another narrator who shares this name, but he is not known for being a teacher of Hussain ibn ‘Alwan.[78]

Sad ibn Tarif is considered weak by Ibn al Ghadai’ri.[79] He also appears in the Sunni Rijal literature as well; albeit severely discredited. He is one of the 100 narrators that ‘Abdul Hussain claimed that Sunni’s rely on.[80]

Again, another unreliable narration.

 

14. The narration of Ibn Abbas

This narration is recorded by al Saduq by way of Ahmed ibn Hassan al QattanAhmed ibn Yahya ibn Zakariyya al QattanBakr ibn Abdullah ibn HabibFadl ibn Saqr al Adi — Abu Muawiyah — al A’mash — ‘Abayah ibn Rib’i — ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[81]

Al Jawahiri states that Ahmed ibn Hassan al Qattan, despite being a teacher of al Saduq, is Majhul and probably an Ammi.[82]

Al Mamaqani declared Ahmed ibn Yahya ibn Zakariyya al Qattan Majhul as well.[83]

Bakr ibn Abdullah is considered weak and unreliable.[84]

There is no mention of Fadl ibn Saqr in the Shia Rijal literature.

Not much of a narrration to build one’s creed upon!

 

15. The narration from Jafar al Sadiq, from his fathers

This narration has been recorded by al Saduq from a number of his teachers, none of whom he names — Abu ‘Ali Muhamad ibn Hammam — ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar — Ahmed ibn Hilal — Muhammad ibn Abi ‘Umair — Said ibn Ghazawan — Abu Basir — Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam — his fathers ‘alayh al Salam that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[85]

Al Saduq has not identified his teachers. Nonetheless, Ahmed ibn Hilal is considered weak and accursed.[86] Furthermore, Said ibn Ghazawan cannot be proven to be reliable.[87]

We might add that one of the possible reasons for Ahmed ibn Hilal being accursed is his competing claim for representation of the Hidden Mahdi. His rivals realized that discrediting him was a convenient way to gain monopoly over representing the Hidden Imam.

 

16. The narration ascribed to Ali

Al Saduq records this narration by way of Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya al Attar — his father — Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul jabbar — Abu Ahmed Muhammad ibn Ziyad[88] al Azdi — Aban ibn ‘Uthman — Thabit ibn Dinar — ‘Ali ibn Hussain — Hussain ibn ‘Ali — ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[89]

Both Ahmed ibn Muhammad al Attar and Abu Ahmed, Muhammad ibn Ziyad al Azdi are considered Majhul.[90]

 

17. The narration ascribed to Jafar al Sadiq, from his father, from his fathers

This has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him by Hashim al Bahrani — by way of Hassan ibn Muhammad ibn Said al HashimiFurat ibn Ibrahim ibn Furat al Kufi — Muhammad ibn Zahir — ‘Abdullah ibn Fadl al Hashimi — Jafar al Sadiq — his father — his fathers, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[91]

Al Jawahiri says that Hassan ibn Muhammad ibn Said al Hashimi is Majhul despite being a teacher of al Saduq.[92]

Furat ibn Ibrahim, a Shia scholar, had authored a book on Tafsir. The editor had nothing to write under his biography besides the fact that there is absolutely no mention of him in the biographies compiled by Shia scholars. He goes on to state that there are no biographical entries for him in any of the Rijal books at his disposal.[93] He is therefore, Majhul.

Al Mamaqani states that Muhammad ibn Zahir is also Majhul.[94]

 

18. The narration ascribed to Ali Zayn al Abidin, from his father, from his father

This has been recorded by al Saduq by way of Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Masrur — Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Amir — ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir — ibn Abi ‘Umair — Hamzah ibn Humran — his father — Abu Hamzah — ‘Ali ibn Hussain — his father — his father, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[95]

Both Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Masrur and Hamzah ibn Humran are described as Majhul.[96]

 

19. The narration ascribed to Abdullah ibn Abbas

This has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him by al Majlisi and Hashim al Bahrani — by way of Muhammad ibn Ahmed al Sinani — Muhammad ibn Abi ‘Abdullah al Asadi al Kufi — Musa ibn Imran al NakhaiHussain ibn YazidAli ibn Salim — his father — Sad ibn Tarif — Sa’id ibn Jubayr — ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[97]

Al Jawahiri endorses the grading of his teacher, al Khu’i, of Muhammad ibn Ahmed al Sinani, stating that he is Majhul despite being a teacher of al Saduq.[98]

Musa ibn Imran al Nakhai and Hussain ibn Yazid have already been shown to be Majhul.[99]

Al Mamaqani states that Ali ibn Salim al Kufi is an Imami, but he is Majhul.[100]

Sad ibn Tarif has already been shown to be unreliable and weak.[101]

 

20. The narration ascribed to Abdullah ibn Abbas

This has been recorded by al Saduq by way of Ahmed ibn Harun al Fami — Muhammad ibn Jafar ibn Jami’ al Himyari — his father — Ayub ibn Nuh — Muhammad ibn Abi ‘Umair — Aban al AhmarSad al Kinani — Asbagh ibn Nubatah — ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[102]

Al Jawahiri endorses the view of his teacher, al Khu’i, stating that Ahmed ibn Harun al Fami is Majhul.[103]

Ibn Dawood al Hilli has documented the entry of Aban ibn Uthman al Ahmar in the second part of his Rijal; the part reserved for narrators who are graded weak or Majhul.[104]

Sad al Kinani is considered Majhul. The early scholars have not recorded biographical data on him.[105]

 

21. The narration ascribed to Abu Dharr al Ghifari

This has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him by al Majlisi and Hashim al Bahrani — by way of Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya al Attar — his father — Ya’qub ibn Yazid — Muhammad ibn Abi ‘Umair — Saif ibn ‘UmairahAshath ibn Sawwar — Ahnaf ibn Qais — Abu Dharr, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[106]

Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya al Attar was already shown to be an unreliable narrator.[107]

Opinions have varied about Saif ibn ‘Umairah. He has been declared a Waqifi though.[108]

Al Mamaqani describes Ashath ibn Sawwar as an Imami who is Majhul.[109]

 

22. The narration ascribed to Jabir ibn Abdullah al Ansari

This has been recorrded by al Saduq — and from him by al Majlisi — by way of Hassan ibn Muhammad ibn Sa’id al Hashimi — Furat ibn Ibrahim — Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Ma’mar — Ahmed ibn ‘Ali al Ramli — Muhammad ibn Musa — Ya’qub ibn Ishaq al Marwazi — ‘Amr ibn Mansur — Ismail ibn Aban — Yahya ibn Abi Kathir — his father — Abu Harun al ‘Abdi — Jabir ibn Abdullah al Ansari, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[110]

Furat ibn Ibrahim has already been shown to be unreliable.[111]

Al Mamaqani describes Ismail ibn Aban as an Imami who is Majhul.[112]

Muhammad Amin al Kazimi states that all narrators with the name Jabir — with the exception of Jabir al Ju’fi — are considered weak and unreliable.[113] No exception has been made for the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam companion, Jabir ibn Abdullah al Ansari radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

 

23. The narration ascribed to Abdullah ibn Abbas

This narration has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him by al Majlisi — by way of Muhammad ibn ‘Ali — Muhammad ibn Abi Qasim — Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al Kufi — Muhammad ibn Sinan — Mufaddal ibn ‘Umar — Thabit ibn Abi Safiyyah — Sa’id ibn Jubayr — ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[114]

Appearing in this chain is Muhammad ibn Sinan al Hamadani, Abu Jafar. We have already shown that Shia Hadith authorities describe him as an extremist, weak, known for forging Hadith and whose narrations deserve no attention.[115]

 

24. The narration ascribed to Abdullah ibn Abbas

This has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him by Hashim al Bahrani and al Majlisi — by way of Muhammad ibn ‘Umar al Hafiz al Baghdadi — Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Thabit ibn Kinanah — Muhammad ibn Hassan ibn ‘Abbas al Khuza’i — Hassan ibn Hussain al Urani — ‘Amr ibn Thabit — Ata’ ibn Sa’ib — Abu Yahya — ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[116]

Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Thabit ibn Kinanah has not been mentioned by the early Shia authorities, he remains Majhul.[117]

Al Mamaqani describes Ata ibn al Sa’ib as unreliable.[118]

Al Jawahiri endorses the view of his teacher, al Khu’i, that Hassan ibn Hussain al Urani is Majhul.[119]

 

25. The narration ascribed to Ali

This narration has been recorded by al Saduq by way of Muhammad ibn Ibrahim — Ahmed ibn Muhammad al Hamadani — Ali ibn Hassan ibn Ali ibn Fadalhis father — ‘Ali al Rida — Musa ibn Jafar — Jafar al Sadiq — Muhammad al Baqir — ‘Ali Zayn al ‘Abidin — Hussain ibn ‘Ali — ‘Ali, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[120]

The name Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ishaq is shared between two narrators; al Talaqani and al Farisi. Al Jawahiri[121] states that al Talaqani has not been credited as a reliable narrator, and that al Farisi is Majhul. Whichever of the two is identified, the narration remains in question.

Ali ibn Hassan is not acceptable as a narrator.[122]It is claimed that he is deemed unreliable because he was a Fathi; he believed that the line of Imamah continued with ‘Abdullah al Aftah. His father, Hassan ibn Ali ibn Fadal, is also said be a Fathi.[123]

 

26. The narration ascribed to Ali

This has been recorded by al Saduq by way of Muhammad ibn Ahmed al Sinani — Muhammad ibn Jafar al Kufi — Muhammad ibn Ismail al Barmaki — ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed — Qasim ibn Sulaiman — Thabit ibn Abi Safiyyah — Said ibn IlaqahAbu Said ‘Aqisa — Hussain ibn ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib — ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[124]

Al Jawahiri endorses the grading of his teacher, al Khu’i, of Muhammad ibn Ahmed al Sinani, stating that he is Majhul despite being a teacher of al Saduq.[125]

Al Mamaqani states that numerous scholars have declared Qasim ibn Sulaiman al Baghdadi unreliable and weak.[126]

Said ibn Ilaqah is described as an Imami who is Majhul.[127]The same goes for Abu Said Aqisa.[128]

 

27. The narration of Ibn Abbas

This has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him by al Majlisi — by way of Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Masrur — Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Amir — ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir — Abu Ahmed Muhammad ibn Ziyad al AzdiAban ibn Uthman al Ahmar — Aban ibn Taghlib — Ikrimah — Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[129]

Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Masrur is graded Majhul.[130]

Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Ziyad al Azdi is not mentioned in the early Rijal works and is considered Majhul.[131]

Ibn Dawood al Hilli has documented the entry of Aban ibn Uthman al Ahmar in the second part of his Rijal; the part reserved for narrators who are graded weak or Majhul.[132]

Al Khu’i quotes al Kashshi stating that Ikrimah was discredited.[133]

 

28. The narration ascribed to Umm Salamah

This has been recorded by al Saduq by way of Muhammad ibn Hassan ibn Ahmed ibn Walid — Muhammad ibn Abi al Qasim — Muhammad ibn Ali al SayrafiMuhammad ibn Sinan — Mufaddal ibn ‘Umar — Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam [al Sadiq] — his father — his grandfather — Umm Salamah, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[134]

Appearing in this chain is Muhammad ibn Ali al Sayrafi, whose Kunyah is Abu Saminah. He is known for lying and deceiving. He has already been discussed.[135]

We also find Muhammad ibn Sinan al Hamadani in this chain. We have already shown that Shia Hadith authorities describe him as an extremist, weak, known for forging Hadith and whose narrations deserve no attention.[136]

 

29. The narration ascribed to Salman al Farisi

This has been recorded by al Saduq by way of his father — Abdullah ibn Hassan al Mu’addib Ahmed ibn Ali al Asbahani — Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al Thaqafi — ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Hashim — Yahya ibn HussainSad ibn Tarif — Asbagh ibn Nubatah — Salman, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[137]

Al Jawahiri has endorsed the grading of al Khu’i; that Abdullah ibn Hassan al Mu’addib is Majhul.[138] He says the same about Ahmed ibn Ali al Asbahani.[139]

Yahya ibn Hussain is not mentioned in the Rijal books. Contemporary Shia scholars merely cite this narration of his identifying that he is the narrator of this Hadith. He is also Majhul.[140]

Sad ibn Tarif was previously shown to be unreliable.[141]

 

30. The narration ascribed to Zaid ibn Arqam

This has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him by al Majlisi — by way of Muhammad ibn Hassan ibn Ahmed ibn Walid — Ahmed ibn Alawiyyah — Ibrahim ibn Muhammad — al Mas’udi — ‘Ali ibn Qasim al Kindi — Sa’d ibn Talib — ‘Uthman ibn Qasim al Ansari — Zaid ibn Arqam, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[142]

Al Mamaqani states that Ahmed ibn Alawiyyah is certainly and Imami, but suggests that he is Majhul.[143]

 

31. The narration ascribed to Abdullah ibn Abbas

This has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him by al Majlisi — by way of ‘Ali ibn Ahmed ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Ahmed ibn Abi ‘Abdullah al Barqi — his father — his grandfather, Ahmed ibn Abi Abdullah — his father, Muhammad ibn Khalid — Ghiyath ibn Ibrahim — Thabit ibn Dinar — Sad ibn Tarif — Sa’id ibn Jubayr — ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[144]

Objections have been raised against Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid for being careless about whom he takes narrations from, often concealing the person whom he actually received the narration from.[145]

Sad ibn Tarif has previously been shown to be unreliable.[146]

 

32. The narration ascribed to Abdullah ibn Abbas

This narration has been recorded by al Saduq — and from him by al Majlisi — by way of Hussain ibn Ahmed ibn Idris — his father — Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul Jabbar — Abu Ahmed Muhammad ibn Ziyad al Azdi — Ismail ibn Fadl — his father — Thabit ibn Dinar — Sa’id ibn Jubayr — ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[147]

Hussain ibn Ahmed ibn Idris is considered Majhul.[148]

Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Ziyad al Azdi is not mentioned in the early Rijal works and is considered Majhul.[149]

There is another mistake in this narration. Al Khu’i states that Ismail ibn Fadl does not narrate from his father; instead it his own son, Fadl, who narrates from him, Ismail.[150] He goes on to say that he has identified over 450 places where this error has occurred in the Shia Hadith literature. In all those narrations Ismail ibn Fadl actually narrates from Abu ‘Abdullah ‘alayh al Salam, and only at one place does he narrate by way of Thabit ibn Dinar.[151]

The occurrence of such a mistake alone would imply that this narration is not well preserved; what then could be said of the presence of other problematic narrators in the chain?

 

33. The narration about the Prophet’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ascension

Al Saduq has recorded this with four different chains in his Amali. All four chains are flawed and have problematic narrators.

a. His father — ‘Abdullah ibn Jafar al Himyari — Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa — his father — Yunus ibn ‘Abdul Rahman — Mansur al Sayqal — Jafar al Sadiq — his fathers, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[152]

Al Jawahiri endorses al Khu’i, stating that Mansur al Sayqal is Majhul.[153]

b. Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Masrur — Hussain ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Amir — ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amir — Muhammad ibn Ziyad al AzdiAban ibn Uthman al Ahmar — Aban ibn Taghlib — Ikrimah — Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[154]

Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Masrur, Muhammad ibn Ziyad al Azdi, Aban ibn Uthman al Ahmar and Ikrimah have already been shown to be unreliable.[155]

c. Ahmed ibn Hassan al Qattan — ‘Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Hatim — Harun ibn Ishaq al Hamadani — ‘Abdah ibn Sulaiman — Kamil ibn al Ala — Habib ibn Abi Thabit — Sa’id ibn Jubayr — ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[156]

Al Jawahiri states that Ahmed ibn Hassan al Qattan, despite being a teacher of al Saduq, is Majhul and probably an Ammi.[157]

Kamil ibn Ala is described by al Mamaqani as Majhul, despite being an Imami.[158]

d. Hassan ibn Muhammad ibn Said al HashimiFurat ibn Ibrahim ibn Furat al KufiMuhammad ibn Zahir — ‘Abdullah ibn Fadl al Hashimi — Jafar al Sadiq — his father — his fathers, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[159]

The issues with this entire chain have already been discussed.[160]

 

34. The narration ascribed to Ali al Rida, from his father, from his fathers

This has been recorded by al Saduq by way of Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Masrur — Muhammad ibn Jafar ibn Jami’ al Himyari — his father — Ya’qub ibn Yazid — Hassan ibn Ali ibn Fadal — ‘Ali al Rida — his father — his fathers, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[161]

Both problematic narrators in this chain, Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Masrur and Hassan ibn Ali ibn Fadal have already been discussed.[162]

 

35. The narration ascribed to Ammar ibn Yasir

This has been recorded by al Tusi — and from him by al Majlisi — by way of Muhammad ibn Muhammad — Abu al Hassan Ali ibn Khalid al MaraghiAbu Bakr Muhammad ibn SalihAbdul Ala ibn Wasil al AsadiMukhawwil ibn IbrahimAli ibn Hazawwar — Asbagh ibn Nubatah — ‘Ammar ibn Yasir, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said…[163]

Abu al Hassan Ali ibn Khalid al Maraghi, Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Salih, Abdul Ala ibn Wasil al Asadi and Mukhawwil ibn Ibrahim are all Majhul and have no narrator data on record in the books of Rijal.[164]

Al Mamaqani states that Ali ibn Hazawwar is weak and unreliable.[165]

Shia scholars have been skeptical about the Amali of al Tusi. It is not well-established that it is his work. Asif Muhsini expressed his reservations about it stating that it is questionable whether al Majlisi actually had a good copy of it since the book was expremely rare.[166]

 

36. The narration ascribed to Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu

This narration is found in the Amali of al Tusi — and from him recorded by al Majlisi — by way of Muhammad ibn Muhammad — Abu al Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad al Katib — Hassan ibn ‘Ali al Za’farani — Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al Thaqafi — Uthman ibn Abi ShaybahAmr ibn Maymun — Jafar ibn Muhammad — his father — his grandfather — Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, that the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said to him…[167]

Ali ibn Muhammad al Katib is Majhul and there is no record of him in the books of Rijal.[168]

Al Jawahiri shares the view of al Khu’i that Uthman ibn Abi Shaybah is Majhul.[169]

Al Mamaqani states that Amr ibn Maymun is Majhul.[170]

 

37. The narration ascribed to Hassan ibn Ali

‘Abdul Hussain ran out of narrations from primary sources so he became resourceful. He sourced narrations from later collections which cite earlier sources and made as if he had quoted the narrations from the primary source. The book which he cites, Nusus ala al A’immah, was never published. The only complete manuscript of the book is claimed to have been in the possession of Muhammad ibn Murtada al Kashmiri in Najaf.[171]

How would ‘Abdul Hussain have access to the book, then too, to expect the Sheikh al Azhar to research the topic? This is further confirmation of the forged nature of the correspondence between the two parties.

Al Majlisi mentions this narration citing Kifayat al Athar, by al Khazzaz al Qummi. Hashim al Bahrani records it in Ghayat al Maram as well.[172]

The following narrators appear in the chain:

Dawood ibn Abi Awf. Al Jawahiri endorses al Khu’is findings; that Dawood ibn ‘Awf remains Majhul, and that the crediting of Ibn ‘Uqdah cannot be proven with a reliable chain.[173]

Sufyan ibn Said al Thawri. ‘Allamah al Hilli says, “He is not from our companions.” He included him in the second part of his Rijal which is reserved for unreliable and unknown narrators.[174]

Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Abdullah is considered an Ammi.[175]

 

38. The narration ascribed to Imran ibn Hussain

‘Abdul Hussain has referenced this to the unpublished work, Nusus al A’immah. It can be found in the work of Hashim al Bahrani, Ghayat al Maram.[176]

Appearing in this chain is Ali ibn Hazawwar. Al Mamaqani states that he is weak and unreliable.[177]

Another problematic narrator is Abdul Aziz ibn Ishaq ibn Jafar; whom al Mamaqani says is Majhul despite being and Imami.[178]

 

39. The narration ascribed to Ali

‘Abdul Hussain has referenced this to the unpublished work, Nusus al A’immah. It can be found in Bihar al Anwar of al Majlisi.[179]

Appearing in this chain is Hussain ibn Alwan, who has previously been shown to be unreliable.[180]

 

40. The narration ascribed to Hussain ibn Ali

‘Abdul Hussain has referenced this to the unpublished work, Nusus al A’immah. It can be found in Kifayat al Athar by al Khazzaz al Qummi,[181] and in Bihar al Anwar by al Majlisi.[182]

Appearing in this chain are Hariz ibn Abdullah al Hadhdha’, of whom there is no record of him in the books of Rijal;[183] and Abdullah ibn Ibrahim al Ghifari who is either weak or Majhul according to al Mamaqani.[184]

 

Conclusion

Not a single narration from the forty cited by ‘Abdul Hussain is free from criticism by Shia standards. If his own scholars are not prepared to accept these narrations how does he expect a Sunni to accept them. Are these the narrations that the Imamah of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu rests on within the Shia legacy?

 

NEXT⇒ LETTER 63 and 64


[1] Adapted from the translation on https://www.basair.net/implications-inconsistency-hadith-shia/

[2] In light of the many Sh’i narrations which state the Qur’an was tampered with and is currently not in its original form.

[3] Also known as the Ithna ‘Ashariyyah, or Twelvers.

[4] i.e. the previous Imam.

[5] Usul al Kafi, vol. 1 pg. 108

[6] It was believed that the Hidden Imam had emissaries who met him and relayed messages on his behalf to the people, after he went into hiding.

[7] It is appropriate to mention that I came across this point when I heard a Shia say that al Bukhari deviated from the Ahlul Bayt, as he had abandoned narrating from Imam Hassan al ‘Askari, despite being his contemporary. I researched the matter and said to him, “If this proves that al Bukhari was a Nasibi [an opponent of the Ahlul Bayt], al Kulayni is the greatest Nasibi.” It then became clear to me that this objection stems from ‘Abdul Hussain in al Muraja’at  (Abu Muhammad al Afriqi).

[8] Jami’ al Ruwat, vol. 1 pg 533

[9] Letters claimed to be from the Hidden Imam and sent to the Shia via al ‘Amri

[10] A substantial tax collected on behalf of the Imam

[11] Jami’ al Ruwat, vol. 2, pg. 148. لم was a symbol to denote there are no narrations from him.

[12] Jami’ al Ruwat, vol. 1 pg 240

[13] Al Tahdhib, vol. 6 pg. 93

[14] Jami’ al Ruwat, vol. 1 pg 598

[15] Rawdat al Muttaqin, vol. 1 pg. 28

[16] Al Dirayah, pg. 7

[17] Miqbas al Hidayah, vol. 3 pg. 20

[18] Rawdat al Muttaqin, vol. 1 pg. 130

[19] Al Faqih, vol. 1 pg. 12

[20] Al Kafi, vol. 1 pg. 49

[21] al Tahdhib vol. 1 pg. 2

[22] Miqbas al Hidayah, vol. 2 pg. 403

[23] Miqbas al Hidayah, vol. 3 pg. 33

[24] Jami’ al Ruwat, vol. 1 pg. 547

[25] Surah al Baqarah: 79

[26] Surah al Nisa’: 82

[27] Rawdat al Muttaqin, vol. 1 pg. 130

[28] See discussions on Letters 8 and 10

[29] Kamal al Din vol. 1 pg. 256; Amali al Saduq pg. 78; Bihar al Anwar vol. 36 pg. 226

[30] Rijal al Kashshi pg. 546, bio. 1033

[31] Siyanat al Qur’an min al Tahrif, pg 226

[32] Rijal ibn al Ghadai’ri, pfg. 92

[33] Rijal ibn Dawood, pt. 2, Bio. 455

[34] Al Khulasah, 394

[35] Jami’ al Ruwat, vol. 1 pg. 363; al Nasb wa al Nawasib, pg 238

[36] Tanqih al Maqal, vol. 1 pg. 83; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, vol. 9 pg. 145

[37] Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 257; Bihar al Anwar, vol. 36 pg. 283; Ghayat al Maram vol. 1 pg. 116

[38] Tanqih al Maqal, vol. 3 pg. 258

[39] Al Khulasah, vol. 9 pg. 216

[40] Rijal al Kashshi, pg 552, bio. 1042

[41] Waqifi is taken from the Arabic root W-Q-F, which means to stop. This term refers to a Shia sect called the Waqifiyyah who believed that Imamah stopped with Musa al Kazim, hence the title Waqifi.

[42] Rijal ibn al Ghada’ri, pg 51

[43] Tanqih al Maqal, vol. 1 pg. 290

[44] Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 258; Kifayat al Athar pg. 144; A’lam al Wara, vol. 2 pg. 183

[45] Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 259; Man La Yahduruhu al Faqih, vol. 4 pg. 180; Kifayat al Athar pg. 145; A’lam al Wara, vol. 2 pg. 183; al Jawahir, pg. 282; al Bihar, vol. 36 pg. 252

[46] Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 259; I’lam al Wara, vol. 2 pg. 185; al Bihar, vol. 36 pg. 253

[47] Rijal ibn al Ghada’iri, pg. 39; al Fihrist, pg. 48

[48] Hidayat al Muhaddithin, pg. 237

[49] Mustadrakat ‘Ilm al Rijal, vol. 6 pg. 488

[50] Kamal al Din vol. 1 pg. 260; Ghayat al Maram, vol. 1 pg. 131

[51] Al Mufid, pg. 559

[52] Qamus al Rijal, vol. 1 pg. 73, vol. 9 pg. 460; Mujam Rijal al Hadith, vol. 21 pg. 203

[53] Tanqih al Maqal, vol. 1 pg. 108

[54] Tanqih al Maqal, vol 2 pg. 309

[55] Mujam Rijal al Hadith, vol. 6 pg. 250

[56] Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 261 ; al Bihar, vol. 16 pg. 364

[57] Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 261; Ghayat al Maram, vol. 1 pg. 303

[58] Al Mufid, pg 483

[59] Muntaha al Maqal, vol. 6 pg. 225

[60] Kitab Sulaim ibn Qais, pg. 461; Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 261;

[61] Ghayat al Maram, vol. 1 pg. 117

[62] Rijal ibn al Ghada’iri, pg 63; Jami’ al Ruwat, vol.1 pg. 9

[63] Kasr al Sanam, pg. 234

[64] Ma’rifat al Hadith, pg. 33

[65] Kamal a-Din, vol. 1 pg. 262; Ghayat al Maram, vol. 5 pg. 14

[66] Rijal ibn al Ghada’iri, pg 36

[67] Muntaha al Maqal, vol. 1 pg. 185

[68] Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 274

[69] Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 270; al Kafi, vol. 1 pg. 529

[70] Mir’at al ‘Uqul, vol 7. Pg 216

[71] His name is given as ‘Amr ibn Khalid in ‘Uyun al Akhbar.

[72] Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 280; ‘Uyun al Akhbar, vol. 2 pg. 66; al Bihar, vol. 25 pg. 202

[73] Tanqih al Maqal, vol.1 pg. 180

[74] Al Istibsar, vol. 1 pg. 125

[75] The Twelver Shia do not wash their feet in Wudu’, they merely wipe over it.

[76] ‘Ammi, meaning a commoner, is the derogatory reference that the Imami Shia use for Sunnis, or those Shia who do not share all their beliefs. Zaidi is a term to identify the branch of Shia that ascribe themselves to Zaid ibn ‘Ali.

[77] Rijal al Tusi, pg 131

[78] Qamus al Rijal, vol. 8 pg. 96

[79] Rijal ibn al Ghada’iri pg. 64

[80] See our discussions under Letter 16

[81] Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 280

[82] Al Mufid min Mujam Rijal al Hadith, pg. 25

[83] Tanqih al Maqal, vol. 1 pg. 11

[84] Rijal al Najashi, vol. 1 pg. 271

[85] Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 281

[86] Muntaha al Maqal, vol. 1 pg. 364; al Ghaybah, pg. 353

[87] Al Mufid min Mujam Rijal al Hadith, pg. 252

[88] Some texts name him Abu Ahmed Muhammad ibn Ziyad.

[89] Kamal al Din, vol. 1 pg. 282

[90] Al Mufid min Mujam Rijal al Hadith, pg 46; Mustadrakat ‘Ilm al Rijal, vol. 1 pg. 440

[91] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 26; Hadith. 8

[92] Al Mufid, pg 154

[93] Tafsir Furat, pg. 10

[94] Tanqih al Maqal, vol. 1 pg. 139

[95] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 27; Hadith.8

[96] Zubdat al Maqal, vol. 1 pg. 260; Al Mufid min Mujam Rijal al Hadith, pg. 198

[97] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 49, Hadith. 16, al Bihar, vol 18. Pg. 338; Ghayat al Maram, vol. 1 pg. 86

[98] Al Mufid fi Mujam Rijal al Hadith, pg. 496

[99] See discussions under Narration no. 2

[100] Tanqih al Maqal, vol. 1 pg. 156

[101] See discussions under Narration no. 13

[102] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 58, Hadith. 17

[103] Al Mufid, pg. 49

[104] Al Rijal, vol. 2 pg. 226

[105] Mustadrakat ‘Ilm al Rijal, vol.4 pg. 41

[106] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 80, Hadith. 7; al Bihar, vol. 38 pg. 107; Ghayat al Maram (8)

[107] See Narration no. 16

[108] Muntaha al Maqal, pg. 16

[109] Tanqih al Maqal, bio. 998

[110] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 2 Hadith. 6, al Bihar, vol. 38 pg. 90

[111] See Narration no. 17

[112] Tanqih al Maqal, pg 14 (old edition)

[113] Al Mushtarakat, pg. 28

[114] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 8 Hadith. 4; al Bihar, vol. 36 pg. 29

[115] See the discussions under Narration. No.1

[116] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 15 Hadith. 11; Ghayat al Maram, vol. 1 pg. 169; Bihar al Anwar vol. 38 pg. 94

[117] Mustadrakat ‘Ilm al Rijal, vol. 6 pg. 406

[118] Tanqih al Maqal, pg. 102 (old edition)

[119] Al Mufid, pg. 137

[120] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 20, Hadith. 4

[121] Al Mufid, pg. 483

[122] Muntaha al Maqal, vol. 2 pg. 433

[123] Muntaha al Maqal vol. 4 pg. 379

[124] Amali al Saduq, majlis. 53 Hadith. 13;

[125] Al Mufid fi Mujam Rijal al Hadith, pg. 496

[126] Tanqih al Maqal, pg. 122 (old edition)

[127] Tanqih al Maqal, pg. 64 (old edition)

[128] Tanqih al Maqal, pg. 52 (old edition)

[129] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 56 Hadith. 7; Bihar al Anwar, vol. 38 pg. 102

[130] Zubdat al Maqal, vol. 1 pg. 260; Al Mufid min Mujam Rijal al Hadith, pg. 198

[131] Mustadrakat ‘Ilm al Rijal, vol. 1 pg. 440

[132] Al Rijal, vol. 2 pg. 226

[133] Mujam Rijal al Hadith, vol. 12 pg. 177

[134] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 60 Hadith. 10

[135] See the discussions under Narration No. 1

[136] See the discussions under Narration. No.1

[137] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 72 Hadith. 21

[138] Al Mufid, pg. 331

[139] Al Mufid, pg. 33

[140] Mustadrakat ‘Ilm al Rijal, vol. 8 pg. 197

[141] See discussions under Narration no. 13

[142] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 72 Hadith. 22; Bihar al Anwar, vol. 38 pg. 104

[143] Tanqih al Maqal vol. 6 pg. 325 (Mu’assasah Al Bayt edition)

[144] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 45 Hadith. 18; al Bihar, vol. 43 pg. 24

[145] Rijal ibn al Ghada’iri, pg. 39; al Fihrist, pg. 48

[146] See discussions under Narration no. 13

[147] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 81 Hadith. 17; al Bihar, vol. 38 pg. 107

[148] Al Mufid, pg. 162

[149] Mustadrakat ‘Ilm al Rijal, vol. 1 pg. 440

[150] Mujam Rijal al Hadith, vol. 14 pg. 302

[151] Ibid

[152] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 72 Hadith. 17

[153] Al Mufid, pg. 622

[154] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 56 Hadith. 7

[155] See the discussions on Narrations: 16, 18, 20, 27

[156] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 50 Hadith. 14

[157] Al Mufid min Mujam Rijal al Hadith, pg. 25

[158] Tanqih al Maqal, pg. 126 (old edition)

[159] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 26 Hadith. 8

[160] See discussions on Narration no. 17

[161] Amali al Saduq, Majlis. 94 Hadith. 12

[162] See discussions under Narrations:18 and 25

[163] Amali al Tusi, Majlis. 7 Hadith. 5; al Bihar, vol. 39 pg. 298

[164] Mustadrakat ‘Ilm al Rijal: vol. 4 pg. 366, vol. 5 pg. 365, vol. 7 pg. 138, vol. 7 pg. 389

[165] Tanqih al Maqal, pg. 106 (old edition)

[166] Buhuth fi ‘Ilm al Rijal. Pg. 514

[167] Amali al Tusi, Majlis. 7 Hadith. 31; al Bihar, vol. 38 pg. 155

[168] Mustadrakat ‘Ilm al Rijal, vol. 5 pg. 444

[169] Al Mufid, pg. 368

[170] Tanqih al Maqal, vol. 1 pg. 113

[171] Al Dhari’ah, vol. 22 pg. 179

[172] Ghayat al Maram, narration. 55

[173] Al Mufid, pg. 214

[174] Al Khulasah, pg. 356; al Rijal by Ibn Dawood, pg. 248

[175] Qamus al Rijal, vol. 16 pg. 14

[176] Narration. 56

[177] Tanqih al Maqal, pg. 106 (old edition)

[178] Tanqih al Maqal, pg. 86 (old edition)

[179] al Bihar, vol. 36 pg. 335

[180] See discussions under Narration no. 13

[181] Kifayat al Athar, pg. 176

[182] Al Bihar, vol. 36 pg. 344

[183] Mustadrakat ‘Ilm al Rijal, vol. 2 pg. 327

[184] Tanqih al Maqal, pg. 87 (old edition)

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