BACK⇒ Return to Table of contents
After having established that the Qur’an was revealed gradually throughout the period of prophethood, the question remains; what was the reason or reasons behind having the Qur’an revealed bit by bit?
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala Himself has taken the responsibility of answering this question. Look at the following two verses:
وَقَالَ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ عَلَيْهِ الْقُرْآنُ جُمْلَةً وَاحِدَةً كَذٰلِكَ لِنُثَبِّتَ بِهِ فُؤَادَكَ وَرَتَّلْنَاهُ تَرْتِيْلًا
And those who disbelieve say, “Why was the Qur’an not revealed to him all at once?” Thus [it is] that We may strengthen thereby your heart. And We have spaced it distinctly.
وَقُرْآنًا فَرَقْنَاهُ لِتَقْرَأَهُ عَلَى النَّاسِ عَلَىٰ مُكْثٍ وَنَزَّلْنَاهُ تَنزِيْلًا
And [it is] a Qur’an which We have separated [by intervals] that you might recite it to the people over a prolonged period. And We have sent it down progressively.
These verses indicate to the wisdom behind having had the Qur’an revealed in stages. Hereunder are the details of these wisdoms.
Strengthening the heart of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as indicated to in the verse:
كَذٰلِكَ لِنُثَبِّتَ بِهِ فُؤَادَكَ
Thus [it is] that We may strengthen thereby your heart.
This was achieved in the following five ways:
This consolation was at times by way of recounting the stories of the prophets of the past as Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:
وَكُلًّا نَّقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ مِنْ أَنبَاءِ الرُّسُلِ مَا نُثَبِّتُ بِهِ فُؤَادَكَ
And each [story] We relate to you from the news of the messengers is that by which We make firm your heart.
At times it was by way of the promises of safety and help by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to his Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:
وَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِيْنَ تَقُوْمُ
And be patient, [O Muhammad], for the decision of your Lord, for indeed, you are in Our eyes.
وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ
And Allah will protect you from the people.
At others it was by warning his enemies:
سَيُهْزَمُ الْجَمْعُ وَيُوَلُّوْنَ الدُّبُرَ
[Their] assembly will be defeated, and they will turn their backs [in retreat].
فَإِنْ أَعْرَضُوْا فَقُلْ أَنذَرْتُكُمْ صَاعِقَةً مِّثْلَ صَاعِقَةِ عَادٍ وَثَمُوْدَ
But if they turn away, then say, “I have warned you of a thunderbolt like the thunderbolt [that struck] ‘Ad and Thamud.
Similarly, it was consolation by way of instruction to have patience:
فَاصْبِرْ كَمَا صَبَرَ أُولُوْ الْعَزْمِ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ
So be patient, [O Muhammad], as were those of determination among the Messengers
Likewise, it was consolation by preventing him from going through immense grief on their rejection of the faith:
فَلَا تَذْهَبْ نَفْسُكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَسَرَاتٍ
So do not let yourself perish over them in regret.
وَاصْبِرْ وَمَا صَبْرُكَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ وَلَا تَحْزَنْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا تَكُ فِيْ ضَيْقٍ مِّمَّا يَمْكُرُوْنَ
And be patient, [O Muhammad], and your patience is not but through Allah. And do not grieve over them and do not be in distress over what they conspire.
And at times it was to demonstrate their inability to accept the truth so that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam may gain relief from them:
وَإِنْ كَانَ كَبُرَ عَلَيْكَ إِعْرَاضُهُمْ فَإِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ أَنْ تَبْتَغِيَ نَفَقًا فِيْ الْأَرْضِ أَوْ سُلَّمًا فِيْ السَّمَاءِ فَتَأْتِيَهُم بِآيَةٍ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَجَمَعَهُمْ عَلَى الْهُدَىٰ فَلَا تَكُوْنَنَّ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِيْنَ
And if their evasion is difficult for you, then if you are able to seek a tunnel into the earth or a stairway into the sky to bring them a sign, [then do so]. But if Allah had willed, He would have united them upon guidance. So never be of the ignorant. 
Gradually nurturing the Islamic ummah which goes on up to this day. There are seven ways this second wisdom applies.
We find the beginning of revelation deals with weaning the ummah off polytheistic ideologies together with imbuing their hearts with monotheism. Similarly, the belief of recompense on actions replaced that of a society indulging in the ‘free for all’ ideology.
Once the basic belief was affixed in their hearts, other beliefs were introduced such as life after death and giving account of one’s deeds.
It was only after this, that the compulsory injunctions were revealed. Salah was introduced before the hijrah. Fasting and zakat was made compulsory in the second year of the hijrah. Only in the sixth year was Hajj ordained.
We find this pattern repeating itself in all forms of worship. Firstly, major errors were corrected with using strong language. Secondly, minor errors were corrected with a somewhat more lenient approach. Only after this were the ingrained evil habits gradually addressed as was the case in declaring wine impermissible.
In adopting this path, the Qur’an captured the most befitting way to guide and legislate.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:
وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوْا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِيْ الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِيْنَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِيْنَهُمُ الَّذِيْ ارْتَضَىٰ لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُمْ مِّنْ بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا يَعْبُدُوْنَنِيْ لَا يُشْرِكُوْنَ بِيْ شَيْئًا وَمَنْ كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذٰلِكَ فَأُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُوْنَ
Allah has promised those who have believed among you and done righteous deeds that He will surely grant them succession [to authority] upon the earth just as He granted it to those before them and that He will surely establish for them [therein] their religion which He has preferred for them and that He will surely substitute for them, after their fear, security, [for] they worship Me, not associating anything with Me. But whoever disbelieves after that – then those are the defiantly disobedient.
The continuous rain of new challenges and happenings. Each time a new issue was at hand the appropriate verse of the Qur’an was revealed. This wisdom holds five points which are as follows:
The intent of the questioner may have been to establish his status as a prophet by questions of the unseen, as Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala responds to the following queries brought on by his enemies:
وَيَسْأَلُوْنَكَ عَنِ الرُّوْحِ قُلِ الرُّوْحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّيْ وَمَا أُوْتِيْتُمْ مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيْلًا
And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about the soul. Say, “The soul is of the affair of my Lord. And mankind have not been given of knowledge except a little.”
وَيَسْأَلُوْنَكَ عَنْ ذِي الْقَرْنَيْنِ قُلْ سَأَتْلُوْ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْهُ ذِكْرًا
And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about Dhu al Qarnayn. Say, “I will recite to you about him a report.”
Or perhaps the intent was to seek clarification regarding a new injunction of Islam as is in the following verses:
وَيَسْأَلُوْنَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُوْنَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ
And they ask you what they should spend. Say, “The excess [beyond needs].”
وَيَسْأَلُوْنَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَامَىٰ قُلْ إِصْلَاحٌ لَّهُمْ خَيْرٌ وَإِنْ تُخَالِطُوْهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ
And they ask you about orphans. Say, “Improvement for them is best. And if you mix your affairs with theirs – they are your brothers.”
It is clear that such questions were posed to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam at different times, similarly the verses of the Qur’an were revealed at these occasions.
Just as these events happened at different times, the verses were revealed to reflect the outcome and divine law surrounding them. There remains no room for doubt then, behind the wisdom of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealing the Qur’an gradually. Examples of this second point are many, we will suffice on the following:
a. Abu Marthad al Ghanawi radiya Llahu ‘anhu was tasked by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to head to Makkah and retrieve the weak Muslims that remained there. A polytheist woman presented herself before him, however fearing Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala he refused her advances. She then approached him with the intent of marriage. He accepted pending the approval of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. On this occasion the following verse was revealed:
وَلَا تَنكِحُوْا الْمُشْرِكَاتِ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنَّ وَلَأَمَةٌ مُّؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ مُّشْرِكَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ
And do not marry polytheistic women until they believe. And a believing slave woman is better than a polytheist, even though she might please you.
b. Aws ibn Samit radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his wife Khawlah bint Tha’labah radiya Llahu ‘anha went through a stage in their marriage wherein he had done zihar with her. Regretting it and discussing the possible divorce she approached Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam seeking legal recourse saying, “We have young children, without both parents they will be ruined.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied to her saying, “I fear you have become impermissible for him.” She then turned her attention to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and complained of her difficulties upon which the following verse was revealed:
قَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِيْ تُجَادِلُكَ فِيْ زَوْجِهَا وَتَشْتَكِيْ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ يَسْمَعُ تَحَاوُرَكُمَا إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيْعٌ بَصِيرٌ
Certainly, has Allah heard the speech of the one who argues with you, [O Muhammad], concerning her husband and directs her complaint to Allah. And Allah hears your dialogue; indeed, Allah is All Hearing and All Seeing.
c. The Ifk incident. Herein Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala announced the purity and high rank of ‘Aisha Siddiqah radiya Llahu ‘anha.
إِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ جَاءُوْا بِالْإِفْكِ عُصْبَةٌ مِّنكُمْ لَا تَحْسَبُوْهُ شَرًّا لَّكُم بَلْ هُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مِّنْهُمْ مَّا اكْتَسَبَ مِنَ الْإِثْمِ وَالَّذِيْ تَوَلَّىٰ كِبْرَهُ مِنْهُمْ لَهُ عَذَابٌ عَظِيْمٌ
Indeed, those who came with falsehood are a group among you. Do not think it bad for you; rather it is good for you. For every person among them is what [punishment] he has earned from the sin, and he who took upon himself the greater portion thereof – for him is a great punishment.
Till the verse:
الْخَبِيْثَاتُ لِلْخَبِيْثِيْنَ وَالْخَبِيْثُوْنَ لِلْخَبِيْثَاتِ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلطَّيِّبِيْنَ وَالطَّيِّبُوْنَ لِلطَّيِّبَاتِ أُولٰئِكَ مُبَرَّءُوْنَ مِمَّا يَقُوْلُوْنَ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيْمٌ
Evil words are for evil men, and evil men are [subjected] to evil words. And good words are for good men, and good men are [an object] of good words. Those [good people] are declared innocent of what the slanderers say. For them is forgiveness and noble provision.
d. The incidents of ‘Uwaymir al ‘Ajlani, Hilal ibn Umayyah, and their wives who were the catalyst in the revelation of the verses of li’an:
وَالَّذِيْنَ يَرْمُوْنَ أَزْوَاجَهُمْ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَّهُمْ شُهَدَاءُ إِلَّا أَنفُسُهُمْ فَشَهَادَةُ أَحَدِهِمْ أَرْبَعُ شَهَادَاتٍ بِاللَّهِ إِنَّهُ لَمِنَ الصَّادِقِيْنَ
And those who accuse their wives [of adultery] and have no witnesses except themselves – then the witness of one of them [shall be] four testimonies [swearing] by Allah that indeed, he is of the truthful.
e. Replying to the senseless discourse of the Jews upon the change in the direction of the Qiblah from Bayt al Maqdis to Masjid al Haram seventeen months after the hijrah to Madinah Munawwarah. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed the following verses:
سَيَقُوْلُ السُّفَهَاءُ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَا وَلَّاهُمْ عَنْ قِبْلَتِهِمُ الَّتِيْ كَانُوْا عَلَيْهَا قُلْ لِّلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ يَهْدِيْ مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيْمٍ
The foolish among the people will say, “What has turned them away from their Qiblah, which they used to face?” Say, “To Allah belongs the east and the west. He guides whom He wills to a straight path.”
Till the verse:
وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنْتُمْ فَوَلُّوْا وُجُوْهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ لِئَلَّا يَكُوْنَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَيْكُمْ حُجَّةٌ إِلَّا الَّذِيْنَ ظَلَمُوْا مِنْهُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِيْ وَلِأُتِمَّ نِعْمَتِيْ عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُوْنَ
And from wherever you go out [for prayer], turn your face toward al Masjid al Haram. And wherever you [believers] may be, turn your faces toward it in order that the people will not have any argument against you, except for those of them who commit wrong; so fear them not but fear Me. And [it is] so I may complete My favour upon you and that you may be guided.”
وَقَالَ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْا إِنْ هٰذَا إِلَّا إِفْكٌ افْتَرَاهُ وَأَعَانَهُ عَلَيْهِ قَوْمٌ آخَرُوْنَ فَقَدْ جَاءُوْا ظُلْمًا وَزُوْرًا
And those who disbelieve say, “This [Qur’an] is not except a falsehood he invented, and another people assisted him in it.” But they have committed an injustice and a lie.
وَقَالُوْا أَسَاطِيْرُ الْأَوَّلِيْنَ اكْتَتَبَهَا فَهِيَ تُمْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيْلًا
And they say, “Legends of the former peoples which he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.”
Till the verse:
انظُرْ كَيْفَ ضَرَبُوْا لَكَ الْأَمْثَالَ فَضَلُّوْا فَلَا يَسْتَطِيْعُوْنَ سَبِيْلًا
Look how they strike for you comparisons; but they have strayed, so they cannot [find] a way.
The verses regarding the Battle of Uhud are of this manner:
وَلَقَدْ صَدَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ إِذْ تَحُسُّوْنَهُم بِإِذْنِهِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا فَشِلْتُمْ وَتَنَازَعْتُمْ فِيْ الْأَمْرِ وَعَصَيْتُمْ مِّنْ بَعْدِ مَا أَرَاكُمْ مَّا تُحِبُّوْنَ مِنْكُمْ مَّنْ يُرِيْدُ الدُّنْيَا وَمِنْكُم مَّنْ يُرِيْدُ الْآخِرَةَ ثُمَّ صَرَفَكُمْ عَنْهُمْ لِيَبْتَلِيَكُمْ وَلَقَدْ عَفَا عَنْكُمْ وَاللَّهُ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ
And Allah had certainly fulfilled His promise to you when you were killing the enemy by His permission until [the time] when you lost courage and fell to disputing about the order [given by the Prophet] and disobeyed after He had shown you that which you love. Among you are some who desire this world, and among you are some who desire the Hereafter. Then he turned you back from them [defeated] that He might test you. And He has already forgiven you, and Allah is the possessor of bounty for the believers.
Till the verse:
إِنْ يَنصُرْكُمُ اللَّهُ فَلَا غَالِبَ لَكُمْ وَإِنْ يَخْذُلْكُمْ فَمَنْ ذَا الَّذِيْ يَنْصُرُكُم مِّنْ بَعْدِهِ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُوْنَ
If Allah should aid you, no one can overcome you; but if He should forsake you, who is there that can aid you after Him? And upon Allah let the believers rely.
Similar are the verses regarding the Battle of Hunayn:
لَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ فِيْ مَوَاطِنَ كَثِيْرَةٍ وَيَوْمَ حُنَيْنٍ إِذْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ كَثْرَتُكُمْ فَلَمْ تُغْنِ عَنكُمْ شَيْئًا وَضَاقَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْأَرْضُ بِمَا رَحُبَتْ ثُمَّ وَلَّيْتُم مُّدْبِرِيْنَ
Allah has already given you victory in many regions and [even] on the Day of Hunayn, when your great number pleased you, but it did not avail you at all, and the earth was confining for you with its vastness; then you turned back, fleeing.
Till the verse:
ثُمَّ يَتُوْبُ اللَّهُ مِنْ بَعْدِ ذٰلِكَ عَلَىٰ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ غَفُوْرٌ رَّحِيْمٌ
Then Allah will accept repentance after that for whom He wills; and Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.
These verses prohibit the Muslims from relying on themselves and their strength, together with reminding them of the bounties of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala by way of contentment and the descent of angels with aid, and ending with guiding them to a return to their Lord.
The matter of the prisoners at Badr heralded a similar treatment from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala after the Muslims accepted the ransom of the disbelievers and freed them.
مَا كَانَ لِنَبِيٍّ أَن يَكُوْنَ لَهُ أَسْرَىٰ حَتَّىٰ يُثْخِنَ فِي الْأَرْضِ تُرِيْدُوْنَ عَرَضَ الدُّنْيَا وَاللَّهُ يُرِيْدُ الْآخِرَةَ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيْزٌ حَكِيْمٌ
It is not for a Prophet to have captives [of war] until he inflicts a massacre [upon Allah ‘s enemies] in the land. Some Muslims desire the commodities of this world, but Allah desires [for you] the Hereafter. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.
Till the verse:
فَكُلُوْا مِمَّا غَنِمْتُمْ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُوْرٌ رَّحِيْمٌ
So consume what you have taken of war booty [as being] lawful and good, and fear Allah. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.
These verses serve as a warning to the Muslims in giving preference to this world over the hereafter and guides them to what they ought to do.
Surah al Tawbah especially uses strong and heavy language against the hypocrites together with citing their evil actions and habits. Besides Surah al Tawbah there is mention of them in the Qur’an at various junctures wherein Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala exposes them by making the true Muslims aware of their secrets and attempts at sabotage, so that the Muslims may remain wary of them thereby saving themselves from their wickedness. The hypocrites pose a grave danger to Islam, more so than the blatant disbelievers.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:
الَّذِينَ يَتَرَبَّصُوْنَ بِكُمْ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ فَتْحٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ قَالُوْا أَلَمْ نَكُنْ مَّعَكُمْ وَإِنْ كَانَ لِلْكَافِرِينَْ نَصِيْبٌ قَالُوْا أَلَمْ نَسْتَحْوِذْ عَلَيْكُمْ وَنَمْنَعْكُم مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ فَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلَنْ يَّجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لِلْكَافِرِيْنَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ سَبِيْلًا
Those who wait [and watch] you. Then if you gain a victory from Allah, they say, “Were we not with you?” But if the disbelievers have a success, they say [to them], “Did we not gain the advantage over you, but we protected you from the believers?” Allah will judge between [all of] you on the Day of Resurrection, and never will Allah give the disbelievers over the believers a way [to overcome them].
Till the verse:
مُّذَبْذَبِيْنَ بَيْنَ ذٰلِكَ لَا إِلَىٰ هٰؤُلَاءِ وَلَا إِلَىٰ هٰؤُلَاءِ وَمَنْ يُّضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيْلًا
Wavering between them, [belonging] neither to the believers nor to the disbelievers. And whoever Allah leaves astray – never will you find for him a way.
Surah al Munafiqun, a chapter dedicated to them, holds great lesson. Similarly, the beginning verses of Surah al Baqarah exposes them for who they are.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَّقُوْلُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَا هُمْ بِمُؤْمِنِيْنَ
And of the people are some who say, “We believe in Allah and the Last Day,” but they are not believers.
Till the verse:
يَكَادُ الْبَرْقُ يَخْطَفُ أَبْصَارَهُمْ كُلَّمَا أَضَاءَ لَهُم مَّشَوْا فِيْهِ وَإِذَا أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَامُوْا وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَذَهَبَ بِسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَارِهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيْرٌ
The lightning almost snatches away their sight. Every time it lights [the way] for them, they walk therein; but when darkness comes over them, they stand [still]. And if Allah had willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.
A total of thirteen verses, a disgrace to the hypocrites.
The third wisdom with its five points of explanation is an indication of the Qur’an. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:
وَلَا يَأْتُوْنَكَ بِمَثَلٍ إِلَّا جِئْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَأَحْسَنَ تَفْسِيْرًا
And they do not come to you with an argument except that We bring you the truth and the best explanation.
NEXT⇒ Third Module – The First Revelation
 Surah al Furqan: 32.
 Surah al Isra: 106.
 Surah al Hud: 120.
 Surah al Tur: 48.
 Surah al Maidah: 67.
 Surah al Qamar: 45.
 Surah al Fussilat: 13.
 Surah al Ahqaf: 35.
 Surah al Fatir: 8.
 Surah al Nahl: 128.
 Surah al An’am: 35.
 Al Itqan, vol. 1 pg. 121; Manahil al ‘Irfan, vol. 1 pg. 39; Al Murshid al Wajiz, vol. 2 pg. 27; Min ‘Ulum al Qur’an, pgs. 33-34; Ma’a al Qur’an al Karim, pgs.66-69.
 Al Murshid al Wajiz, pg. 29; Min ‘Ulum al Qur’an, pg. 22; Ma’a al Qur’an al Karim, pg. 69; Tarikh al Mushaf, pgs. 35-40.
 Surah al Nur: 55.
 Surah al Isra: 85.
 Surah al Kahf: 83.
 Surah al Baqarah: 219.
 Surah al Baqarah: 220.
 Surah al Baqarah: 221.
 A term used in Islamic Jurisprudence, which literally means “you are like my mother”. If a husband says these words to his wife, it is not lawful for him to have intercourse with her unless he recompenses by freeing a slave, fasting for sixty consecutive days, or feeding sixty poor people.
 Surah al Mujadalah: 1.
 Surah al Nur: 11.
 Surah al Nur: 26.
In Islamic law, an oath which gives a husband the possibility of accusing his wife of adultery without legal proof resulting in separation.
 Surah al Nur: 6-11.
 Surah al Baqarah: 142-150.
 Surah al Baqarah: 142-150.
 Surah al Furqan: 4-9.
 Surah Al ‘Imran: 152-160.
 Surah al Tawbah: 25-27.
 Surah al Anfal: 67-69.
 Surah al Nisa’: 141-143.
 Surah al Baqarah: 8-20.
 Surah al Furqan: 33.
 See, Tarikh al Mushaf, pgs. 32-32; Ma’a al Qur’an al Karim, pgs. 72-74; Manahil al ‘Irfan; Min ‘Ulum al Qur’an.