Refutation of these assertions and a brief overview of the sources which prove the existence of Ibn Sabaʼ

The stance of the Orientalists
March 23, 2015
The stance of `Ali radiya Llahu `anhu and the Ahl al-Bayt
March 23, 2015

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Refutation of these assertions and a brief overview of the sources which prove the existence of Ibn Sabaʼ

These are the opinions of a few Shi’i personalities, in the present era, and it seems as if they have not even glanced at their own books of ‘aqidah, sects, narrations and their narrators, as well as their books of Jarh wa al Ta’dil.

The following is a short list of books considered to be most reliable amongst the Shia, wherein ‘Abdullah ibn Sabaʼ, his beliefs and fanciful notions have been reported. This in turn forced Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his pure family to reject Ibn Sabaʼ and absolve themselves from him and his followers, distancing themselves from all that he ascribed to them.

Risalat al Irjaʼ by Hassan ibn Muhammad ibn Hanafiyyah (95 A.H)[1], the reliable jurist who would say: “Whoever abandons Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu has abandoned the Sunnah.” The book has been reported from him by narrators who are considered to be reliable by the Shia.

Kitab al Gharat by Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Sa’id ibn Hilal al Thaqafi al Isfahani (283 A.H), who was deemed reliable by Ibn Ta’us.

Kitab al Maqalat wa l-Firaq by Sa’d ibn ‘Abdullah al Ash’ari al Qummi (301 A.H.). His book was published in Tehran 1963.

Firaq al Shia by Abu Muhammad al Hassan ibn Musa al Nawbakhti, who was amongst the esteemed Shia scholars of the third century. Published a few times by Kazim Al Kutubi in Najaf and also by Mustashriq Riter in Istanbul (1963).

Rijal al Kashshi by Abu ‘Amr Muhammad ibn ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz al Kashshi. He is a contemporary of Ibn Quluwiyyah (329 A.H). Published by Muʼassasah al A’lami li Matubu’at Karbala.

Rijal al Tusi by Al Sheikh al Taʼifah Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Hassan al Tusi (460 A.H). Printed first in Najaf (1381 A.H/ 1961) by Muhammad Kazim al Kutubi.

Sharah Ibn Abi al Hadid li Nahj al Balaghah by ‘Izz al Din Abi Hamid ‘Abdul Hamid ibn Hibat Allah al Madaʼini, famous by Ibn Abi al Hadid al Mu’tazili al Shi’i (656 A.H). Printed by Maymaniyyah (1326 A.H) and others.

Al Rijal by Hassan ibn Yusuf al Hilli (726 A.H). Printed in Tehran (1311 A.H) as well as in Najaf (1961).

Rawdat al Jannat by Muhammad Baqir al Khawanasari (1315 A.H). Printed in Iran (1307 A.H).

Tanqih al Maqal fi Ahwal al Rijal by ‘Abdullah al Mamaqani (1351 A.H). Printed in Najaf (1350 A.H) by al Mathba’ah al Murtadawiyyah.

Qamus al Rijal by Muhammad Taqi al Tustari. Published by Markaz Nashr al Kitab Tehran (1382 A.H).

Rawdat al Safa a reliable book of history to the Shia in Farsi. Printed in Iran.

Daʼirah al Ma’arif also called Muqtabas al Athar wa Mujaddid Madathar by Muhammad Hussain al A’lami al Ha’iri (1388 A.H/ 1869). Printed by Mataba’ah ‘Ilmiyyah Qum.

Al Kunna wa l-Alqab by Abbas ibn Muhammad Rida al Qummi (1359 A.H). Printed by Al ‘Urfan Sida.

These are a few books which we came across. In addition to them there are many others as well wherein mention of the existence of Ibn Sabaʼ can be found. Amongst them are:

Hall al Ishkal by Ahmed Ibn Taʼus (673 A.H).

Al Rijal by Ibn Dawood (707 A.H).

Al Tahrir al Tawusi by Al Hassan ibn Zayn al Din al ‘Amili (1011 A.H).

Majma’ al Rijal by Al Qahbaʼi (1016 A.H).

Naqd al Rijal by Al Tafrashi, written in 1015 A.H.

Jami’ al Ruwat by Al Ardabili (1100 A.H).

Mawsu’ah al Bihar by Al Majlisi (1110 A.H)[2].

As well as by Ibn Shahar Ashub (588 A.H)[3] and Ibn Muhammad Tahir Al ‘Amili (1138 A.H)[4].

 

Beliefs of Ibn Sabaʼ and his deviation

After discussing the prominent and most trusted scholars of the Shia, we will discuss the most crucial beliefs held by Ibn Sabaʼ, which he propagated amongst his followers and called others towards as well. Thereafter these beliefs filtered down into the various sects of the Shia. The reasons for discussing the beliefs of this Jewish personality in light of their own books and from the mouths of their own infallible Imams is the following:

– Their belief regarding the ‘ismah (infallibility) of the Imams renders all the narrations from the Imams authentic without the proviso of it having to reach Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, as is the case with the Ahlus Sunnah wa l-Jama’ah.[5]

– They claim that since the Imams are infallible according to them, there is no room to doubt what they say.[6]

– Al Mamaqani says: “Every single one of our ahadith have emanated from one of the infallibles.”[7]

As far as the compilation of Al Mamaqani is concerned, it is one of the most important books of scrutiny of narrators to the Shia.

After examining these opinions, which force them to accept the narrations from these authors, we mention the most detrimental beliefs propagated by Ibn Sabaʼ.

1.Wasiyyah: He was the first person to claim that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made a bequest of leadership in favour of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and that he is the khalifah of the Ummah after him, through divine revelation.

2.He is the first person to absolve himself from the ‘enemies’ of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, as conceived by him, expressing hostility towards them and declaring them to be kafir.

The proof of him having made these claims is not taken from Tarikh al Tabari or from the chain of Saif ibn ‘Umar, but from what has been narrated by Al Nawbakhti, Al Kashshi, Al Mamaqani, Al Tustari, and other Shia historians.

Al Nawbakhti writes:

 

A number of scholars, from the companions of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, have concluded that ‘Abdullah ibn Sabaʼ was a Jew, who embraced Islam and expressed love for ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Prior to embracing Islam, he would say that Yusha’ ibn Nun was the one to whom leadership was bequeathed after Musa ‘alayh al Salam, and after embracing Islam he expressed the same regarding ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu after the demise of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. He is the first person to voice the belief of the Imamah being compulsory for ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, absolving himself from his enemies and showing hostility towards them.

He writes further:

 

It is from here that those who oppose the Shia say that the fundamental beliefs of Shi’asm were taken from Judaism.[8]

At this point, we wish to shed light on the belief of Wasiyyah, which was propagated by Ibn Sabaʼ, in light of the Torah. It states in Isaiah: 18:

 

There will always be a nabi who will succeed Musa ‘alayh al Salam in every age.

Also:

Every nabi has a successor alongside him, who lives during his lifetime.

 

Al Nawbakhti writes while discussing the followers of Ibn Sabaʼ:

Ibn Saba’ the one who cursed Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and the Sahabah, absolving himself from them. He would say that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu has ordered him to do this.[9]

 

3.’Abdullah ibn Sabaʼ is the first person to proclaim divinity of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

4.’Abdullah ibn Sabaʼ is the first person of the extremist Shia to claim nubuwwah.

Proof for the above: Al Kashshi has reported with his chain of narration from Muhammad ibn Quluwiyyah al Qummi:

حدثنى سعد بن عبد الله ابن ابى خلف القمى قال حدثنى محمد بن عثمان العبدى عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن عن عبد الله بن سنان قال حدثنى ابى عن ابى جعفر ان عبد الله بن سبا كان يدعى النبوة وزعم ان امير المؤمنين هو الله تعالى الله عن ذلك علوا كبيرا فبلغ ذلك امير المؤمنين فدعاه و ساله فاقر بذلك و قال نعم انت هو و قد كان القى فى روعى انك انت الله و انى نبى فقال له امير المؤمنين ويلك قد سخر منك الشيطان فارجع عن هذا ثكلتك امك و تب فابى فحبسه و استتابه ثلاثة ايام فلم يتب فاحرقه بالنار

Imam Baqir narrates: “‘Abdullah ibn Sabaʼ claimed nubuwwah and believed ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to be Allah, Allah is higher and purer than that. His claims reached the ears of ‘Ali, who summoned him and questioned him about his beliefs. He admitted to having these beliefs, saying, “Yes! You are Him. It has been revealed to me that you are Allah and that I am a nabi.” Amir al Muʼminin replied: “Woe to you! Shaitan has deceived you. May your mother be bereaved of you! Repent!” However, he refused and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had him imprisoned for three days, urging him to repent but he did not and finally ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had him burnt alive.”

 

The correct opinion however is that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had him exiled after intercession was sought for him, which will be discussed in detail in Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu stance towards him. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said: “Shaitan has led him into error, coming to him and placing these thoughts in his heart.”[10]

 

Al Kashshi has also narrated with his chain of narration from Muhammad ibn Quluwiyyah:

حدثنى سعد بن عبد الله قال حدثنى يعقوب بن يزيد و محمد بن عيسى عن ابن ابى عمير عن هشام بن سالم قال سمعت ابا عبد الله يقول و هو يحدث اصحابه بحديث عبد الله بن سبا و ما ادعى من الربوية فى امير المؤمنين على بن ابى طالب فقال انه لما ادعى ذلك استتابه امير المؤمنين فابى ان يتوب و احرقه بالنار

Hisham ibn Salim narrates that he heard Abu ‘Abdullah (Imam Jafar) saying while informing his companions of the incident of Ibn Sabaʼ and his claim of the divinity of ‘Ali: “When he made this claim, Amir al Muʼminin urged him to repent but he refused so ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had him burnt alive.”[11]

 

5.Ibn Sabaʼ was the first person to proclaim the belief of raj’ah (resurrection) of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in this world after their demise. The first place where he propagated this belief was in Egypt. He would say:

 

It is strange that some will believe that ‘Isa ‘alayh al Salam will return but they will deny the return of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam when Allah has said:

اِنَّ الَّذِیْ فَرَضَ عَلَیْكَ الْقُرْاٰنَ لَرَآدُّكَ اِلٰی مَعَادٍ

Verily, the One Who has made the Qurʼan obligatory on you shall return you to your place of return.[12]

So Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is more deserving of returning than Isa ‘alayh al Salam.

This was accepted and he invented for them the belief of raj’ah and they began propagating it.[13]

If these reports of the esteemed Hafiz Ibn al ‘Asakir do not satisfy you, which he has narrated in his Tarikh, as well as many other scholars besides him, then read the reply of the followers of Ibn Sabaʼ to the one who informed them of the martyrdom of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. They said to him:

 

You have lied, O enemy of Allah! Even if you were to bring his head before us, we swear by Allah, and if you brought seventy witnesses to testify to his death, we would not believe you. We know very well that he did not die nor was he killed and he will not die until he gathers the Arabs with his staff and takes control of the earth…[14]

 

This narration was reported by Sa’d ibn ‘Abdullah al Ash’ari al Qummi, the author of Al Maqalat wa l-Firaq, which is considered to be a reliable book by the Shia.

Al Nawbakhti has also reported the following narration in Firaq al Shia about the followers of Ibn Sabaʼ:

 

‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not killed nor did he die, neither will he be killed nor will he die until he shepherds the Arabs with his staff and he fills the earth with justice after it was filled with oppression and injustice.

At this juncture, it is incumbent upon us to shed some light on the Shia belief of raj’ah.

Muhammad Rada al Muzaffar says:

 

The belief adopted by the imamiyyah, which they derive from the narrations of the Ahlul Bayt, is that Allah Ta’ala will return a group of the deceased to this world, in the same form as they lived previously; some of whom will be honoured and some disgraced. Superiority will be given to the adherents of the truth over the adherents to falsehood and the oppressors. This will all take place when Al Mahdi from the progeny of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam emerges. Only those will return who have the highest level of iman and those who exceed all limits of oppression, after which they will die. Thereafter they will be resurrected again on the Day of Qiyamah, where they will receive whatever they deserve of punishment or reward, just as Allah Ta’ala has mentioned in the Noble Qurʼan regarding those who were resurrected and did not rectify their misdeeds after being resurrected that they will desire to be resurrected a third time so that they may rectify their wrongs.

قَالُوْا رَبَّنَا اَمَتَّنَا اثْنَتَیْنِ وَ اَحْیَیْتَنَا اثْنَتَیْنِ فَاعْتَرَفْنَا بِذُنُوْبِنَا فَهَلْ اِلٰی خُرُوْجٍ مِّنْ سَبِیْلٍ

They will say: “O our Rabb! You gave us death twice and granted us life twice. We admit our sins, so is there any way to escape?[15]

 

Al Qummi, who is considered to be most reliable by the Shia, with his chain of narration to Abu ‘Abdullah Jafar al Sadiq, explained the meaning of the following verse to refer to be raj’ah[16]:

یَّوْمَ یَسْمَعُوْنَ الصَّیْحَةَ بِالْحَقِّ ذٰلِكَ یَوْمُ الْخُرُوْجِ

The day when people shall hear the screech in truth, this is the day of resurrection.[17]

 

The Shia have stipulated that perfect iman and complete kufr are preconditions for raj’ah to occur. Al Qummi states:

Imam Ja’far explained in the commentary of the verse:

وَیَوْمَ نَحْشُرُ مِنْ كُلِّ اُمَّةٍ فَوْجًا

The day when, from every nation, We will resurrect an army from every Ummah.[18]

There is no Mu’min who is killed except that he will return and only he will return who has perfect iman and he who has complete kufr.[19]

The correct commentary of this verse, which Al Muzaffar substantiated from, has been reported by Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

It is the same as the verse in Surah al Baqarah:

وَكُنْتُمْ اَمْوَاتًا فَاَحْیَاكُمْ ثُمَّ یُمِیْتُكُمْ ثُمَّ یُحْیِیْكُمْ

You were once lifeless and it was He Who granted you life, thereafter He will cause you to die and then give you life again.”[20]

All were dead in the loins of their fathers then they were removed and given life, then given death and then given life again after death (on the Day of Qiyamah).

This has been reported Al Faryabi, ‘Abd Ibn Hamid, Ibn Jarir, Ibn Mundhir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Tabrani and Hakim, who deemed it Sahih.[21]

It has also been reported by Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

You were all dead before you were created, so this was death, then you were given life, so this is (the first) life, then you will die and go to your grave, so this is a second death, then you will be brought back to life on the Day of Qiyamah, and this is the second life. These are the two lives and two deaths, and it is the same as the verse:

کَیْفَ تَكْفُرُوْنَ بِاللّهِ وَكُنْتُمْ اَمْوَاتًا فَاَحْیَاكُمْ ثُمَّ یُمِیْتُكُمْ ثُمَّ یُحْیِیْكُمْ ثُمَّ اِلَیْهِ تُرْجَعُوْنَ

How can you disbelieve in Allah when you were once lifeless and it was He Who granted you life? Thereafter He will cause you to die and give you life and then you will return to Him.”[22]

 

6.Ibn Sabaʼ claimed that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is the Dabbat al Ard (creature from the earth) and it is he who created life and distributes rizq (sustenance).

Ibn al ‘Asakir has reported on the authority of Imam Jafar from his forefathers, who narrated from Jabir radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

When ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was given the pledge of allegiance, he addressed the people. ‘Abdullah ibn Sabaʼ stood and said to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu: “You are the Dabbat al Ard.” ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu exhorted him: “Fear Allah!” Ibn Sabaʼ said: “You are an angel.” ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu again remarked: “Fear Allah!” Ibn Sabaʼ continued: “You have created life and you distribute rizq.” On this ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu ordered him to be executed but the Rawafid gathered together and said: “Leave him be and instead exile him.”[23]

If they are not satisfied with the narration of Ibn al ‘Asakir then we will quote a few reports from their most reliable (i.e. Shia) sources.

Al Qummi reports in his Tafsir, considered to be most authentic to them:

As for the verse:

وَ اِذَا وَقَعَ الْقَوْلُ عَلَیْهِمْ اَخْرَجْنَا لَهُمْ دَآبَّةً مِّنَ الْاَرْضِ تُکَلِّمُهُمْ اَنَّ النَّاسَ کَانُوْا بِاٰیٰتِنَا لَا یُوْقِنُوْنَ

When the promise will be fulfilled to them, We shall bring for them a creature from the earth, which will speak to them: “People are not convinced about Our signs.”[24]

My father has reported to me, from Ibn Abi ‘Umair, from Abu Basir, who reported from Imam Jafar: “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam once stood over ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu while he was sleeping in the masjid. He had made a small pillow out of a heap of sand. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam shook him with his foot and said: “Stand! O Dabbat al Ard!” One of the Sahabah remarked: “O Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam! May we address each other with this name?” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied: “Never, by Allah! It is only for him specifically and he is the Dabbat al Ard mentioned by Allah in the Qurʼan:

وَ اِذَا وَقَعَ الْقَوْلُ عَلَیْهِمْ اَخْرَجْنَا لَهُمْ دَآبَّةً مِّنَ الْاَرْضِ تُکَلِّمُهُمْ اَنَّ النَّاسَ کَانُوْا بِاٰیٰتِنَا لَا یُوْقِنُوْنَ

When the promise will be fulfilled to them, We shall bring for them a creature from the earth, which will speak to them: “People are not convinced about Our signs.”

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then said: “O ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu! In the final days, Allah will resurrect you in a most beautiful form, and you will have a branding iron with which you will brand your enemies.”

A person said to Imam Jafar: “People say it is this creature who will punish them?” Imam Jafar replied: “Allah will punish them in the fire of Jahannam, as for him, he will speak with them.”

Also reported by narrators considered to be reliable by the Shia from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

I have been bestowed with six things: Knowledge of the death of people, trials, commandments, and the decisive judgement. I am the one who recurs, that is returns to this world, and the bringer of victory. I am the controller of the staff and controller of the branding iron and the Dabbat al Ard.[25]

 

‘Ali ibn Ibrahim al Qummi has reported in his Tafsir from Imam Jafar:

A person said to ‘Ammar ibn Yasir radiya Llahu ‘anhu: “O Abu Yakzan! A verse from the Qurʼan perturbs me.” ‘Ammar radiya Llahu ‘anhu asked: “And which verse is that?” The person replied:

وَ اِذَا وَقَعَ الْقَوْلُ عَلَیْهِمْ اَخْرَجْنَا لَهُمْ دَآبَّةً مِّنَ الْاَرْضِ تُکَلِّمُهُمْ اَنَّ النَّاسَ کَانُوْا بِاٰیٰتِنَا لَا یُوْقِنُوْنَ

When the promise will be fulfilled to them, We shall bring for them a creature from the earth, which will speak to them: “People are not convinced about Our signs.”

…The verse of Surah al Naml, about the Dabbat al Ard.” ‘Ammar radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied: “I take an oath by Allah! I will not sit nor eat nor drink until I show him to you.” So ‘Ammar radiya Llahu ‘anhu went with this person to Amir al Muʼminin, who was eating dates and butter. On seeing him, ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said: “Come, O Abu Yakzan (‘Ammar radiya Llahu ‘anhu)!” So ‘Ammar radiya Llahu ‘anhu sat and began eating with ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The person was surprised by this and said to ‘Ammar radiya Llahu ‘anhu after he stood to leave: “Subhan Allah! You took an oath that you will not eat nor drink until you show him to me.” ‘Ammar radiya Llahu ‘anhu replied: “I have shown him to you, if you had understanding.”[26]

 

7.The followers of Ibn Sabaʼ would say that the Imams do not die but fly after their death and are called Tayyarah.

Ibn Tahir al Maqdasi writes:

 

As for the followers of Ibn Sabaʼ, they refer to the Imams as Tayyarah, presuming that they do not die but rather their death occurs by them flying off into the darkness.[27]

 

The scholars of the Shia themselves have used this name “Tayyarah” as a term for defaming a narrator.

Al Tusi, who they consider to be a reputable scholar in the scrutiny of narrations, writes under the biography of Nasr ibn Sabbah:

Nasr ibn Sabbah: Commonly called Abu al Qasim, from the people of Balkh, which is in Afghanistan; he has met a number of mashaʼikh and ‘ulama of his time and narrated from them except that it has been said that he is an extremist Tayyarah.”[28]

This very Nasr ibn Sabbah, was included by Al Mamaqani amongst those Imams who wrote works about the recognition of narrators amongst the Shia. He adds in his comments about him:

 

Whoever studies the narrators closely will deduce that the masha’ikh have narrated from him abundantly, relying on his narrations, and the narrations from him have attained such a level that nothing more can be said.

 

Al Mamaqani has mentioned him to have written Ma’rifah al Naqilin and Kitab Firaq al Shia.[29]

 

8.A group of the followers of Ibn Sabaʼ claim that the Ruh al Quds transferred from one imam to the next, thus believing in reincarnation.

Ibn Tahir al Maqdasi writes:

 

A group of the Tayyarah (followers of Ibn Sabaʼ) assume that the Ruh al Quds was in Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam just as it was in ‘Isa ‘alayh al Salam, it then transferred to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, then Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, then Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu and then in turn to each of the Imams. The majority of them believe in reincarnation and raj’ah.[30]

It is possible that the book written by Hassan ibn Musa al Nawbakhti- Al-Radd ‘ala Ashab al Tanasukh, was written in refutation of them.[31]

 

9.The followers of Ibn Sabaʼ would say:

 

We have been guided to such revelation which others have not received and to such knowledge which is hidden from them.

10.They would also say:

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam concealed nine tenths of revelation.

 

These statements of theirs were refuted by one of the Imams of the Ahlul Bayt– Hassan ibn Muhammad ibn al Hanafiyyah in his treatise entitled Al Irjaʼ, which has been reported from him by a number of narrators, all considered to be reliable by the Shia. He writes:

Amongst the claims of the followers of Ibn Sabaʼ: “We have been guided to such revelation which others have not received and to such knowledge which is hidden from them.” They assume that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam concealed nine tenths of revelation. If Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were to have concealed any verse of revelation then he would have concealed the revelation regarding the wife of Zaid radiya Llahu ‘anhu as well as the following verse:

تَبْتَغِیْ مَرْضَاتَ اَزْوَاجِكَ

In seeking the pleasure of your wives.[32]

 

Hafiz Al Juzjani has said regarding Ibn Sabaʼ:

He assumed that the Qurʼan is but a tenth of the revelation that is with ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu prohibited him from this when he learnt of it.

 

11.They also claim that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is in the clouds and the thunder is his voice and the lighting, his whip. Whoever of them would hear the thunder would say: “Peace be upon you, O Amir al Muʼminin!”[33]

Ishaq ibn Suwaid al ‘Adwi hinted towards this belief in his poem, wherein he absolved himself from the Khawarij, Rawafid, and Qadariyyah. He writes:

برئت من الخوارج لست منهم

منهم من الغزال منهم و ابن باب

و من قوم اذا ذكروا عليا

يردون السلام على السحاب

I absolve myself from the Khawarij- I am not of them nor of Ghazzal or Ibn Bab.

And from those, who when they remember ‘Ali, send salutations upon the clouds.

 
 

Sheikh Muhiy al Din ‘Abdul Hamid mentioned after this belief:

I continued seeing the children of Cairo hurrying along whenever it would rain calling out loudly: “O blessing of ‘Ali.”[34]

 

I say it is not only the children but the poets as well, regarding whom Allah has said:

وَالشُّعَرَآءُ یَتَّبِعُهُمُ الْغَاوُوْنَ

Only deviant people follow the poets.[35]

 

Amongst whom is the poet- Muhammad ‘Abdul Muttalib, when he wrote in the rendition- Al ‘Alawiyyah, that he recited in Jami’ah al Misriyyah (1919), comprising of more than four hundred stanzas. He says in his rendition:

اجدك ما النياق و ما سراها

تخوض بها المهامه و الاكاما

و ما قطر الدخان اذا استقلت

بها النيران تضطرم اضطراما

فهب لى ذات اجنهة لعلى

بها القى على السحب الاماما

I find you riding into battlefields and high hills so what of the camels and their night journeys?

What is a line of smoke, if it is no longer fuelled by a blazing flame?

Please grant me a winged conveyance for ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, so that I can reach the Imam in the clouds.[36]

 

As well as many other deviant and blasphemous poems and statements.

 

NEXT⇒The stance of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Ahlul Bayt


[1] Refer to Khulasah Tadhib al Kamal 1/ 220, Risalah al Irjaʼ, Tarikh al Turath al ‘Arabi 1/210

[2] Refer to Bihar al Anwar al Jami’ah li Durar Akhbar al A’immah al Athar Beirut 25/286-287

[3] Refer to Manaqib Al Abi Talib by Ibn Shahar Ashub 1/227-228

[4] Refer to Muqaddamah Mirʼat al Anwar wa Mishkat al Asrar fi Tafsir al Qur’an page 62

[5] Tarikh al Imamiyyah page 158

[6] Tarikh al Imamiyyah page 140

[7] Tanqih al Maqal 1/177

[8] Firaq al Shia page 44, Rijal al Kashshi page 101, Tanqih al Maqal, Qamus al Rijal 5/462

[9] Firaq al Shia page 44

[10] Rijal al Kashshi page 98, Qamus al Rijal 5/461, Tanqih al Maqal 2/183-184

[11] Rijal al Kashshi page 99-100, Tanqih al Maqal 2/183-184

[12] Surah al Qasas: 85

[13] Tarikh Damashq, Tahdhib Tarikh Damashq 7/468. This can also be found in Tarikh al Tabari as well.

[14] Al Maqalat wa l-Firaq of Sa’d ibn ‘Abdullah al Ash’ari al Qummi page 31

[15] Surah al Muʼmin: 11

[16] Tafsir al Qummi 2/327

[17] Surah Qaf: 47

[18] Surah al Naml: 83

[19] Tafsir al Qummi 2/130,131

[20] Surah al Baqarah: 28

[21] Al Durr al Manthur fi Tafsir bi l-Maʼthur of Allamah Suyuti 5/347

[22] ibid

[23] Tarikh Damashq, Tahdhib Tarikh Damashq 7/430

[24] Surah al Naml: 82

[25] Basaʼir al Darajat of Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Hassan al Saffar 4/219, Usul al Kafi 1/198, Bihar al Anwar 26/142, 148

[26] Majma’ al Bayan fi Tafsir al Qurʼan by Abu ‘Ali al Fadl ibn Hassan al Tabrasi 4/234, Tafsir al Qummi 2/131

[27] Al Badʼ wa al Tarikh 5/129

[28] Rijal al Tusi page 515

[29] Tanqih al Maqal page 121

[30] Al Badʼ wa al Tarikh 5/129

[31] Firaq al Shia page 17

[32] Surah al Tahrim, Sharah Ibn al Hadid 2/309

[33] Al Farq bayn al Firaq page 234, Sharah Nahj al Balaghah of Ibn Abi al Hadid 2/309

[34] Maqalat al Islamiyyin page 85

[35] Surah al Shu’ara: 224

[36] Al Adab al Hadith of ‘Umar Daswiqi 2/405. The poet Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul Muttalib ibn Wasil of Juhaynah. He was born in Basunah, a village of Jarja in Egypt. He studied in Al Azhar Cairo and qualified as a teacher. He later became a professor of Arabic studies in Al Azhar He died in Cairo in 1931. He was celebrated in an elegy by more than thirty poets.

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