It is clear that the three khalifas and the senior Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum were Muslims and acknowledged towhid and nubuwwah. Hence, their ‘outward’ iman cannot be rejected. Now remains the question as to whether they rejected towhid and nubuwwah from their hearts due to which they would be called munafiqin. Proof needs to be furnished for this. Otherwise every Khariji and Nasibi will say the same regarding Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu — and he is pure from this. Just as you will answer the Khawarij and just as you will prove Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu iman, understand the same to be our answer in favour of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum.
Had the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum been munafiqin, as claimed over and over by Dildar ‘Ali and his seniors, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would have definitely dissociated from them and not allowed them to participate in his consultations and meetings. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would not have allowed them to fight on his side in battles and would not have allowed them to accompany him on hijrah. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala would have commanded to dissociate from them and prevented Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from being in their company. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala would have commanded jihad against them and returned them to an evil ending. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has declared these very things regarding the munafiqin and treated them in this manner. Pity be upon Dildar ‘Ali! He has cited some of these verses in Dhu al Fiqar and answered on our behalf. Dildar ‘Ali cited those verses which speak about the munafiqin to answer those verses which Shah Sahib listed in Tuhfah in favour and praise of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum. However Dildar ‘Ali did not think that his claim is falsified by the very verses he cited. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has proven him a liar from his own speech. One of those verses are:
وَمِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُمْ مِّنَ الْاَعْرَابِ مُنٰفِقُوْنَؕ ۛ وَمِنْ اَهْلِ الْمَدِیْنَةِ۫ ۛ مَرَدُوْا عَلَی النِّفَاقِ۫ لَا تَعْلَمُهُمْؕ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْؕ سَنُعَذِّبُهُمْ مَّرَّتَیْنِ ثُمَّ یُرَدُّوْنَ اِلٰی عَذَابٍ عَظِیْمٍ
And among those around you of the bedouins are hypocrites, and (also) from the people of Madinah. They have become accustomed to hypocrisy. You, (O Muhammad), do not know them, (but) We know them. We will punish them twice (in this world); then they will be returned to a great punishment.
Now reflect on the words “from the people of Madinah” and tell me how in the world does this verse apply to the three khalifas radiya Llahu ‘anhum who were from the people of Makkah? Furthermore, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala prophesises in this verse that they will be punished twice and it is apparent that this refers to worldly punishment. Besides the munafiqin whose hypocrisy became apparent and who were killed and humiliated, how does this verse apply to the senior Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum? Moreover, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares:
لَا تَعْلَمُهُمْؕ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْؕ
You, (O Muhammad), do not know them, (but) We know them.
Whereas according to Shia principles and narrations, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was aware of the hypocrisy of the three khalifas radiya Llahu ‘anhum as appears in the hadith narrated previously from Zad al Ma’ad where it states that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam informed Sayyidina Hudhayfah radiya Llahu ‘anhu about their hypocrisy.
Another verse which Dildar ‘Ali presents in Dhu al Fiqar to counter the verses in favour and praise of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum is:
لَوْلَا کِتٰبٌ مِّنَ اللّٰهِ سَبَقَ لَمَسَّكُمْ فِيْمَآ اَخَذْتُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيْمٌ
If not for a decree from Allah that preceded, you would have been touched for what you took by a great punishment.
I have written the commentary of this verse previously. Nevertheless, I will shed more light on it. In fact, this verse is in praise of Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Many kuffar were taken captives after the Battle of Badr. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam consulted with his Sahaba regarding what should be done with the captives. Sayyidina ‘Umar and Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Muaz radiya Llahu ‘anhuma said that they should be killed while Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was of the opinion that they be ransomed. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam accordingly accepted ransom. Thereupon this verse was revealed. Shia mufassirin have attested to this themselves:
1. ‘Allamah al Tabarsi writes in his commentary Majma’ al Bayan:
قال عمر بن الخطاب يا رسول الله كذبوك و اخرجوك فقدمهم و اضرب اعناقهم و مكن عليا من عقيل فيضبر عنقه و مكنى من فلان اضرب عنقه فان هؤلاء ائمة الكفر و قال ابو بكر اهلك و قومك خذ منهم فدية يكون لنا قوة على الكفار قال ابن زيد فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم لو نزل عذاب من السماء ما نجا منكم غير عمر بن الخطاب و سعد بن معاذ
‘Umar bin al Khattab said, “O Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam! They persecuted you and exiled you. Thus, they should be slain. Hand over ‘Aqil to ‘Ali for assassination and so and so over to me. All of these are the leaders of Quraysh.” Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu said, “O Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam! These are your tribesmen and family. Take ransom from them so that it will serve as strength for us against the kuffar.” Ibn Zaid says, “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated, “had punishment from the skies descended, none of you would have been spared besides ‘Umar and Sa’d ibn Muaz.”
2. Al Kashani writes in Khulasat al Manhaj:
روز بدر ہفتاد تن اسیر شدند و از جملہ ایشاںعباس و عقیل بودند حضرت در باب ایشاںبا اصحاب مشاورہ کرد ابو بکر کہ از مہاجرین بود گ فت یا رسول اللہ اکابر و اصاغر ایںقوم اقارب و عشائر تواند اگ ر ہریک بقدر طاق و استطاعت فداۓ بدہد باشد کہ روزے بدولت اسلام برسد الخ
Seventy people were captured in the Battle of Badr, including ‘Abbas and ‘Aqil. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam consulted the Sahaba regarding them. Abu Bakr — who was from the Muhajirin — said, “O Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam! All of these are your tribesmen and family. If everyone ransoms himself according to his financial capacity, then hopefully one day they will be favoured with Islam.”
O Mu’minin! You ought to admire Dildar ‘Ali’s deep knowledge and honesty from the depths of your heart. He brings such a verse in response to the verses in the Sahaba’s radiya Llahu ‘anhum favour that actually establishes the virtue of the second khalifah. It is true:
الحق یعلوا و لا یعلی
Truth always remains at the top. Falsehood cannot overpower it.
We also thank him for quoting this verse and applaud his scrupulousness. Nevertheless, if any of his followers are not satisfied with one narration from Majma’ al Bayan and instead seek another narration in support of it, I will furnish the verification of a great Shia scholar.
3. Ibn Jamhur, author of Ghawali al La’ali, who is among the senior Shia scholars and renowned for his knowledge and expertise, narrates:
ان النبى صلى الله عليه و سلم اخذ سبعين اسيرا يوم البدر و فيهم العباس و عقيل بن عمه فاستشار ابا بكر فيهم فقال قومك و اهلك و استبقهم لعل الله يتوب عليهم و خذ الفدية لقوى بها احبابك فقال عمر نبذوك و اخرجوك فعذبهم و اضرب اعناقهم فانهم ائمة الكفر و لا تأخذهم الفداء مكن عليا من عقيل و حمزة من العباس و مكنى من فلان و فلان فقال صلى الله عليه و سلم ان الله يلين قلوب رجال حتى تكون الين من اللبن و يقسى قلوب رجال حتى تكون اشد من الحجارة فمثلك يا ابا بكر مثل ابراهيم اذ قال فَمَنْ تَبِعَنِیْ فَاِنَّه مِنِّيْ ۚ وَمَنْ عَصَانِيْ فَاِنَّكَ غَفُوْرٌ رَّحِيْمٌ و مثلك يا عمر مثل نوح اذ قال رَبِّ لَا تَذَرْ عَلَی الْاَرْضِ مِنَ الْکٰفِرِيْنَ دَیَّارًا ثم ان شئتم قتلتم و ان شئتم فاديتم و يستشهد منكم بعدتهم فقالوا بل ناخذ الفداء ما استشهد بعدتهم فاخذ كما قال صلى الله عليه و اله و سلم
Indeed, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took seventy captives at Badr. Among them were ‘Abbas and ‘Aqil — his cousin. He sought counsel from Abu Bakr regarding them. Abu Bakr said, “They are your tribesmen and family, spare them. Hopefully, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will allow them to repent. Take ransom from them so that your friends are strengthened.” ‘Umar said, “They rejected you and exiled you, hence punish them and smite their necks for they are the leaders of kufr. Do not take ransom from them. Hand over ‘Aqil to ‘Ali and ‘Abbas to Hamzah and hand over so and so to me.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commented, “Certainly, Allah softens the hearts of some men until they become softer than milk and hardens the hearts of others until they become harder than rocks. Your example, O Abu Bakr, is like Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam who said:
فَمَنْ تَبِعَنِيْ فَاِنَّهمِنِّيْۚ وَمَنْ عَصَانِيْ فَاِنَّكَ غَفُوْرٌ رَّحِيْمٌ
So whoever follows me — then he is of me; and whoever disobeys me — indeed, You are (yet) Forgiving and Merciful.
And your example, O ‘Umar is like Nuh ‘alayh al Salam who said:
رَبِّ لَا تَذَرْ عَلَی الْاَرْضِ مِنَ الْکٰفِرِیْنَ دَیَّارًا
My Rabb, do not leave upon the earth from among the disbelievers an inhabitant.
If you like, you may kill them and if you wish, you may set them free with ransom and that same amount of you will be martyred.” The Sahaba said, “we will take ransom and that amount of us will be martyred.” Thus, ransom was taken and they were freed.
This text which was quoted verbatim supports the text of Majma’ al Bayan. Moreover, he has mentioned this addition that after hearing what Sayyidah Abu Bakr and Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma had to say, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stated, “certainly, Allah softens the hearts of some men until they become softer than milk and hardens the hearts of others until they become harder than rocks.” He then stated further, “Your example, O Abu Bakr, is like Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam who said, ‘so whoever follows me — then he is of me; and whoever disobeys me — indeed, You are (yet) Forgiving and Merciful.’ And your example, O ‘Umar is like Nuh ‘alayh al Salam who said, ‘my Rabb, do not leave upon the earth from among the disbelievers an inhabitant.’”
O Shia! Those who your Scholars regard as munafiqin were such men who were prepared to kill their fathers and brothers for the sake of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam likened them to the Prophets. Purity belongs to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala! Can such people be labelled as munafiqin? You have no shame and honour! You label those as munafiqin and kuffar who uprooted kufr and nifaq from Arabia.
کَبُرَتْ کَلِمَةً تَخْرُجُ مِنْ اَفْوَاهِهِمْؕ اِنْ یَّقُوْلُوْنَ اِلَّا کَذِبًا
Grave is the word that comes out of their mouths; they speak not except a lie.
If still they are not satisfied and a person fluent in Persian wants some substantiation from a Shia Persian commentary, then with Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala grace this is also present.
4. The Shia al Razi has narrated this discussion in his commentary from Kanz al ‘Irfan in these words:
روایت ست کہ در روز بدر ہفتادن اسیر گرفتہ بودند از انجملہ عباس و عقیل بودند حضرت رسالت صلی اللہ علیہ و الہ و سلم دربا ایشاں باصحاب مشورہ فرمود ابو بکر گفت کہ اکابر و اصاغر ایں قوم اقارب و عشائر تواند اگر ہر یک بقدر طاقت و استطاعت فداۓ بدہند باشد کہ روزے بہدایت برسند و حالا عدد و مدد مسلمانان زیادہ شود عمر گفت یا رسول اللہ ایناں تکذیب کردند تر او بیروں کردند اینہا ائمہ کفر اند ہمہ را بفرمائی تا گردند زںد و مگیر ازیشاں فدیہ عقیل را بعلی سپار و عباس را بحمزہ و فلاں را بمن تا گردن زنیم آنحضرت صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم فرمود کہ حق سبحان و تعالی دلہاۓ مردم را آگاہ است کہ نرمی سازد و بمرتبہ کہ نرم تراز شیر ست و دیگر دلہامی باشد کہ سخت تراز سنگ است مثل تو اے ابا بکر ہماں مثل ابراہیم علیہ السلام ست کہ گفت فَمَنْ تَبِعَنِیْ فَاِنَّهمِنِّیْۚ وَمَنْ عَصَانِیْ فَاِنَّکَ غَفُوْرٌ رَّحِیْمٌ و مثل تو اے عمر ہمچو مثل نوح ست وقتیکہ گفت رَبِّ لَا تَذَرْ عَلَی الْاَرْضِ مِنَ الْکٰفِرِیْنَ دَیَّارًا
It is narrated that the Muslims took seventy captives at Badr. Among them were ‘Abbas and ‘Aqil. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sought counsel regarding them. Abu Bakr said, “they are your tribesmen and family. Everyone should ransom himself with a suitable amount. Hopefully, one day they will attain guidance and the Muslims will increase in number.” ‘Umar said, “O Rasulullah! They rejected you and exiled you. They are the leaders of the kuffar. Issue the command for their necks to be cut off and do not take ransom from them. Hand over ‘Aqil to ‘Ali and ‘Abbas to Hamzah and hand over so and so to me so that we may assassinate them.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mentioned, “Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala knows best! He softens some hearts until they become softer than milk and hardens others until they become harder than rocks. Your example, O Abu Bakr, is like Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam who said, ‘so whoever follows me — then he is of me; and whoever disobeys me — indeed, You are (yet) Forgiving and Merciful. And your example, O ‘Umar is like Nuh ‘alayh al Salam who said, ‘my Rabb, do not leave upon the earth from among the disbelievers an inhabitant.’ If you like, you may kill them and if you wish, you may set them free with ransom and that same amount of you will be martyred.” The Sahaba said, “We will take ransom and that amount of us will be martyred.” Thus, ransom was taken and they were freed.
O Shia! Open your eyes from negligence. Lament over your scholar’s condition. Whatever he has written establishes the Sahaba’s radiya Llahu ‘anhum virtue instead of their vice. All of his efforts have gone to waste. The root of the problem is what Dildar ‘Ali wrote himself regarding Dhu al Fiqar that it was written in a short span of just twenty days. He was too hasty, hence the devastation. Had he written after deep contemplation and reflection, he would not have committed such an open error and would not have presented verses mentioning the Sahaba’s radiya Llahu ‘anhum virtue as proof against them. Whatever happened, happened, now the Shia can only lament and be embarrassed.
O Shia! It is for this reason that I said previously and will remind you to only bring the statements of Zurarah and Hisham as proof. For Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sake, do not turn to the glorious Qur’an and do not bring verses as proof. You are not aware of its meaning and are ignorant of the reason for its revelation. You deem it as an interpolated Qur’an and the script of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. If you study it properly and reflect over its wordings, you will not be deceived. If you fail to heed my advice, you will continue falling. Whichever verse you bring to prove something, will falsify the very same thing. With such expertise of the Qur’an, Dildar ‘Ali planned to respond to Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz, the author of Tuhfah. In fact, he took it as embarrassing and humiliation for him that he had to be the opponent of one so unworthy. However, he forgot the couplet which he himself has written in Sawarim:
مشو ہم پنجہ با من گرچہ سحر سامری داری زبا نم در سخن گفتن ید بیضاست می گویم
Do not fight with us even though you possess the magic of Samiri,
Our tongue is also a glowing hand.
Before ending my discussion, I wish to mention an objection that majority of the Shia raise. They say that it is the accusation of the Nawasib that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would consult Sheikhayn and the other Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum. How is it possible for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam — who receives revelation and inspiration — to consult anyone? Ignorant people are deceived by this statement thinking it to be true. They think, how could Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam consult Sayyidina Abu Bakr, Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, etc., whereas Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala was sending revelation upon him regarding every matter and Jibril ‘alayh al Salam was informing him of every occurrence and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala said concerning him:
وَمَا یَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوٰیؕ ﴿3﴾ اِنْ هُوَ اِلَّا وَحْیٌ یُّوْحٰیۙ
Nor does he speak from (his own) inclination. It is not but a revelation revealed.
This is definitely irrational and illogical. These are only allegations which have tainted many pages.
I therefore tell such people to ponder over this verse which Dildar ‘Ali has presented in order to expose the flaws of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum and read the commentaries about it. They then should see whether consulting the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum is established or not. The first names of those who gave counsel are of Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Have a look at and then have another look. Ponder deeply whether Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam seeking counsel from them and them giving counsel is established in your commentaries or not.
فَارْجِعِ الْبَصَرَۙ هَلْ تَرٰی مِنْ فُطُوْرٍ ﴿3﴾ ثُمَّ ارْجِعِ الْبَصَرَ کَرَّتَیْنِ یَنْقَلِبْ اِلَیْكَ الْبَصَرُ خَاسِئًا وَّ هُوَ حَسِیْرٌ
So return (your) vision (to the sky); do you see any breaks? Then return (your) vision twice again. (Your) vision will return to you humbled while it is fatigued.
Subhan Allah! Glory belongs to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala! Do Shia not have any fear of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and any consideration for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to call such people munafiqin? Do they not fear being taken to task on the Day of Qiyamah? Dildar ‘Ali while branding such great Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum as munafiqin forgot that one day revenge will be taken and one day he will have to answer before Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. “What will I answer to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala for writing such rubbish in my book? What face will I show to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam after branding his Companions as munafiqin — those Companions from whom he sought counsel?” If only he feared. If only he had conviction that on the Day of Qiyamah when the Book of Deeds will be handed to him and the angels of punishment will say on behalf of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala regarding all the words of kufr written in Dhu al Fiqar:
اِقْرَاْ کِتٰبَكَؕ کَفٰی بِنَفْسِكَ الْیَوْمَ عَلَیْكَ حَسِیْبًا
(It will be said), “Read your record. Sufficient is yourself against you this Day as accountant.”
What will his condition be? Neither his followers will be able to save him, nor will his ijtihad come to his avail.
These people blurt out words of kufr and reject the status of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum knowing fully well that the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum enjoy a lofty status. They call themselves Muslims but speak such foul words which even the kuffar would seek protection from hearing. Without any hyperbole or any prejudice, the truth is that the amount of harm caused by the Shia and Khawarij to the din of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has not been caused by anyone else. They have added to the din such filth that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala would not allow any Muslim to hear. Shaitan is perplexed at their words of kufr, their rubbish and drivel. He also feels ashamed of them.
If a few scholars studied this verse of the Qur’an and read it repeatedly, combing through it with a magnifying glass and then declare, “the verse itself does not speak about consulting, hence we do not believe it and we also do not believe the commentaries you have mentioned. If consulting the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum was Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala command then it would have definitely been mentioned in the verse.” The answer to this rhetoric is read the Qur’an from cover to cover and see whether Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala issued the command of consulting the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum or not. I will now mention that verse.
وَلَوْ كُنْتَ فَظًّا غَلِیْظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانْفَضُّوْا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ۪ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِی الْاَمْرِ
And if you had been rude (in speech) and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult them in the matter.
It is worth marvelling over how compassionately Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala commands Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to be merciful towards the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum, to forgive and overlook their errors and mistakes and to consult with them. What a high level of mercy and compassion of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala upon the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum is manifest from this verse! What more proof do you want for the lofty status of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum? What greater proof than the verse of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala should we furnish?
I will now mention the commentary of this verse by Shia scholars. ‘Allamah al Tabarsi says in Majma’ al Bayan:
فاعف عنهم ما بينك و بينهم و استغفر لهم بينهم و بينى و قيل معناه فاعف عنهم فرارهم باحد و استغفر لهم من ذلك الذنب و شاورهم فى الامر اى استخراج رأيهم و اعلم ما عندهم و اختلفوا فى فائدة مشاورته اياهم مع استغناء ما يوحى عن تعرف صواب الراى من العباد على اقوال احدها ان ذلك على وجه التطيب لنفوسهم و التاليف لهم و الرفع من اقدارهم لتبين انهم ممن يوثق باقوالهم و يرجع الى ارائهم عن قتادة و الربيع و ابن اسحاق و ثانيها ان ذلك لتقتدى به امته فى المشاورة و لم يردها نقيصة كما مدحوا بان امرهم شورى بينهم عن سفيان بن عيينة و ثالثها ان ذلك الامرين لاجلال اصحابه و ليقتدى امته فى ذلك عن الحسن و الضحاك و رابعها ان ذلك ليمتحنهم بالمشاورة ليتميز الناصح من الناس و خامسها ان ذلك فى امور الدنيا و مكائد الحرب و لقاء العدو و فى مثل ذلك يجوز ان يستعين بارائهم عن ابى على الجبائى
Forgive them for what is between you and them and seek forgiveness on their behalf for what is between them and Me. It is said that the meaning is, forgive them for their fleeing at Uhud and seek forgiveness on their behalf for this sin and consult them in the matter, i.e. ask their opinions and find out what they think. There is difference of opinion regarding the benefit of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam consulting them whereas due to revelation being sent upon him, he is independent of investigating the correct opinion from fellow men. There are many views in this regard.
First view: This is to soften their hearts and bring them closer and to raise their status so that it becomes clear that their statements are reliable and their opinions should be sought. This is narrated from Qatadah, al Rabi’ and Ibn Ishaq.
Second view: The reason for this is so that the ummah might follow him in consultation and do not regard it as a defect. The Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum were praised for this in the verse, “Whose affair is (determined by) consultation among themselves.” This is the view of Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah.
Third view: These two aspects are to show the greatness of his Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum and so that his ummah may follow him in this. This is the opinion of Hassan and Dahhak.
Fourth view: This is to test them so that the well-wishers may be differentiated from the rest.
Fifth view: This is related to worldly matters and war tactics. It is permissible to consult them in such matters. This is the view of Abu ‘Ali al Juba’i.
Many important points are mentioned in this commentary.
If someone objects to this commentary saying that Qatadah, etc., whose views have been mentioned by the author of Majma’ al Bayan, are scholars of the Ahlus Sunnah. We will answer by saying that the author did not quote from anyone the portion he mentioned before listing all the different views. Furthermore, the views he listed are some of the reasons and explanations presented for consulting. If you do not accept any of these views then tell us what the view of the author is? What is the meaning of “consult them in the matter”? What is the benefit or reason of this command?
All Muslims know that the first battle that took place was the Battle of Badr and those who were with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on that day enjoy a lofty status. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sent His angels to help them and revealed verses of the Qur’an displaying His kindness. Those who participated in this battle enjoy the highest rank among all the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Now, we should ascertain as to whether those Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum who the Shia are labelling as kuffar and munafiqin fought at the side of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam or against him. If any Shia can prove that all the three khalifas radiya Llahu ‘anhum were not at the side of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and did not participate in this battle, we will accept his claim. However, if we prove that they did participate in the battle and were at the service of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, then the Shia should abandon Shi’ism. I will quote some highlights of the battle from Hamlah Haydariyyah. Let us see what a prejudiced man like him has to write.
The author describes the scene before the battle in the following way, “When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam heard that the Quraysh mushrikin are advancing for battle, he consulted his Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The first to respond at that time were Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma who expressed their desire to fight.” Here are his couplets:
|یکے انجمن ساخت با اہل دیں||پس از ایں خبر سید المرسلین|
|کہ اے حق پرستان پاکیزہ کیش||بفرمود آنکہ باصحاب خویش|
|کمر بستہ بر کین و پر خاش ما||بدانید کز کعبہ اہل جفا|
|بیایند خودہم بروز دگر||رسیدند نزدیک آمد خبر|
|کہ دشمن رسید از پۓ کار زار||شمارا کنوں چیست تدبیر کار|
|و زاں پس عمر نیز قد کردر است||ب پاسخ ابو بکر از جاۓ خاست|
|قدم پیش بگذار و مارا بہ پیں||بگفتند یا سید المرسلیں|
|چہ ساں در پیت جاں فدا میکنم||کہ با دشمن دیں چہامی کنم|
|بگفت اے حبیب خدای عزیز||وزاں پس زجا خاست مقداد نیز|
|بیاریم شمشیر بر دشمناں||بودتابتن جان و در کف تواں|
|بفرمود در حق ایشاں دعا||ازاں گشتہ خوش دل رسول خدا|
|کہ از راز انصار یا بد خبر||چنیں خواست پس بہترین بشر|
|چہ گوئید اندر حق دشمناں||دگر بار فرمود کای دوستاں|
|چنیں گفت از روی صدق و نیاز||زجا خاست ایں بار سعد معاذ|
|بدست تو روز یکہ دادیم ہست||کہ با جان و دل با ہمیں عہد دست|
|ہماں روز کردیم بر تو نثار||سر و مال و فرزند و خویش و تبار|
|براں صدق و ایمان انصار دیں||پیمبر بر ایشاں نمود آفریں|
After receiving intelligence (of the advance of the Quraysh army), Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had a meeting with the Muslims. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told his Sahaba, “O pure men of truth! You should know that the oppressors of Makkah have prepared to wage war against us. I have received intelligence that they have come close and will be here by tomorrow. What is your opinion since the enemy is coming for battle?” Immediately Abu Bakr stood up followed by ‘Umar. They said, “O leader of the Messengers! Go ahead. You will see what we will do to the enemies of din and how we will sacrifice our lives for you.” Thereafter, Miqdad stood up from his place and said, “O beloved of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala! I will continue swinging my sword on the enemy until I have life in my body.” Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam heart was pleased to hear this and he supplicated for them. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam expressed his desire to hear the Ansar’s opinion saying, “O friends, what do you say regarding the enemy.” Sa’d ibn Muaz stood up and stated with full loyalty, “I am firmly steadfast with my soul and heart upon the promise I took at your hands. I have sacrificed all my wealth, children, family, and relatives for you from that day.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam congratulated the Ansar for their loyalty and iman.
O Shia! Ponder over the iman and sacrifice of the munafiqin and have a look at their loyalty and sincerity. Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were such hypocrites that they were prepared to sacrifice their lives first. They assisted Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam first and displayed their sincerity and loyalty in front of all by their actions. They received the title ‘the best of Muhajirin’ from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. O Shia! Did the munafiqin of Madinah who outwardly uttered the kalimah after Islam gained strength respond with the same sincerity and loyalty and assist in the same way? Did Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicate for them and congratulate them in a similar way?
Dildar ‘Ali in his attempt to combat those verses which mention the virtues of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum cites the following verse:
فَاِذَآ اُنْزِلَتْ سُوْرَةٌ مُّحْکَمَةٌ وَّ ذُکِرَ فِيْهَا الْقِتَالُ رَاَیْتَ الَّذِیْنَ فِيْ قُلُوْبِهِمْ مَّرَضٌ یَّنْظُرُوْنَ اِلَیْكَ نَظَرَ الْمَغْشِیِّ عَلَیْهِ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ
They say, “Why has a surah not been sent down?” But when a precise surah is revealed and fighting is mentioned therein, you see those in whose hearts is hypocrisy looking at you with a look of one overcome by death.
He feels that the following verse applies to the three khalifas radiya Llahu ‘anhum:
اَلَّذِیْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَهَاجَرُوْا وَجٰهَدُوْا فِيْ سَبِیْلِ اللّٰهِ بِاَمْوَالِهِمْ وَاَنْفُسِهِمْۙ اَعْظَمُ دَرَجَة عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ
The ones who have believed, emigrated and striven in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives are greater in rank in the sight of Allah.
He thus comments:
پس شک نیست دریں کہ از صحابہ کسانیکہ ایمان داشتند و ہجرت و جہاد بہ نیت صحیح کردند لالت بر فضیلت آنہا دار دو لیکن چوں ایمان غاصبین حق ولایت و ہجرت اینہا بہ نیت درست بہ ثبوت نرسیدہ استدلایدیں آیات بر فضیلت ایشاں وجہی نداد لا سیما نظر باینکہ او سبحان و تعالی مقارن ایں ہر دو صفت صفت جہاد را نیز مذکور نمودہ و کیفیت جہاد ایشاں در جنگ احد و خیبر و حنین اظہر من الشمس ست پس ایشاں را ازیں آیۃ بہرہ نخواہد بود بلکہ ایشاں از مصداق قول او سبحانہ و تعالی و من یولہم یومئذ دبرہ الخ حظ وافر دارند
There is no doubt that the above verse is proof for the virtue of those Sahaba who were Muslims and emigrated and waged jihad with the correct intention. However, since the iman and sincerity of intention for hijrah of those who usurped the Caliphate are not proven, it is incorrect to use this verse to prove their virtue especially considering the fact that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala mentioned jihad coupled with these two qualities and their jihad at the Battle of Uhud, Khaybar, Hunayn, etc., are well known. Therefore, they cannot be the beneficiaries of this verse. In fact, Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement, “indeed, those of you who turned their backs,” applies to them.
Someone should read the couplets of Hamlah Haydariyyah at Dildar ‘Ali’s grave so that his soul may come to know that his entire exposition has been debunked by one of his own poets. After the demise of the senior Dildar ‘Ali, his successor — i.e. his son, Qiblah Molana Sayed Muhammad — proofread Hamlah Haydariyyah and corrected it. There was hope that he would read those couplets and wake up and delete his father’s exposition. Unfortunately, he also closed the eyes of honesty and did not write these couplets as a footnote on Dhu al Fiqar so that people might come to know which army were Sheikhayn radiya Llahu ‘anhuma part of in the first jihad; the munafiqin or the sincere Muslims, and whether they or some others displayed to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam their preparedness to fight and were they were with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the thick of battle or not.
With regards to the Battle of Uhud, Khaybar, etc., which Dildar ‘Ali harps upon — his pen fond of writing words like Uhud, Fadak, Qirtas and nearly every page has these words — the Shia should have a little patience. When the second part which comprises of answers to the allegations against the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum is published, then the reality will dawn upon them and the condition of what Dildar ‘Ali has written will be known to all. Nevertheless, I will cite one verse and answer. The glorious Qur’an speaks about the error committed by the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum at the Battle of Uhud in the following way:
اِنَّ الَّذِیْنَ تَوَلَّوْا مِنْكُمْ یَوْمَ الْتَقَی الْجَمْعٰنِۙ اِنَّمَا اسْتَزَلَّهُمُ الشَّیْطٰنُ بِبَعْضِ مَا کَسَبُوْاۚ وَلَقَدْ عَفَا اللّٰهُ عَنْهُمْؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ غَفُوْرٌ حَلِیْمٌ
Indeed, those of you who turned back on the day the two armies met (in Uhud), it was Satan who caused them to slip because of some (blame) they had earned. But Allah has already forgiven them. Indeed, Allah is All Forgiving and All Forbearing.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala Himself has clarified the matter. To harp on this issue after Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has forgiven them is in fact belying Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Dildar ‘Ali has perpetrated this crime and belied Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. We seek Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala protection from this. He writes in Dhu al Fiqar:
فرار صحابہ در روز احد متیقن و عفو ایشاں بحیثیتی کہ مطلق ما وای ایشاں در جہنم نہ باشد مشکوک و الیقین لا یزول الا بالیقین مثلہ
The fleeing of the Sahaba from the Battle of Uhud is certain and their forgiveness, meaning that their abode is not Hellfire, is uncertain. A certainty is only removed by another certainty to its strength.
Just have a proper look at his words which I have quoted briefly. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala emphatically declares:
وَلَقَدْ عَفَا اللّٰهُ عَنْهُمْ
Indeed, Allah has already forgiven them.
Whereas Dildar ‘Ali says that forgiveness is uncertain.
The person who belies Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declaration and has doubt in His speech believing it to be uncertain, who can call such a person a believer and who cannot understand such a rejecter of Qur’anic verses to be an enemy of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam? Their condition is startling. Due to their hatred for Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum they have become so ignorant and blind that they doubt such categorical verses of the Qur’an. Nonetheless, there is no time for this discussion here. In the chapter of mata’in (allegations) I will present this objection in great detail to the Shia, Allah willing.
I will now return to the discussion of the Battle of Badr. The fervour of the Muhajirin and Ansar before the Battle began has been explained. I will now quote the actual battle from the same book. O believers! The author writes that when the rows had been formed and the battle was about to begin, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicated to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. His supplication is composed in the following couplets.
Hamlah Haydariyyah’s couplets concerning the Battle of Badr:
|بنالید و مالید رو را بہ خاک||پس آورد رو سوی یزدان پاک|
|فرستندہ انبیاء بر عباد||بگفت اے نمائندہ عدل و داد|
|بہ حکم تو بودم نہ بر راۓ خویش||تو دانی کہ من رہنماۓ قریش|
|مکن نصرت خویش از من دریغ||کشیدم بر ایشاں بہ حکم تو تیغ|
|کہ کردند حکم ترا انقیاد||الہی اگر ایں چند تنے از عباد|
|نہ دیدند بیش و کم دشمناں||بحکم تو بستند ہر کس میاں|
|بیابند از دست دشمن شکست||بماںد از فتح کو تاہم دست|
|نہ گردد پرستندہ ای داد گر||بروۓ زمیں تا قیامت دگر|
|کہ خواہش بفرمان حق در ربود||بایں زاری و عجز رنجیدہ بود|
|زبس کرد خورشید تاریک شد||دراں دم صف خشم نزدیک شد|
|بگفت اے بحق خلق را رہنمای||ابو بکر نزد نبی داشت جای|
|چہ فرمای اکنوں برای قتال||در آمد بہ تنگی سپاہ ضلال|
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam turned towards Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala (in supplication). He cried and placed his forehead on the ground. He supplicated, “O displayer of fairness and justice! O the One who sends Prophets to His bondsmen! You know that we are the guides of the Quraysh. We are subservient to Your command, not our opinions. We have unsheathed our swords on them by Your command. Do not withhold Your help from us. O Allah! If these few slaves of Yours — who have obeyed you, stood up to Your command and did not look at the numbers of the enemy — if they are unsuccessful and defeated by the enemies then You will not be worshipped on the earth until Qiyamah.” Grief was dripping from this earnest supplication so that it may be fulfilled by the will of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. The rows of the enemy drew close and the sun set. Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was at Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam side. He said, “O guide of the creation! The enemy have tightened the noose. What is your opinion of fighting?”
Where are the ears of iman and eyes of justice of the Shia which can hear and see these words of the author and ponder over the meaning? All the talk of nifaq and kufr will fade away into nothingness. The iman, sincerity, hijrah and assistance of the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum will be established.
O Muslims! Have a look for Allah’s sake. What greater virtue can there be of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum than Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplicating on their behalf to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, “O Allah! These few men have prepared themselves for war only in compliance with Your command. If they are defeated and killed, no one will worship You until Qiyamah.” What more do the Ahlus Sunnah say? They love the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum due to these qualities and enumerate these virtues. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself says regarding them that they are the ones who will worship You and make Your name reign supreme and if they are killed, din will be destroyed and no one will take Your name till Qiyamah. So why should the Ahlus Sunnah not believe them to be sincere believers? Why should we abandon our iman by calling such pure souls hypocrites just due to the instigation of one Jew, ‘Abdullah ibn Saba?
Look at the power of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala made the author write the name of Sayyidina Abu Bakr Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu at such a place which establishes the proximity he enjoyed with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The author says:
ابو بکر نزد نبی جاۓ داشت
Abu Bakr was at Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam side.
Friends! Is the author of Hamlah Haydariyyah a Nasibi or Sunni that owing to his religion he wrote Sayyidina Abu Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu name and mentioned these virtues of him out of love for him? What is the reason for this? Tell us a reason for this for Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sake. There is no other reason than this that Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu enjoyed such proximity to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that to reject it and not write his name is like concealing the sun in broad daylight. He did not have the courage to conceal such a reality and to reject something which was well-known among the Muhajirin and Ansar and which is well-known up to today. O Mu’minin! Think for a moment. Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam supplication in favour of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum and their condition which he mentions before Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, does this prove their hypocrisy? Did Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam mention such accolades of the munafiqin? Did he say regarding them, “if they are not successful, then You will not be worshipped until Qiyamah?” Are you going to continue branding them as kuffar and munafiqin notwithstanding such categorical statements which your own people have written? Are you not going to repent from hypocrisy after hearing such accolades? If you still call them munafiqin notwithstanding this, then it seems that nifaq means sincerity, iman and proximity to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in your terminology.
Dildar ‘Ali says repeatedly in Dhu al Fiqar, etc., “the intention of Sheikhayn and their followers was corrupt. And until sincerity of intention is not proven, they have no share in being recipients of virtue.” I ask you humbly, “if the khawarij say the same thing about Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, then what answer will you give, O Shia?” If you remove his name from the glorious Qur’an and we do not remove Sayyidina Abu Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu name, then definitely you are truthful and we are liars. But when no one’s name appears in the glorious Qur’an, then just as you reject the virtues of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu notwithstanding his high status and lofty merits, the khawarij reject the virtues of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu notwithstanding his lofty status. Now ponder. Just as you prove Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu virtues from his actions and biography and his sincerity — which is an inner trait — from his external good actions, we do the same thing when it comes to Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu. You prove Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu truthfulness from the verse:
اِنَّمَا وَلِیُّكُمُ اللّٰهُ وَ رَسُوْلُهوَالَّذِیْنَ اٰمَنُوا الَّذِیْنَ یُقِیْمُوْنَ الصَّلٰوةَ وَیُؤْتُوْنَ الزَّکٰوةَ وَهُمْ رٰکِعُوْنَ
Your ally is none but Allah and (therefore) His Rasul and those who have believed — those who establish prayer and give Zakat, and they bow (in worship).
So is our proof of Sayyidina Abu Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu sincerity of intention in hijrah not the same? There is no specific specification in the verse, “your ally is none but Allah,” as there is in the verse of the cave. The following appears clearly in the verse of the cave:
اِذْ یَقُوْلُ لِصَاحِبِهٖ
When he said to his companion.
This indicates to that companion who was in the cave with him. And there is no established view that there was anyone besides Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu in the cave at that time. Decide whether your view is substantiated by the Qur’an or our view. Examine both of them together and judge as to who is stronger in his claim and who is weaker.
آ شانے کو شانے سے ملا دیکہ قد میں ہمی کچہ بلند ہوں گے
Let us stand shoulder to shoulder and see,
I will be taller in height.
Okay, let us leave alone the Qur’an for now. Let us not use it as proof understanding it to be the ‘Uthmani script (as the Shia claim). Look at your books and the books of your brothers the Khawarij. Look at how many virtues of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu you established from the books of the wretched Khawarij. Count them and put them aside. Then count the proofs we take out of the Sahaba’s radiya Llahu ‘anhum virtues from your books, which is three times that amount. When the Khawarij became enemies of the Ahlul Bayt, they perpetrated the same crimes you perpetrated against the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum. They exclude Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu from all the verses of virtue we seek Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala protection from such falsehood — just as you exclude the righteous khalifas. They think that the verses of reproach are applicable to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu just as you think that they are applicable to the senior Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum. They also reject all the qualities of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu just as you reject the qualities of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum. They cast thousands of allegations and criticisms against Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu just as you do regarding the friends of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. They take the pure name of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu with the same disrespect you take the names of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Weigh yourselves with the Khawarij. You both weigh exactly the same.
Be a little fair! When you have determined hatred for the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum as one of your beliefs and essentials of din, then how will you acknowledge their virtue? However, Allah works in mystical ways. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has exposed such praises of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam friends on the tongues of your own scholars and made your historians write such accolades of them that if all are gathered they will add up to more than a thousand ahadith and statements relating to the righteous khalifas. All of these thoroughly establish their iman, sincerity, jihad and Caliphate. For example, there are more than one hundred ahadith and statements in this small booklet of mine which have the attestation of your scholars regarding the Sahaba’s radiya Llahu ‘anhum truthfulness, Caliphate and virtue on the tongues of the Imams. When you hear all of this, do you not think, “Notwithstanding our enmity and antagonism, the Sahaba’s radiya Llahu ‘anhum virtues are established from the statements of our scholars? So what status must they enjoy!” If you do not understand and are not prepared to abandon your religion due to prejudice, then you may be excused somewhat. If you do not understand, there is no cure for such warped intelligence. We proved through the Book of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. We showed you clear explicit verses in favour of the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum. We established their virtues from the ahadith of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which are found in your books. We displayed their status and iman from the statements of the Imams which are in accordance to your religion. We proved their good deeds with the testimony of your own historians and scholars. Yet you say that the Sahaba’s radiya Llahu ‘anhum intention was corrupt and they were munafiqin. We cannot guide you in any way or treat your illness. Only Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala can:
لَنَآ اَعْمَالُنَا وَ لَكُمْ اَعْمَالُكُمْ
For us are our deeds, and for you your deeds.
فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ یُضِلُّ مَنْ یَّشَآءُ وَ یَهْدِیْ مَنْ یَّشَآءُ
For indeed, Allah sends astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills.
ہمارا کام کہ دینا تہا یارو اب آگے چاہے تم مانو نہ مانو
Our work was to say, friends!
Further on, it is your choice to accept or not
The verse which Dildar ‘Ali presented:
لَوْلَا کِتٰبٌ مِّنَ اللّٰهِ سَبَقَ لَمَسَّكُمْ فِیْمَآ اَخَذْتُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِیْمٌ
If not for a decree from Allah that preceded, you would have been touched for what you took by a great punishment.
In what a beautiful way does this verse display the Sahaba’s radiya Llahu ‘anhum rank especially Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu who was praised by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as attested to by Shia scholars. Glory be to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. All of the verses he found in the Qur’an to prove the faults of the Sahaba, have in turn proved their virtue. Now imagine those verses which are specifically in praise of them. What great virtue has been stated in them! I have completed three verses which Dildar ‘Ali has mentioned. I will now quote the fourth verse which Mujtahid has listed in Dhu al Fiqar in reproach of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum:
مَا کَانَ لِنَبِیٍّ اَنْ یَّكُوْنَ لَهٓ اَسْرٰی حَتّٰی یُثْخِنَ فِی الْاَرْضِؕ تُرِیْدُوْنَ عَرَضَ الدُّنْیَاۖ وَاللّٰهُ یُرِیْدُ الْاٰخِرَةَ ؕ وَاللّٰهُ عَزِیْزٌ حَکِیْمٌ
It is not for a prophet to have captives (of war) until he has thoroughly defeated the enemy in the land. Some Muslims desire the commodities of this world, but Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.
Dildar ‘Ali’s object of writing this verse is that some people had evil thoughts about Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and were not happy with his distribution. However, this does not prove his ideology that this surah was revealed regarding the Khalifas Rashidin or the senior Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum. On the contrary, this verse proves the virtue of the participants of Badr who we have been talking about and this is acknowledged by Shia mufassirin. Al Kashani writes in Khulasat al Manhaj in the commentary of this verse:
اگر نہ حکمے و فرمانے می بود از خداۓ تعالی کہ پیشی گرفتہ شدہ اثبات آں در لوح محفوظ کہ بے نہئ صریح عقوبت نہ فرماید یا اصحاب بدر را عذاب نہ کند
Had there not been a predestined matter by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala which was protected in the Lowh al Mahfuz that He will not punish the participants of Badr.
This verse also clearly proves the merit of the participants of Badr. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has promised that He will not punish them. Dildar ‘Ali should have brought this verse into the discussion after he studied the commentary, since this commentary proves their merit. The Shia mufassirin have attested to the virtue of the participants of Badr and Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala promise of forgiveness for them to such an extent that there remains no scope to deny it. Thus, I will thoroughly establish this claim from other Shia commentaries.
Under the reason of revelation of the verse:
یٰاَیُّهَا الَّذِیْنَ اٰمَنُوْا لَا تَتَّخِذُوْا عَدُوِّیْ وَ عَدُوَّكُمْ اَوْلِیَآءَ
O you who have believed, do not take My enemies and your enemies as allies.
Shia mufassirin write that there was a Sahabi by the name of Sayyidina Hatib ibn Abi Balta’ah who informed the kuffar of Makkah — with the intention of protecting his family and relatives — that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam intended to attack them so they should be prepared. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was accordingly informed of the entire situation via revelation. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked him the reason for doing this. He replied, “I did not do this because I turned renegade. I did this in order to protect my family.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam accepted his excuse. Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu said, “O Rasulullah! Give me permission to kill him for he is a munafiq.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam replied, “no, he is one of the participants of Badr. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has promised forgiveness for those who participated in Badr and declared, “do as you please. I have forgiven you.”
Hopefully, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will wash his black book of deeds with the water of forgiveness.”
This is the crux of the Shia mufassirin’s commentary. I will quote it verbatim from Khulasat al Manhaj — a commentary considered reliable by the Shia — so that no Shia has the courage to say that I have interpolated it.
حضرت رسالت مآب صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم بطریق خفا عزیمت مکہ داشت سارہ کنیز ابی عمرو الخ
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam secretly intended to go to Makkah. Abu ‘Amr’s slave girl, Sarah went ahead …
The forgiveness of the participants of Badr is in conformity to this narration. The same commentator writes in Majma’ al Bayan:
و ما يدريك يا عمر لعل الله اطلع على اهل بدر فغفر لهم فقال اعملوا ما شئتم فقد غفرت لكم
What do you know ‘Umar? Maybe Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala glanced at the participants of Badr and forgiven them saying, “Do as you please for I have indeed forgiven you.”
The response Shia scholars give to this narration can be gauged from the correspondence of Munshi Subhan ‘Ali Khan and Molana Nur al Din. The former asks:
در تفسیر مذکور از ابتداء سورہ ممتحنہ در مطاوی بیان حال حاطب بن ابی بلتعہ مسطور ست کہ جناب رسالت پناہ صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم بحق او فرمودند کہ اورا بحالش بگذارند و از اہل بدر ست و بدریاں را حق تعالی وعدۂ مغفرت فرمودہ امید ہست کہ نامۂ عصیاں اورا بہ آب مغفرت بشوید انتہی خلاصہ حالا عرض من ست کہ اصحاب ثلاثہ ہم از بدریاں ہستند می باید کہ ایشاں را ہم بحال ایشاں گزاشتہ شود و لعن و طعن بحق ایشاں کردہ نہ شود
It appears in Tafsir Majma’ al Bayan in the beginning of Surah al Mumtahinah regarding the Sahabi Hatib ibn Abi Balta’ah that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam proclaimed, “Leave him alone. He is from the participants of Badr. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has promised their forgiveness and pardon. Hopefully, He will wash their sins with the water of forgiveness.” On the strength of this I say that the three Sahaba were also participants of Badr. Hence, they should be left alone and should not be criticised or reproached.
Molana Nur al Din responds to this with ‘deep concern for din’:
قصۂ حاطب براۓ خلفاء ثلاثہ بر اصول امامیہ قیاس مع الفارق ست زیراکہ روایات جامعین اصول دلالت براں دارد کہ اینہا ہر گز باعتقاد قلب سوۓ جناب ختمی مآب صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم مائل نبودند تمامی امور ایشاں از صلاح و تقوی ہم در حیات شریف و ہم بعد وفات مبنی بر سمعہ وریا و اینہا کلہم معتقدین کاہنین و منجمین بودند بدلالت احادیث بخلاف حاطب کہ مثل اینہا نبود الی قولہ پس عفوا حاطب مستلزم عفو از مشائخ سنیاں نیست علاوہ گناہ حاطب را ملاحظہ فرمایند کہ فقط افشاء امریست بے آنکہ فرمودہ باشند کہ ایں راز را ہر گز فاش نہ باید کرد و ہر گاہ دختران اول و ثانی بعد منع سر حضرت را فاش کردند و توبہ شاں مقبول افتاد چنانچہ از مجمع و غیرہ ظاہر ست پس عفو حاطب بطریق اولی و آں ہم براۓ آنکہ کفار قریش سرپرستی اہل و عیالش نمانید بخلاف حال کسانیکہ جناب ختمی مآب را بز ہر کشتند و چند معصوم را شہید کردند و ہزاران نسخ قرآن مجید را بآتش نہادند و آنچہ باقی گزاشتند دراں ہم داد تحریف دادند
To make the analogy of Hatib’s story upon the three Khalifas’s situation is inaccurate according to Shia principles since those who have formulated the principles have narrations which prove that the three khalifas did not support Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam sincerely. All the piety and goodness these three displayed in Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lifetime and after his demise was only the product of show and ostentation. They were actually believers in the fortune tellers and astrologers as proven from the ahadith. Hatib’s situation is different. Hatib been forgiven does not secure the forgiveness of the Sunni’s leaders. Hatib’s only crime was that he disclosed the secret — although there was no prohibition of not disclosing it — just as their daughters disclosed Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam secret and their repentance was accepted as documented in Majma’, etc. Hence, Hatib’s forgiveness was more correct from this point that the kuffar of Quraysh might look after his family. On the contrary are those who poisoned Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and killed him, martyred many innocent people, burned thousands of copies of the glorious Qur’an and interpolated and changed the few that remained.
The crux of the above is that since the three khalifass actions were filled with deceit and hypocrisy they are deprived of the virtue awarded to the participants of Badr. To claim this is like claiming that Sheikhayn radiya Llahu ‘anhuma did not participate in Badr or that the battle did not take place or that Sheikhayn radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were not born or that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not announce his nubuwwah. No one besides Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has an answer to such antagonists.
Some Shia object to this hadith saying that it is illogical for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to promise
اعملوا ما شئتم فقد غفرت لكم
Do as you please for I have forgiven you.
It is impossible for Him to legalise all forbidden things for them.
The appropriate answer is that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has full knowledge of every single person. He decides according to His knowledge and predestination. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala trusted the participants of Badr, hence He declared this.
The counter reply is, have a look at your own narrations which promise forgiveness for the Shia. It is clearly written that friendship with Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu is sufficient. No sin can harm after it. I will prove this from many statements and declarations.
Now show a little compassion upon the participants of Badr. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala decided to forgive them due to the fact that they left their homes, emigrated from their homelands, severed relations with their close relatives, spent their wealth and sacrificed their lives and wealth in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. They were prepared to kill their own brothers and friends out of love for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. To raise their status, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sent angels to assist them. The first battle in Islam was won at their hands. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala displayed their steadfastness and sacrifice in the first battle of Islam and granted victory to Islam at their hands and opened the door to upcoming conquests and the spreading of Islam with their swords. They were the lovers and friends of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who did all of this in front of Allah’s beloved, the leader of all the Prophets — by whose intercession Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will forgive major sins and pardon those who believed in towhid and risalah but carried out no good actions besides this and wasted their lives in disobedience. So the warriors who fought in the first battle at the side of such a leader of din and such a king of the world, those who were the first to prepare themselves to sacrifice their lives at the feet of the beloved of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, did not just show their readiness outwardly and hypocritically but did as they said, and upon whose fighting Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam implored Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in humility and submission, “these poor needy few have intended to sacrifice their lives only to attain Your pleasure, hence grant them victory for they are the means of making Your name reign supreme and Your din to spread. If they are defeated, there will be no one to worship You until Qiyamah.” Thus, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala granted victory at their hands and notwithstanding their few numbers they destroyed the entire kuffar army and killed prominent leaders of the Quraysh like Abu Jahl, etc., and humiliated those who caused distress to and harassed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and banished him from Makkah and disgraced those wretched souls who forced Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to leave his home after much persecution and torture and made their flesh morsels for the worms. Such warriors whose triumph sent shivers down the kuffar’s spines and their bodies began to shiver. Their iman and strength became famous by the great monarchs of the time. In appreciation of such efforts and struggles and iman and sincerity, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala — the Beneficent; the One who gives seventy to hundred times more reward for one action; the One who only out of His grace and compassion upon his slaves, accepts repentance without any action of the mouth and heart and as stated in the verse:
یُبَدِّلُ اللّٰهُ سَیِّاٰتِعهِمْ حَسَنٰتٍ
Allah will replace their evil deeds with good.
Such an Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala promised forgiveness for such people and declared, “do as you please for I have forgiven you.” So what is so surprising? O Shia! Do you not know that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala is exceedingly merciful? Do you not realise that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala is the Beneficent? Does Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala not shower His grace upon His servants? Does He not multiply the reward of their actions manifold? You acknowledge that the condition of Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala mercy upon all people, in fact to the sinners and the kuffar is such that if a hundred year old staunch mushrik who wasted his entire life in idol-worship and kufr were to recite the kalimah sincerely and attest to towhid and risalah, then Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will wipe out his hundred years of kufr and shirk just due to his one moment of iman. So if Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has to promise forgiveness for the friends of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and those who sacrificed their lives for him, not forgetting their iman, sincerity, hijrah, jihad and nusrah, then why do you regard this as illogical? Do you not know that special actions deserve special treatment? Take for example worldly affairs. When a warrior goes with an ordinary army general to a small battle and is successful, what honour will he get and what reward will he receive from the army general? On the other hand, if he fought at the side of the king and was successful, then what bounty will he receive! If you do not differentiate between the two and regard both situations as equal, then you are not worthy of being addressed. However, if you can differentiate between the two, then why do you not accept this promise as a divine gift which was bestowed for fighting at the side of the leader of the Prophets, the spearhead of the pure and the beloved of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala?
It appears in the hadith that on the Day of Qiyamah, there will be such sinners who will be rotting in Hell and for whom neither the Prophets nor the leader of the Prophets salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam will intercede due to their abundance and severity of sins. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will show mercy upon them by taking them out of Hell and sending them to Jannat. He will write with light on their illuminated necks:
هذا عتقاء الرحمن من النيران
There are the freed slaves of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala from Hellfire.
So if Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala out of grace granted the stamp of brilliance, “do as you please for I have forgiven you,” to His special servants who expressed their weakness and whose good actions have become manifest, then none besides the disbelievers and transgressors can be surprised by this. Turn back a few pages and look at those narrations which state then when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam intended to wage jihad and asked the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum about it, then what answer did they give? Who of them spoke first and who stood up first besides Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu? Who kissed the feet of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, “O Rasulullah! We have already sacrificed our health and wealth for you, deserted our homes for you and abandoned our brothers and friends for you. We only have life left which we will sacrifice for you. Forget one life, we are prepared to sacrifice thousands of lives for you.”
|تاصد ہزار بار بمیرم براۓ تو||میخواہم ا خدا بد عاصد ہزار جاں|
|اے صد ہزار جان مقدس فداۓ تو||من کیستم کہ بہر تو جاں را فدا کنم|
O Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala! Grant me a hundred thousand lives so that I may die for You a hundred thousand times. Who am I to sacrifice only my life for you! Hundreds of thousands of lives are sacrificed for You.
Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not finish speaking and Sayyidina ‘Umar and Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Muaz radiya Llahu ‘anhuma stood up and declared their fervour to sacrifice their lives in a similar manner. Look at how your own historian describes the zeal, fervour, love and readiness of these great Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He says that when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked:
|و زاں پس عمر نیز قد کردر است||بپاسخ ابو بکر از جاۓ خاست|
|قدم پیش بگذار و مارا بہ پیں||بگفتند یا سید المرسلیں|
|چہ ساں در پیت جاں فدا میکنم||کہ با دشمن دیں چہامی کنم|
|بیاریم شمشیر بر دشمناں||بودتابتن جان و در کف تواں|
|چنیں گفت از روی صدق و نیاز||زجا خاست ایں بار سعد معاذ|
|بدست تو روز یکہ دادیم ہست||کہ با جان و دل با ہمیں عہد دست|
|ہماں روز کردیم بر تو نثار||سر و مال و فرزند و خویش و تبار|
Immediately Abu Bakr stood up followed by ‘Umar. They said, “O leader of the Messengers! Go ahead. You will see what we will do to the enemies of din and how we will sacrifice our lives for you. We will continue swinging our swords on the enemy until we have life in our bodies.” Sa’d ibn Muaz then stood up and stated with full loyalty, “I am firmly steadfast with my soul and heart upon the promise I took at your hands. I have sacrificed all my wealth, children, family and relatives for you from that day…”
When this is the zeal, fervour, love, iman and sincerity of the participants of Badr, then why do you puzzle at one declaration, “do as you please?” Do you not ponder over all the promises Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala made at various places in the glorious Qur’an. This hadith only proves forgiveness. Open the Qur’an and have a look at what Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala promised the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum.
رَّضِیَ اللّٰهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوْا عَنْهُ
Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him.
اَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنّٰتٍ تَجْرِیْ تَحْتَهَا الْاَنْهٰرُ خٰلِدِیْنَ فِیْهَآ اَبَدًا
He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever.
ذٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِیْمُ
That is the great attainment.
The promises of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala are replete in the Qur’an but you are amazed over one promise. You overlook all their good and search for their faults. O friends! Be fair. Look at your hadith and history books. Look at what the Shia of Kufah did to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and how they treated him. Look at what virtues your muhaddithin write about Kufah. It was this same Shia of Kufah who abandoned Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and made him grieve. It was this same Shia of Kufah who did not help Sayyidina Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu and pulled the rug from under his feet. It was this same Shia of Kufah who pledged allegiance at the hands of Muslim ibn ‘Aqil in the beginning but then abandoned him at the eleventh hour. Poor Muslim was alone with two innocent children and they were all martyred. It was this very Shia of Kufah who invited Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu and wrote letters to him displaying their zeal and fervour. They sent 12 000 letters to him. All the letters read, “This is from ‘Ali’s and your Shia.” What zeal they mentioned in those letters which cannot be explained. When they invited him with such zeal and expressed their deep desire, “O son of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam! Come quickly and illuminate this piece of earth. The land of Kufah eagerly awaits your presence. Every door and wall is calling you. Every person’s tongue is shouting out, ‘we are present! We are present’. Every person is eagerly anticipating the arrival of the handsome man with excellent qualities. Come quickly. We are all ready to sacrifice our lives. See what we will do.”
|ہمہ نیزہ گرزو خنجر بدست||سپاہی چوں آشفقہ پیلان مست|
|زما لشکر بیکراں ساختن||زتو رایت فتح افراختن|
|زسنگ آب و آتش بروں آورند||چو باتیغ آہنگ خون آورند|
|سر آسماں بر زمیں آورند||چوں تیر از کماں در کمیں آورند|
We are your warriors like intoxicated elephants, holding long spears and daggers. The flag of triumph will be raised through you. Our inestimable army is prepared for this. When we intend fighting with the sword, we will extract water and fire from rocks. When we aim with our bows and arrows on the target, we will bring the sky to the ground.
When the Imam went into battle, none supported him. They all made excuses, deceived and deserted him and allowed him to be killed. He went hungry and thirsty for three days and was then martyred. The skies and earth are emotional over this pitiable condition till Qiyamah. Notwithstanding all of this, such virtues are mentioned of Kufah which Makkah and Madinah do not possess. Accordingly, Mulla Baqir Majlisi writes in Tuhfat al Za’irin:
در حدیث معتبر درگر از حضرت امام جعفر صادق منقول است کہ حق تعالی عرض کرد ولایت مارا بر ہر اہل شہر پس قبول نہ کردند مگر اہل کوفہ انتہی بلفظہ
It appears in another reliable narration reported from Imam Jafar Sadiq, “Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala presented our wilayah to the dwellers of every city, but no one accepted besides the people of Kufah.”
It is clear from this that the rank enjoyed by Kufah and its inhabitants is not enjoyed by Makkah and Madinah. In fact, Mulla Baqir Majlisi has attributed the following narration to Imam Zain al ‘Abidin:
بقدری جای پادر کوفہ نزد من بہتر ست از خانہ کہ در مدینہ داشتہ باشم
A foot span in Kufah is greater than the house in Madinah according to me.
No one should be in the deception that the residents of Kufah were not Shia.
الحديث يفسر بعضها بعضا
Some narrations explain others.
Qadi Nur Allah Shostari reports from Imam Jafar Sadiq in Majalis al Mu’minin. ‘Abdullah ibn Walid narrates:
گفت در زمان بنی مروان بخدمت امام جعفر علیہ السلام رفتم آنحضرت از من و رفیقان من پر سیدند کہ شما چہ کسانید گفتم از اہل کوفہ ایم آنحضرت فرمودند در ہیچ از یک بلاد ایں قدر دوست نداریم کہ در کوفہ بعد ازاں فرمودند کہ ایتہا العصابہ ان اللہ ہداکم الامر جہلہ الناس و احپتمونا و ابغضنا الناس و بایعتمونا و خالفنا الناس و وافعتمونا و کذبنا الناس و صدقتمونا فاحیاکم اللہ محیانا و اماتکم مماتنا
One day when the sons of Marwan were ruling, I went to Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah. The Imam asked me where I was from and I replied, “Kufah.” The Imam commented, “no city has that amount of my friends as does Kufah.” He said further, “Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has guided you — the inhabitants of Kufah — to something which the rest of mankind is ignorant of. You loved us whereas others had enmity for us. You pledged allegiance to us. While others opposed us, you supported us. And while others belied us, you believed in us. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala make you live like us and die like us.”
Wherever Qadi Nur Allah Shostari quotes this narration, he comments:
بالجملہ تشیع اہل کوفہ حاجت بہ اقامت دلیل ندارد
There is no need to prove that the inhabitants of Kufah are Shia.
O Mu’minin! The same people of Kufah whom you complain about and who martyred Sayyidina Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu were the residents of Kufah — which is greater in rank than Makkah and Madinah according to the Imam — and where the heart and soul of the Imam and whose life and death were like that of the Imam. The Kufah which enjoys such a high rank and the people of Kufah who enjoy such a lofty position cannot be blameworthy. Recite poetry in their praise and send mercy upon them since Kufah is the barometer of Shi’ism. To be from Kufah is sufficient proof of being Shia. Qadi Nur Allah Shostari writes in Majalis al Mu’minin:
کوفی بودن شخصے دلیل تشیع است اگر چہ ابو حنیفہ کوفی باشد
Someone being from Kufah is proof of him being Shia even though Abu Hanifah was from Kufah.
O Shia! The condition of those people of Kufah whom your little children are aware of and regarding whom young illiterate boys say:
الكوفى لا يوفى
A man from Kufah is never loyal.
Whose deception, disloyalty and treachery is echoed on the pulpits and whose work is to allow the Imam to be martyred thirsty. This couplet aptly fits them:
|خوش داشتند حرمت مہمان کربلا||از آب ہم مضائقہ کردند کوفیاں|
The people of Kufah constrained the water,
thereby honouring the guests of Karbala’.
Your scholars narrate their virtues from the noble Imams and quote the Imam saying regarding them, “may Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala make you live like us and may you die like us.” They say that one handful of sand of Kufah is more beloved to the Imam than the land of Madinah Munawwarah. They claim that the people of Kufah are the beloveds and friends of the Imams and due to this friendship they consider them as inhabitants of Jannat. Hearing all of this nonsense and drivel, the veins of your iman do not swell and your pure hearts do not tremble even a little. In fact, you imitate the actions of the people of Kufah every year thus being the focus of this verse:
مَا هٰذِهِ التَّمَاثِیْلُ الَّتِیْٓ اَنتُمْ لَهَا عٰکِفُوْنَ
What are these statues to which you are devoted?
You display no iman and honour in quoting those fabricated narrations and pathetic statements of your scholars. In fact, whether they are true or false, you accept them wholeheartedly. On the other hand, when you hear about the friends and Sahaba of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the forgiveness promised for the participants of Badr from some Sunni, you go into a rage and the inferno of prejudice blazes in your body. The passion of Shi’ism makes your every vein swell and the intensity of your enmity changes your humours. Then all satanic whispers flood your heart; you doubt every word and object to every sentence.
Subhan Allah! You do not regard the participants of Badr to be equal in rank to the people of Kufah and the narrations which you feel aptly apply to the latter do not apply to the former. What iman is this? You take Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam name and read ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’s kalimah? You received iman due to the blessings of the khalifas yet you are grateful to that accursed Jew? You deem yourself as pure and have the audacity to confront the Sunni but belie Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala verses, Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ahadith and the Imams’s statements due to the fabrications of some evil conspirators.
Brothers! What type of din and iman is this? Either you abandon Islam and become open Jews or have faith in in the beliefs of the Muslim like proper Muslims. Dissociate from that preposterous creed which is founded on nothing but lies and deception and curse those who formed it. It is not befitting for such liars to make such big claims of iman with their small filthy mouths. Being Muslim and thinking evil of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam friends is shocking. It is just lip service which has no reality. It is bereft of substance. How true is the saying:
|دشمن می بودن و ہمرنگ مستان زیستن||و جدو منع بادہ اے زاہد چہ کافر نعمتے ست|
O ascetic man! What ingratitude to a favour it is to prevent from drunkenness and liquor,
An enemy of liquor and living the life of a drunkard at the same time?
We have thoroughly established the virtue of the participants of Badr as announced by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in the Qur’an, acknowledged by Shia scholars, and indicated by their actions. I will now quote a statement of Dildar ‘Ali which he wrote in his book Maqalah Thalithah — the response of which is Izalat al Ghayn — so that it is known as to what is their status according to the Shia. Dildar ‘Ali says:
دعوی نفاق ایشاں و غدر اہل بدر
The claim of their nifaq and the deception of the participants of Badr.
و رضوان علی مدعا ماست ماہم یُخٰدِعُوْنَ اللّٰهَ وَالَّذِیْنَ اٰمَنُوْاۚ وَمَا یَخْدَعُوْنَ اِلَّآ اَنْفُسَهُمْ وَمَا یَشْعُرُوْنَؕ
Our claim conforms to the pleasure of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. They (think to) deceive Allah and those who believe, but they deceive not except themselves and perceive (it) not.
Subhan Allah! What din and what iman is this? The people of Kufah are considered loyal and the participants of Badr are considered treacherous? May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala make them understand or punish them for their kufr. We seek Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala protection from such nonsense.
Dildar ‘Ali quotes another verse in Dhu al Fiqar in opposition to the verses mentioning the virtues of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum:
وَ اِذَا رَاَیْتَهُمْ تُعْجِبُكَ اَجْسَامُهُمْؕ وَ اِنْ یَّقُوْلُوْا تَسْمَعْ لِقَوْلِهِمْؕ کَاَنَّهُمْ خُشُبٌ مُّسَنَّدَةٌؕ یَحْسَبُوْنَ كُلَّ صَیْحَةٍ عَلَیْهِمْؕ هُمُ الْعَدُوُّ فَاحْذَرْهُمْؕ قٰتَلَهُمُ اللّٰهُؗ اَنّٰی یُؤْفَكُوْنَ
And when you see them, their forms please you, and if they speak, you listen to their speech. (They are) as if they were pieces of wood propped up — they think that every shout is against them. They are the enemy, so beware of them. May Allah destroy them; how are they deluded?
Dildar ‘Ali has been treacherous and has misinterpreted the verses. He left out the preceding and subsequent verses and merely quoted a few verses from the middle. I will quote all the verses and provide their commentary.
It should be known that these verses are part of Surah al Munafiqun which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed regarding the hypocrites. The following are the opening verses of the surah:
اِذَا جَآءَكَ الْمُنٰفِقُوْنَ قَالُوْا نَشْهَدُ اِنَّكَ لَرَسُوْلُ اللّٰهِۘ وَ اللّٰهُ یَعْلَمُ اِنَّكَ لَرَسُوْلُهؕ وَ اللّٰهُ یَشْهَدُ اِنَّ الْمُنٰفِقِیْنَ لَکٰذِبُوْنَۚ ﴿1﴾ اِتَّخَذُوْٓا اَیْمَانَهُمْ جُنَّةً فَصَدُّوْا عَنْ سَبِیْلِ اللّٰهِؕ اِنَّهُمْ سَآءَ مَا کَانُوْا یَعْمَلُوْنَ ﴿2﴾ ذٰلِكَ بِاَنَّهُمْ اٰمَنُوْا ثُمَّ کَفَرُوْا فَطُبِعَ عَلٰی قُلُوْبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لَا یَفْقَهُوْنَ ﴿3﴾ وَ اِذَا رَاَیْتَهُمْ تُعْجِبُكَ اَجْسَامُهُمْؕ وَ اِنْ یَّقُوْلُوْا تَسْمَعْ لِقَوْلِهِمْؕ کَاَنَّهُمْ خُشُبٌ مُّسَنَّدَةٌؕ یَحْسَبُوْنَ كُلَّ صَیْحَةٍ عَلَیْهِمْؕ هُمُ الْعَدُوُّ فَاحْذَرْهُمْؕ قٰتَلَهُمُ اللّٰهُؗ اَنّٰی یُؤْفَكُوْنَ ﴿4﴾ وَ اِذَا قِیْلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْا یَسْتَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ رَسُوْلُ اللّٰهِ لَوَّوْا رُءُوْسَهُمْ وَرَاَیْتَهُمْ یَصُدُّوْنَ وَ هُمْ مُّسْتَكْبِرُوْنَ ﴿۵﴾ سَوَآ ءٌ عَلَیْهِمْ اَسْتَغْفَرْتَ لَهُمْ اَمْ لَمْ تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْؕ لَنْ یَّغْفِرَ اللّٰهُ لَهُمْؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا یَهْدِی الْقَوْمَ الْفٰسِقِیْنَ ﴿6﴾ هُمُ الَّذِیْنَ یَقُوْلُوْنَ لَا تُنْفِقُوْا عَلٰی مَنْ عِنْدَ رَسُوْلِ اللّٰهِ حَتّٰی یَنْفَضُّوْاؕ وَ لِلّٰهِ خَزَآئِنُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَ الْاَرْضِ وَ لٰکِنَّ الْمُنٰفِقِیْنَ لَا یَفْقَهُوْنَ ﴿7﴾ یَقُوْلُوْنَ لَئِنْ رَّجَعْنَآ اِلَی الْمَدِیْنَةِ لَیُخْرِجَنَّ الْاَعَزُّ مِنْهَا الْاَذَلَّؕ وَ لِلّٰهِ الْعِزَّةُ وَ لِرَسُوْلِهٖ وَ لِلْمُؤْمِنِیْنَ وَ لٰکِنَّ الْمُنٰفِقِیْنَ لَا یَعْلَمُوْنَ
When the hypocrites come to you, (O Muhammad), they say, “We testify that you are the Rasul of Allah.” And Allah knows that you are His Rasul, and Allah testifies that the hypocrites are liars. They have taken their oaths as a cover, so they averted (people) from the way of Allah. Indeed, it was evil that they were doing. That is because they believed, and then they disbelieved; so their hearts were sealed over, and they do not understand. And when you see them, their forms please you, and if they speak, you listen to their speech. (They are) as if they were pieces of wood propped up — they think that every shout is against them. They are the enemy, so beware of them. May Allah destroy them; how are they deluded? And when it is said to them, “Come, the Rasul of Allah will ask forgiveness for you,” they turn their heads aside and you see them evading while they are arrogant. It is all the same for them whether you ask forgiveness for them or do not ask forgiveness for them; never will Allah forgive them. Indeed, Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people. They are the ones who say, “Do not spend on those who are with the Rasul of Allah until they disband.” And to Allah belongs the depositories of the heavens and the earth, but the hypocrites do not understand. They say, “if we return to al Madinah, the more honoured (for power) will surely expel therefrom the more humble.” And to Allah belongs (all) honour, and to His Rasul, and to the believers, but the hypocrites do not know.
Just quoting all of these verses is a sufficient answer to Dildar ‘Ali together with his treachery and deception being disclosed. It is clear that these verses refer to the hypocrites. But when can it ever be expected from the Shia to be content with the words and meanings of the Qur’an? Most certainly they will not keep silent upon this. Thus, I will mention the reason of the revelation of these verses from their commentaries.
It appears in the commentary of ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim Qummi, who is the teacher of Abu Jafar al Kulayni that the reason of the revelation of Surah al Munafiqun was that in 7 A.H when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was returning from the Battle of Banu Mustaliq, Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab’s tenant, whose name was Jahjah, hit Anas ibn Sayyar — the adopted brother of the Ansar at a well on the way. ‘Abdullah ibn Ubay, a resident of Madinah, received news of this. He was upset at this and told his people, i.e. the people of Madinah, “for this reason I did not want the people of Quraysh to come to us. This is because of your own doing. You gave shelter to the Makkans in your houses, spent your wealth upon them and sacrificed your lives for them. You widowed your wives and orphaned your children for their sake. And now you are humiliated. If you exile them, they will go to others.” He then said:
لَئِنْ رَّجَعْنَآ اِلَی الْمَدِیْنَةِ لَیُخْرِجَنَّ الْاَعَزُّ مِنْهَا الْاَذَلَّ
If we return to al Madinah, the more honoured (for power) will surely expel therefrom the more humble.
A youngster, Sayyidina Zaid ibn Arqam radiya Llahu ‘anhu, was present when he said this. He informed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who was grieved at receiving such news. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made preparation to continue the journey. Sayyidina Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah radiya Llahu ‘anhu came running and said, “O Rasulullah! This is not the time for you to depart.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked him, “Have you heard what your friend said?” He answered, “O Rasulullah! I have no friend besides you.” Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then said, “‘Abdullah ibn Ubay thinks that when we return to Madinah, the honoured will surely expel therefrom the disgraced.” Sayyidina Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah commented, “You and your friends are the honoured ones while ‘Abdullah ibn Ubay and his friends are disgraced.”
The Khazraj — who were a clan of Madinah — began rebuking ‘Abdullah ibn Ubay who took an oath that he did not say such a thing. People told him to go to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and seek forgiveness. He looked down in contempt. The next morning he came to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and swore that he said nothing. He then recited the shahadah and remarked, “Zaid slandered me.” People now began to rebuke Zaid. Finally, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed Surah al Munafiqun. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gathered the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum and recited it to them.
It is the opinion of a great commentator that this surah was revealed regarding the munafiq ‘Abdullah ibn Ubay ibn Salul. However, Dildar ‘Ali did not understand the meaning nor pondered over the circumstances leading to its revelation nor looked at his commentaries. He intentionally omitted some verses before and after and presented only two. If this is the way to debate, then he ought to have written all the verses in the glorious Qur’an which speak about the Bani Isra’il, Fir’own, Namrud and Shaddad so that his book becomes thicker and people acknowledge his deep understanding of the Qur’an.
Dildar ‘Ali quoted these verses and stated:
و امثال ایں دیگر آیات ست پس لا بد ست کہ در جمع بین الایات گفتہ شود کہ مورد آیات مناقب غیر مورد آیات ذم ست پس بعضے صحابۂ آنحضرت عموما ممدوح باشند و بعضے مذموم و ایں عین مطلوب شیعیان است
There are many more verses such as the above. It is necessary to clarify when reconciling the verses that verses of virtue and verses of reproach were revealed regarding different people, i.e. some of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam Sahaba are worthy of praise while others are worthy of censure. And this is the Shia view.
This false notion of Dildar ‘Ali is due to him lacking understanding of the glorious Qur’an. The remedy for it is to study its commentary and circumstances leading to its revelation. Had he looked up the circumstances leading to its revelation and studied his own commentaries and pondered over the context of these verses, he would not have mentioned this ruling regarding reconciling verses. Those verses regarding the kuffar and munafiqin have nothing to do with the Muhajirin, Ansar and Sahaba of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. These verses mentioning kufr, nifaq and laxity in din are with regards to the munafiqin. The Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum are not included therein. There is polarity between the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum and the munafiqin; they are not synonymous. So to reconcile those verses which speak highly about the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum with those verses which rebuke the munafiqin is superfluous. It is akin to reconciling two opposites which is impossible according to us and possible according to you. So sit at home and reconcile these verses and fabricate principles regarding it. Then you can decide who is included and who is excluded from your fabricated imaginary principles. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala guiding some and misguiding others has spared us from reconciling these verses. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala included whom He wished among the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum and included whom He wished among the munafiqin.
A person who believes in the Qur’an will never use the word munafiq when referring to the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum. This is due to the fact that Qur’an is replete with verses which categorically forbid associating with the munafiqin, being happy with them, taking them along for jihad and listening to any of their excuses. So had the Muhajirin and Ansar, particularly the three khalifas radiya Llahu ‘anhum, been munafiqin, then why would Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not humiliate them, why would he keep them in his company, seek counsel from them and take them along for jihad? I will quote few verses to support my claim.
Verse 1: Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala declares:
یَعْتَذِرُوْنَ اِلَیْكُمْ اِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ اِلَیْهِمْؕ قُلْ لَّا تَعْتَذِرُوْا لَنْ نُّؤْمِنَ لَكُمْ قَدْ نَبَّاَنَا اللّٰهُ مِنْ اَخْبَارِكُمْؕ وَسَیَرَی اللّٰهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُوْلُهثُمَّ تُرَدُّوْنَ اِلٰی عٰلِمِ الْغَیْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَیُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُوْنَ ﴿94﴾ سَیَحْلِفُوْنَ بِاللّٰهِ لَكُمْ اِذَا انْقَلَبْتُمْ اِلَیْهِمْ لِتُعْرِضُوْا عَنْهُمْؕ فَاَعْرِضُوْا عَنْهُمْؕ اِنَّهُمْ رِجْسٌؗ وَّمَاْوٰهُمْ جَهَنَّمُۚ جَزَآءً ۢ بِمَا کَانُوْا یَكْسِبُوْنَ ﴿95﴾ یَحْلِفُوْنَ لَكُمْ لِتَرْضَوْا عَنْهُمْۚ فَاِنْ تَرْضَوْا عَنْهُمْ فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا یَرْضٰی عَنِ الْقَوْمِ الْفٰسِقِیْنَ
They will make excuses to you when you have returned to them. Say, “make no excuse — never will we believe you. Allah has already informed us of your news. And Allah will observe your deeds, and (so will) His Rasul; then you will be taken back to the Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, and He will inform you of what you used to do.” They will swear by Allah to you when you return to them that you would leave them alone. So leave them alone; indeed they are evil; and their refuge is Hell as recompense for what they had been earning. They swear to you so that you might be satisfied with them. But if you should be satisfied with them — indeed, Allah is not satisfied with a defiantly disobedient people.
Here are few points deduced from the above verses:
Try to apply one of the above points to the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum, and in particular to the three khalifas radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Or comment about Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not turning away from the three khalifas radiya Llahu ‘anhum notwithstanding their hypocrisy and categorical commands for him to do so. We cannot utter disrespectful words and we can never imagine such a being (i.e. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) disobeying a divine command or observing Taqiyyah.
Verse 2: Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:
یٰاَیُّهَا النَّبِیُّ جَاهِدِ الْكُفَّارَ وَالْمُنٰفِقِیْنَ
O Nabi, fight against the disbelievers and the hypocrites.
If the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum were munafiqin, then at least tell us when and against whom did Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wage jihad? Or did Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not fulfil Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala command notwithstanding their nifaq?
Verse 3: Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:
فَاِنْ رَّجَعَكَ اللّٰهُ اِلٰی طَآئِفَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ فَاسْتَاْذَنُوْكَ لِلْخُرُوْجِ فَقُلْ لَّنْ تَخْرُجُوْا مَعِیَ اَبَدًا وَّلَنْ تُقَاتِلُوْا مَعِیَ عَدُوًّاؕ اِنَّكُمْ رَضِیْتُمْ بِالْقُعُوْدِ اَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ فَاقْعُدُوْا مَعَ الْخٰلِفِیْنَ
If Allah should return you to a faction of them (after the expedition) and then they ask your permission to go out (to battle), say, “you will not go out with me, ever, and you will never fight with me an enemy. Indeed, you were satisfied with sitting (at home) the first time, so sit (now) with those who stay behind.”
After studying this verse, did Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam take along with him for jihad those people whom you call munafiqin or not? If you are unaware, turn back a few pages and have a good look at the couplets of Hamlah Haydariyyah regarding the Battle of Badr.
Verse 4: Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala states:
یَحْذَرُ الْمُنٰفِقُوْنَ اَنْ تُنَزَّلَ عَلَیْهِمْ سُوْرَةٌ تُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِمَا فِيْ قُلُوْبِهِمْؕ قُلِ اسْتَهْزِءُوْاۚ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ مُخْرِجٌ مَّا تَحْذَرُوْنَ
They hypocrites are apprehensive lest a surah be revealed about them, informing them of what is in their hearts. Say, “Mock (as you wish); indeed, Allah will expose that which you fear.”
Tell us whether Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ever exposed the nifaq of those you regard as munafiqin or not? And besides to Sayyidina Hudhayfah radiya Llahu ‘anhu to whom Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam whispered behind closed doors (as you Shia allege), did Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ever disclose their nifaq in a public gathering?
In short, there are plenty verses dealing with the munafiqin. It is not necessary to list them all here. It is sufficient for the Muslims to contemplate that if the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum were munafiqin, then why did Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam not disclose their nifaq? Why were the promises of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala not fulfilled of them being disgraced and killed? On the contrary, they were granted greater honour and status and overpowered the Roman Empire, Syria, Iran and Egypt. The beliefs of the Shia are corrupt! They neither conform to the Qur’an, nor to the hadith!
Some objections remain which the Shia raise against the three khalifas in particular and against the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum in general to prove their nifaq.
As well as other objections of this kind with which Dildar ‘Ali has blackened the pages of Dhu al Fiqar, etc. We will provide a satisfactory answer to these objections. We will not behave like Dildar ‘Ali who beats around the bush and evades the issue and then continues. Allah willing, all of these objections will be answered in the discussion of the allegations against the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum and Caliphate, seeing which the Shia will impulsively declare:
وَ قُلْ جَآءَ الْحَقُّ وَ زَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُؕ اِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ کَانَ زَهُوْقًا
And say, “truth has come, and falsehood has departed. Indeed is falsehood, (by nature), ever bound to depart.”
In conclusion, I have listed the verses in praise of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum and quoted what the Shia say, namely: “The verses in praise of the Muhajirin and Ansar refer to those people who were mu’minin whereas majority of the Sahaba, especially the three khalifas, had no iman.” I have discussed the aspect of having no iman i.e. it has two meanings:
فعليكم البيان و علينا دفعه بالبرهان
You task is to explain and our task is to falsify that with proof.
Only two aspects remain:
I will answer these objections in the discussion of Imamah and allegations in such detail without sparing any Shia proof or Sunni scholar’s answer. Meaning that I will mention all the objections and answers which are necessary not that I will quote every Shia and Sunni that ever lived in the world, which is impossible and futile. Nevertheless, I will write with such clarity that every reader can judge for himself and there will be no need to look at narrations at many places. Anyways, few of the answers the Shia generally give to the verses mentioning the virtues of the Sahaba radiya Llahu ‘anhum remain. I will quote them and refute them from the Qur’an and hadith.
فَاسْتَمِعُوْا لَه وَاَنْصِتُوْا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُوْنَ
Listen to it and pay attention that you may receive mercy.
 Surah al Towbah: 101
 Surah al Anfal: 68
 Surah Ibrahim: 36
 Surah Nuh: 26
 Surah al Kahf: 5
 Surah Ibrahim: 36
 Surah Nuh: 26
 Surah Najm: 3,4
 Surah Mulk: 3,4
 Surah Bani Israʾil: 14
 Surah Al ‘Imran: 159
 Surah al Shura: 38
 Dhu al Fiqar: pg. 64
 Surah Muhammad: 20
 Surah al Towbah: 20
 Surah Al ‘Imran: 155
 Surah al Ma’idah: 55
 Surah al Towbah: 40
 Surah al Shura: 15
 Surah Fatir: 8
 Surah al Anfal: 68
 Surah al Anfal: 67
 The Divine Tablet preserved in the heavens.
 Surah al Mumtahinah: 1
 Surah al Furqan: 70
 Surah al Towbah: 100
 Urdu translation of Majalis al Muʾminin pg. 120, 121
 Surah al Ambiyaʾ: 52
 Surah al Baqarah: 9
 Surah al Munafiqun: 4
 Surah Munafiqun: 1-8
 The commentary of ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim Qummi is one of the earliest commentaries of the Shia. According to the Shia, the author Abu al Hassan ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim al Qummi is the student of the eleventh Imam Hassan al ‘Askari. He is reckoned among the renowned Shia scholars of the third century. It is written concerning him in Fahrist Tusi:
على بن ابراهيم بن هاشم القمى ابو الحسن ثقة فى الحديث ثبت معتمد صحيح المذهب
‘Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim al Qummi Abu al Hassan is reliable in hadith, well-grounded, dependable and upon the correct path. (Fahrist Tusi Calcutta print pg. 209)
 Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Ya’qub ibn Ishaq al Kulayni al Razi. He was born in Kulayn, a village near Ray, Iran in the time of Imam Hassan al ‘Askari around 250 A.H. He was the student of ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim al Qummi and ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al Samarri — who is the last representative (of the hidden Imam), amongst others. Al Kafi which is considered the most comprehensive and reliable book of the four canonical works of the Shia religion was written by him. It is the belief of the Shia that the greatest speciality enjoyed by this book is that it was written in the era of the representatives of the Imam and has been authenticated by the (fictitious) twelfth Imam. He died during the reign of al Fadl Muti’ Allah in 329 A.H. (Sheikh Muhammad Firasat)
 Dhu al Fiqar pg. 64
 Surah al Towbah: 94-96
 Surah al Towbah: 73
 Surah al Towbah: 83
 Surah al Towbah: 64
 Surah Bani Israʾil: 81
 Surah al A’raf: 204