If those narrations the Shia narrate which mention the usurpation of Fadak and oppression upon Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha are regarded as authentic, it will tarnish the reputation of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Banu Hashim as far as their proverbial bravery, valour, and courage is concerned. One is utterly puzzled that they did not confront the oppressors and remained silent and bore watching all the atrocities like weaklings. The alleged atrocities afflicted upon Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha are not trivial. To remain silent and adopt tolerance upon them are not praiseworthy neither religiously, nor intellectually or morally. In fact, to confront the oppressors is among the obligations of din. If only Fadak was usurped or wealth was stolen, then sabr could be adopted. But when Sayyidah Fatimah was allegedly physically abused, Sayyidina Muhassin radiya Llahu ‘anhu was martyred, and Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha was abducted; it is never permissible to adopt sabr and remain silent in the face of such cruelties.
The Shia answer this in a few ways:
Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was forced to act in this way as this was the strict command of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala which he could not possibly oppose. The narration appears in Usul al Kafi of al Kulayni:
حدثنى موسى بن جعفر قال قلت لابى عبد الله اليس كان امير المؤمنين كاتب الوصية و رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم اطمعل عليه و جبريل و الملئكة المقربون عليه السلام شهود قال فاطرق طويلا ثم قال يا ابا الحسن قد كان ما قلت و لكن حين نزل برسول الله الامر نزلت الوصية من عند الله كتابا مسجلا انزل به جبريل مع امناء الله تبارك و تعالى من الملئكة فقال جبريل يا محمد باخراج من عندك الا وصيك يقبضها منا و تشهدنا بدفعك اياها اليه ضامنا لها يعنى عليا فامر النبى باخراج من كان فى البيت ما خلا عليا و فاطمة فيما بين السر و الباب فقال جبريل يا محمد ربك يقرئك السلام و يقول هذا كتاب ما كنت عهدت اليك و شرطت عليك و شهدت به عليك و اشهدت به عليك ملائكتى و كفى بى يا محمد شهيد قال فارتعدت مفاصيل النبى و قابل يا جبريل ربى هو السلام و منه السلام و اليه يعود السلام صدق عز و جل و بر هات الكتاب فدفعه اليه و امره بدفعه الى امير المؤمنين فقال له اقراه و قراه حرفا حرفا فقال يا على هذا عهد ربى تبارك و تعالى الى و شرحه الى و امانته و قد بلغت و نصحت و اديت فقال على و انا اشهد لك بابى انت و امى بالبلاغ و النصيحة و التصديق على ما قلت و يشهد لك به سمعى و بصرى و لحمى و دمى فقال جبريل و انا لكما على ذلك من الشاهدين فقال رسول الله يا على اخذت وصيتى و عرفتها و ضمنت لله و لى الوفاء بما فيها فقال على نعم بابى انت و امى على ضمانهما و على الله دعوتى و توفيقى على ادائها فقال رسول الله يا على انى اريد ان اشهد عليك بموافاتى بها يوم القيامة فقال على نعم اشهد فقال النبى ان جبريل و ميكائيل فيما بينى و بينك الان و هما حاضران معهما الملئكة المقربون لاشهدهم عليك فقال نعم ليشهدوا و انا بابى و امى اشهدهم فاشهدهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و كان فيما اشترط عليه النبى بامر جبريل فيما امر الله عز و جل ان قال له يا على تفى بما فيها من موالاة من والى الله و رسوله و البراءة و العداوة لمن عادى الله و رسوله و البراءة منهم على الصبر منك على كظم الغيظ و على ذهاب حقك و غضب خمسك و انتهاك حرمتك فقال نعم يا رسول الله فقال امير المؤمنين و الذى خلق الحبة و برا النسمة لقد سمعت جبريل يقول للنبى يا محمد عرفه انه ينتهك الحرمة و هى حرمة الله و حرمة رسوله صلى الله عليه و سلم و على ان تخضب لحيته من راسه بدم عبيط قال امير المؤمنين فصعقت حين فهمت الكلمة من الامين جبريل حتى سقطت على وجهى و قلت نعم قبلت و رضيت و ان انتهك الحرمة و عطلت السنن و مزق الكتاب و هدم الكعبة و خضبت لحيتى من راسى بدم عبيط صابرا محتسبا ابدا حتى اقدم عليك ثم دعى رسول الله فاطمة و الحسن و الحسين و اعلمهم مثل ما اعلم امير المؤمنين فقالوا مثل قوله فتختمت الوصية بخواتيم من ذهب لم يمسه النار و دفعت الى امير المؤمنين فقلت لابى الحسن بابى انت و امى لا تذكر ما كان فى الوصية فقال سنن الله و سنن رسوله فقلت اكان فى الوصية يوتيهم و خلافهم على امير المؤمنين فقال نعم و الله شيئا شيئا و حرفا اما سمعت قول الله عز و جل إِنَّا نَحْنُ نُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ وَنَكْتُبُ مَا قَدَّمُوا وَآثَارَهُمْ وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ أَحْصَيْنَاهُ فِي إِمَامٍ مُّبِينٍ لقد قال رسول الله لامير المؤمنين و فاطمة اليس قد فهمتنا ما قدمت به اليكما و قبلتماه فقالا بلى مقبولة و صبرنا على ما سائنا و غاظنا
Musa ibn Jafar has stated that he asked Abu ‘Abdullah, “Was not Amir al Mu’minin the writer of the bequest Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam dictated to him and were not Jibril and the close angels present as witness?”
Abu ‘Abdullah kept silent for a long while and then said, “O Abu al Hassan, it is as you have said. Moreover, when the command was revealed to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, a covenant from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala was revealed in a registered document brought by Jibril with the special angels of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Jibril said, ‘O Muhammad! Evacuate all those who are with you except your wasi, i.e. ‘Ali, who will take possession of this from us and we will be witness to handing it over to him with a solemn pledge.’
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam thus ordered everyone to leave besides ‘Ali. Fatimah was between the veil and the door.
Jibril said, ‘O Muhammad! Your Rabb conveys salam to you and He says that this is a document which He has not pledged upon you, nor made conditional upon you, nor made you witness over, nor made His angels witness over. In fact, He Himself is sufficient as witness O Muhammad.’
A shudder went through the joints of al Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and he responded, ‘O Jibril, my Rabb is al Salam and peace is from Him and peace returns to Him. Allah – the Majestic, Powerful and Beneficent – has spoken the truth. Bring me the document.’
Jibril handed it over to him and he ordered that it be handed over to Amir al Mu’minin. He commanded him, ‘Read it’ and he read it word for word.
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, ‘O ‘Ali, this is my Rabb’s – the Blessed and High – covenant to me, His commentary and His trust. I have conveyed it, been a well-wisher, and fulfilled the obligation.’
‘Ali said, ‘I testify that you have conveyed it and you are a well-wisher and have spoken the truth, may my parents be sacrificed for you. My hearing, sight, flesh and blood testifies to this for you.’
Jibril added, ‘I am also a witness with you over it.’
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then said, ‘‘Ali, you have taken my bequest and understood it and stood guarantee for Allah and for me to fulfil what is in it.’
‘Ali replied in the affirmative and commented, ‘May my parents be sacrificed for you for its guarantee. With Allah rests my supplication and capability to fulfil it.’
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, ‘‘Ali, I wish to bear witness to your fulfilment of it on the Day of Qiyamah.’
‘Ali replied in the affirmative.
Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, ‘Indeed I make Jibril and Mika’il who are present before us with all the close angels witness upon you.’
‘Ali said, ‘Yes. They should bear witness, may my parents be sacrificed for you, and I make them witness.’
Thus Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made them witness. Among the things that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam instructed him with the command received by Jibril from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala was that he said, ‘O ‘Ali! Fulfil the order which is in it to befriend those who befriend Allah and His Rasul and to dissociate and harbour enmity for those who are enemies of Allah and His Rasul. And that you will adopt sabr and withhold your anger when your rights are trampled, your fifth is usurped, and you are humiliated.’
‘Ali responded in the affirmative and declared, ‘By the Being who created Jannat and created the soul, I heard Jibril say to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to inform me that my honour will be tarnished and this is the honour of Allah and His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and that my beard will be soaked with blood oozing from my head.’
He continues, ‘I fell unconscious when I understood the words Jibril al Amin spoke and I fell down on my face. I said, ‘Yes, I accept and I am pleased even if I am humiliated, the sunan are discarded, the Kitab is ripped apart, the Ka’bah is destroyed and my beard is dyed with blood from my head. I will always bear patiently, hoping for rewards until I reach Him.’
Then Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam called Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain and told them what he told Amir al Mu’minin and they replied in a similar way. The document was signed with rings of gold which fire did not touch and it was handed over to Amir al Mu’minin.’”
Musa says that he asked Abu al Hassan, “May my parents be sacrificed for you. Will you not divulge what was in the document?”
He said, “Allah’s commands and His Rasul’s commands.”
Musa asked, “Was it recorded that the munafiqin will usurp the khilafah?”
He replied, “Yes, by Allah! Whatever happened was recorded therein. Have you not heard the words of Allah:
إِنَّا نَحْنُ نُحْيِي الْمَوْتىٰ وَنَكْتُبُ مَا قَدَّمُوْا وَآثَارَهُمْ وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ أَحْصَيْنَاهُ فِيْ إِمَامٍ مُّبِيْنٍ
Indeed, it is We who bring the dead to life and record what they have put forth and what they left behind, and all things We have enumerated in a clear register.”
Then Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked, “‘Ali and Fatimah! Have you understood what I explained to you and have you accepted and will you practice accordingly?”
They responded, “Yes indeed. We accept it and we will adopt sabr on whatever afflictions come our way.”
We would have accepted this answer had there been no contrary practice of Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma to it. However, we observe that on one side the Shia have elevated the sabr, silence, and tolerance of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to the highest level by this alleged sealed official document from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. And by this, they have answered all the ignorant objections the Sunni raise due to their lack of knowledge and stupidity, i.e. why did Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu tolerate such cruelty despite his bravery and valour and why did he choose silence after seeing such brutality upon Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. At the same time, they have narrated such incidents which clearly show the bravery, courage, and valour of the lion of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, which falsifies the alleged sealed official divine document. These contradictory narrations – like others – throw the readers into utter confusion.
One such narration is that after Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu removed Sayyidah Fatimah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha agent from Fadak and appointed Ashja’ who persecuted the populace, they came complaining to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He was so angry that he went to some acquaintances there, called Ashja’ and had him killed. It was on this occasion that he spoke to Sayyidina Khalid ibn al Walid radiya Llahu ‘anhu with such harshness that sent shudders down his spine after which the latter apologised and withdrew. On this occasion, he neither considered the khalifah nor feared a battle with Sayyidina Khalid radiya Llahu ‘anhu. On the contrary, he displayed his Hashimi strength, his Qurayshi fury, his bravery, and the courage of a lion to the extent that not only was Sayyidina Khalid afraid, even Sayyidina Abu Bakr and Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma were put in their place.
Another narration states that Sayyidina Abu Bakr commanded Sayyidina Khalid ibn al Walid to assassinate Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum when the latter is engaged in Salat al Fajr. However, during salah before making salam, he changed his mind and prevented Sayyidina Khalid radiya Llahu ‘anhu from the same postponing it to another time. When ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu completed his salah, he asked Sayyidina Khalid radiya Llahu ‘anhu as to whether he was going to fulfil the task appointed to him and the latter replied in the affirmative. Upon this, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu choked him with his two fingers with such force that his eyes almost popped out of their sockets. He released him after persuasion from the people. Sayyidina Khalid radiya Llahu ‘anhu however was looking for another chance to set things straight and kill Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. When he got the chance, the lion of Allah sorted him out and punished him severely. Details of this can be viewed in Bihar al Anwar and Irshad al Qulub. Since the readers will only be satisfied after reading the entire incident, I will quote it verbatim.
Mulla Baqir al Majlisi writes in Kitab al Fitan:
Abu Bakr sent an army with Khalid on a mission. Everyone left Madinah and were on its outskirts. Khalid was wearing armour and surrounded by brave men who were given orders to obey his every command. Khalid spotted ‘Ali returning all alone from his cultivated land without any weapons. When he came close, Khalid had a steal lance in his hand which he picked up with the intention of striking ‘Ali on the head. The latter however snatched the lance and twisted it around the neck of the former like a necklace. After this, Khalid returned to Abu Bakr. People tried to break it but all their attempts failed. Thereafter, blacksmiths were called. They all explained that it is impossible to take it out except by melting it with fire and there is a fear that he might lose his life. People now realised that none other than ‘Ali can save him as he put it around his neck. Allah softened steal in his hand as He had done for Dawood ‘alayh al Salam. Abu Bakr was forced to intercede to ‘Ali who then removed the lance by breaking it piece by piece.
The narration of Irshad al Qulub is as follows:
Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah Ansari and ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas narrate that they were sitting with Abu Bakr during his khilafah. It was broad daylight when suddenly Khalid ibn al Walid appeared with an army. Clouds of dust rose high and the horses of the army were neighing. A millstone was wrapped around the neck of Khalid. As soon as he came close, he alighted from his horse, entered the Masjid, and stood before Abu Bakr. People began staring at him and there was a look of extreme fear on his face. Khalid submitted, “O son of Abu Quhafah! Be just. Allah put you in such a position which you are not worthy of. You have risen to this position just as a fish rises to the top of water. It only rises when it has no life left in it to move.”
Khalid after narrating his return from Ta’if and his meeting with ‘Ali said, “‘Ali caught my neck with his hands and brought me down from my horse. He then dragged me and called for the mill of Harith ibn Kulah Thaqafi. He took the millstone and wrapped it around my neck as he pulled my neck. It was wrapped like hot pieces of iron. All my comrades just stood and watched and could not do anything. May Allah punish them! They look at ‘Ali as if he is the Angel of Death. I swear by the Being who raised the skies without any pillars, that more than 100 strong Arab men gathered to remove the millstone but were unsuccessful. Their unsuccessfulness proved that either he practiced black magic or he possesses the power of the angels.”
Abu Bakr called ‘Umar and then Qais ibn ‘Ubadah al Ansari to remove the millstone but they could not. Khalid remained in this condition with the millstone wrapped around his neck. After a few days, he returned to Abu Bakr and submitted, “‘Ali has returned now from his journey. Perspiration is dripping from his forehead and his face is red.”
Hearing this, Abu Bakr sent Aqra’ ibn Suraqah and Ashwash ibn Ashja’ to call ‘Ali to the Masjid. They went and conveyed the message to ‘Ali explaining to him that Abu Bakr is calling him for some matter which has worried him and desires that he comes to al Masjid al Nabawi. ‘Ali did not respond. They said, “You are not going to respond to what we came for?”
‘Ali said, “Your method is wrong. A traveller first goes to his house, then meets with others.”
Anyways, they returned from ‘Ali. Abu Bakr with a group of people including Khalid then proceeded to the house of ‘Ali. Seeing him ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu commented, “Abu Sulaiman! What a beautiful necklace you have on your neck!”
They then began reviling one another. Abu Bakr said, “We have not come for this. We are requesting you to remove the millstone from Khalid’s neck since it is harmful for him and it has left marks on his throat. You have cooled the burning sensation in your chest.”
‘Ali retorted, “Had I willed to cool the burning sensation in my chest, the sword had the complete cure. I cannot break the millstone around his neck. He should do it himself or you should assist him.”
Anyways, Buraydah, ‘Amir ibn Ashja’ and ‘Ammarah begged him but to no avail. Finally, Abu Bakr said, “For Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and for the sake of your brother Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, have mercy on Khalid and remove the millstone.”
When Abu Bakr begged in this way, ‘Ali felt ashamed since he possessed a lot of shame. He then pulled Khalid to himself, broke a piece of the millstone and began wrapping the rest around his hand like wax. He hit Khalid on the head with the first piece and with the second piece. At this Khalid begged, “O Amir al Mu’minin!”
‘Ali said, “You said this word out of force. Had you not said it, I would have sliced you into two with the third piece.”
He continued breaking the millstone until it was completely removed. All those present began shouting Allahu Akbar and La ilaha illa Allah and were amazed at his tremendous strength.
There is another instance when Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu – the conqueror, the one sought by every seeker, the leader of the righteous, killer of the delinquent and lion of Allah – acted contrary to the covenant and displayed his Hashimi power and his Qurayshi strength. He even unsheathed his sword and was prepared to kill. This happened when Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu removed the gutter from Sayyidina ‘Abbas’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu house.
The narration appears in ‘Imad al Islam:
فلما كان بعد ايام دخل عليه العباس فقال يا رسول الله قد علمت ما بينى و بينك من القرابة و الراخم الماسة و انا ممن يدين الله بطاعتك فاسال الله تعالى ان جعل لى بابا الى المسجد اشرف به على من سواى فقال صلى الله عليه و سلم يا عم ليس لى الى ذلك سبيل قال فميزابا يكون من دارى الى المسجد اشرف به الى القريب و البعيد فسكت النبى صلى الله عليه و سلم و كان كثير الحياء لا يذرى ما يعيد من الجواب خوف من الله تعالى و حياء من عمه فحبط جبريل فى اطال على النبى و قد علم الله نبيه ما فى نفسه من ذلك فقال يا محمد ان الله يامرك ان تجيب سوال عمك و امرك ان تنصب له ميزابا الى المسجد كما اراد فقد علمت ما فى نفسك و قد اجبت الى ذلك كرامة لك و نعمة منى عليك و على عمك العباس فكبر النبى صلى الله عليه و سلم و قال ابى الله الا كرامتكم يا بنى هاشم و تفضلكم على الخلق اجمعين ثم قام و معه جماعة من الصحابة و العباس بين يديه حتى صار على سطح بيت العباس فنصب له ميزابا الى المسجد و قال معاشر المسلمين ان الله قد شرف عمى العباس بهذا الميزاب فلا تؤذوننى فى عمى فانه بقية الاباء و الاجداد فلعن الله من اذانى فى عمى او بخسه حقه او عان عليه و لم يزل الميزاب على مدة ايام النبى صلى الله عليه و سلم و خلافة ابى بكر و ثلاث سنين من خلافة عمر بن الخطاب فلما كان فى بعض الايام و عمك العباس مرض مرضا شديدا و صعدت الجارية تغسل قميصه فجرا الماء من الميزاب الى صحن المسجد فانال بعض الماء ثوبه مرقعته الرجل فغضب غضبا شديدا و قال لغلامه اصعد و اقلع الميزاب فصعد الغلام فقلعه و رمى به الى سطح العباس و قال و الله لئن رده احدا الى مكانه لاضربن عنقه فشق ذلك على العباس و دعى بولديه عبد الله و عبيد الله و نهض يمشى متوكيا عليهما و هو يرتعد من شدة المرض و سار حتى دخل على امير المؤمنين فلما نظر اليه امير المؤمنين انزبح لذلك و قال يا عم ما جاء بك و انت على هذه الحالة فقص عليه القصة و ما فعل معه عمر من قلع الميزاب و تهدده لمن يعيده الى مكانه و قال له يا ابن اخى انه قد كان لى عينان انظر بهما فمضت احديهما و هى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و بقيت الاخرى و هى انت يا على و ما انى اظن اظلم و يزول ما شرفنى به رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و انت لى فانظر فى امرى فقال يا عم ارجع الى بيتك فترى ما يسرك الله ان شاء الله تعالى ثم نادى يا قنبر على بذى الفقار فتقلده هم خرج الى المسجد و الناس حوله و قال يا قيبر اصعد و رد الميزاب الى مكانه فصعد قنبر و رده الى موضعه و قال على و حق صاحب هذا القبر و المنبر لئن قلعه قالع لاضربن عنقه و عنق الامر له بذلك و لاصلبنها فى الشمس حتى ينفذوا فبلغ ذلك عمر بن الخطاب فنهض و دخل المسجد و نظر الى الميزاب و هو فى موضعه فقال لا يغضب احد بالحسن فيما فعله و تكفر عنه عن اليمين فلما كان من الغداة مضى على بن ابى طالب الى عمه العباس فقال له كيف اصبحت يا عم قال بالفضل النعم ما ومت لى يابن اخى فقال له يا عم طب نفسك و قر عينا فوالله لو خاضمنى اهل الارض فى الميزاب لخصمتهم ثم لقتلتهم بحول الله و قوته لا ينالك ضيم و لا غم فقام العباس فقبل بين عينيه و قال يابن اخى ما خاب من انت ناصره فكان هذا فعل عمر بالعباس عم رسول الله و قد قال فى غير موطن وصية منه فى عمه ان عمى العباس بقية الاباء و الاجداد فاحفظونى فيه كل فى كنفى و انا فى كنف عمى العباس فمن اذاه فقد اذانى و من عاداه فقد عادانى فسلمه سلمى و حربه حربى و قد اذاه عمر فى ثلث مواطن ظاهرة غير خفية منها قصة الميزاب و لولا خوفه من على عليه السلام لم يتركه على حاله
After a few days, ‘Abbas entered and requested, “O Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam! You are well aware of the pleasant relation we share. I am one of those who follow the din of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala coupled with obedience to you. Ask Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to make me a door leading to the Masjid by virtue of which I will have more honour than those besides me.”
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “I do not have the ability to do so.”
‘Abbas said, “Then at least a gutter from my house to the Masjid by virtue of which I will have honour over all.”
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam remained silent. He possessed a lot of modesty. He was not quick to answer out of fear for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and modesty for his uncle.”
Jibril descended upon Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Allah was aware of what was in His Nabi’s heart. Jibril said, “O Muhammad! Allah commands you to accede to the request of your uncle and orders you to erect a gutter for him to the Masjid as he wants. He knows what is in your heart and He has consented to the request out of honour for you and as a favour upon you and your uncle ‘Abbas.”
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam recited takbir and commented, “Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala intends nothing but to honour you, O Banu Hashim, and give you superiority over the entire creation.”
He then stood up with a group of Sahabah while ‘Abbas walked ahead of him. He climbed the roof of ‘Abbas’s house and fitted a gutter to the Masjid. He then said, “O group of Muslims! Indeed Allah has honoured my uncle ‘Abbas with this gutter. Therefore, do not harm me as far as my uncle is concerned for his is the last of my forefathers. May Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala curse the one who hurts me with regards to my uncle, usurps his rights, or harms him.”
The gutter remained in this position for the remainder of the life of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the khilafah of Abu Bakr, and three years of the khilafah of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab. One day, his uncle ‘Abbas fell extremely ill. The slave girl ascended the roof and washed his shirt. The water passed through the gutter into the courtyard of the Masjid and some of the water fell on ‘Umar’s clothes. ‘Umar was infuriated at this and ordered his slave to climb up and remove the gutter. The slave complied and threw the gutter onto ‘Abbas’s roof. ‘Umar then warned, “If anyone fits it again, I will cut his neck off.”
‘Abbas was extremely hurt by this. He called his sons ‘Abdullah and ‘Ubaidullah and walked taking support on their shoulders. He was shivering due to his severe sickness. They walked until he reached Amir al Mu’minin. When the latter saw him, he was deeply hurt and asked, “O uncle, what has brought you in this condition?”
‘Abbas narrated the entire incident; how ‘Umar removed the gutter and threatened regarding refitting it. He then submitted, “O nephew, I had two eyes with which I used to see. One has gone, i.e. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and the other still remains, i.e. you O ‘Ali. I never thought that I will be oppressed and the honour Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam awarded me will be taken away while you are alive. Look into this matter of mine.”
‘Ali said, “O uncle, go home. You will see how Allah will please you in sha Allah. He then called out, “O Qambar! Bring me Dhu al Fiqar.”
He then girded it and left for the Masjid with people surrounding him. He ordered, “O Qambar, climb and fit the gutter at its place.”
Accordingly, Qambar climbed and fitted it at its place. ‘Ali then declared, “By the right of the inmate of this grave and the owner of this pulpit, if anyone removes it, I will smite his neck and the one who ordered him to do it, and then I will crucify them in the sun until they rot. The news reached ‘Umar who got up and entered the Masjid. He saw that the gutter was at its place and thus exclaimed, “No one should anger Abu al Hassan in what he did.”
He then paid the expiation of his oath. The next day, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib went to his uncle ‘Abbas and asked him, “How are you doing, O uncle?”
He replied, “Enjoying the greatest of pleasures as long as you live, O my nephew.”
‘Ali said, “O uncle, may your heart be at rest and may your eyes be cooled. By Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, if the entire earth had to combat me with regards to the gutter, I would have fought them and then killed them. By the strength and power of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, no sorrow or grief will afflict you.”
‘Abbas stood up and kissed him on his forehead saying, “O my nephew, whoever you help will never be unsuccessful.” This is what ‘Umar did to ‘Abbas – the uncle of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has mentioned ‘Abbas in many of his bequests. He said, “Indeed my uncle ‘Abbas is the remnant of my forefathers so consider me when dealing with him. Everyone is at my assistance and I am at my uncle ‘Abbas’s assistance. The one who harms him has indeed harmed me. The one who harbours hatred for him in fact harbours hatred for me. I give amnesty to whom he gives amnesty and I wage war against whom he wages war.” ‘Umar openly harmed him at three occasions. One of them is the gutter incident. Had it not been his fear for ‘Ali, he would not have spared him.
There is yet another narration which mentions Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu planning to fight and kill.
بامداداں ابو بکر و عمر و گروہے از مہاجر و انصار بر در سراۓ علی حاضر شدند تا بر فاطمہ نماز گزارند مقداد بن اسود گفت فاطمہ رادوش باخاک سپردند عمر روۓ بابو بکر آورد الم اقل لک انہم سیفعلون ذلک گفت نگفتم چنیں خواہند کرد عباس گفت فاطمہ وصیت کرد کہ شما بروۓ نماز نہ گزارید فقال عمر لا تترکون یا بنی ہاشم حسدکم القدیم لنا ابدا ان ہذہ الضغائن التی فی صدورکم ان تذہب و اللہ لقد ہممت ان ابنشہا فاصلی علیہا فقال علی و اللہ لو رمت ذلک یابن صہاک لارجعت الیک یمینک لئن سللت سیفی لا اغمدہ دون ازہاق نفسک عمر گفت اے بنی ہاشم ای حقد حسد دیرینہ کہ از مادر خاطر دارید ہر گز ترک نخواہید کرد و ایں کبد و کینہ کہ در سینہ نہفتہ دارید ہیچ گاہ بیروں نخواہید گذاشت سو گند باخداۓ اگر بخواہم اورا از قبر بر آرام و بروے نماز گزارم علی گفت اے پسر صہاک سو گند باخداۓ اگر ایں قصد کنی دست راست تو با تو بازنہ گردد چہ اگر شمشیر برانگیزم تا خون تو نریزم جاۓ جر غلاف ندہم عمر دانست کہ علی سو گند خویش را راست کنددم فروبست در خبر است کہ مہاجر و انصار در بقیع غرقد انجمن شدند و چہل قبر یافتند کہ ہمگان ہمائند بودند و قبر فاطمہ شناختہ نمی شد از مرد ماں نالہ و نحیب بر آمد و یک دیگر را مورد ملامت ساختند و بسرزنش و شناعت گرفتند و گفتند پیغمبر شما جز دخترے مخلف نگذاشت و او بمرد و مدفون گشت و حاضر نشدید و نماز بروے نگذاشتید و قبر اورا نشنا ختید چہ بے حمیت مردم کہ شمائید بعضے از بزرگان قوم گفتند زنان مسلمین حاضر ندایں قبور را بنش می کںد چند کہ فاطمہ را دریا بند انگاہ بروے نماز می کنیم و دیگر باوبخاک سپاریم و قبر اوشناختہ میگردد ایں خبر با امیر المومنین بردند آنحضرت چوں شیر خشمناک از خانہ بیروں شد چشمہاۓ مبارکش گونہ طیر خوں دہاشت در گہاۓ و در جشن و آگندہ از خون بود و جامہ اصغر کہ خاص روز مقاتلہ و یوم کریہ بوددر برداشت با حمائل ذو الفقار طی طریق می فرمودند تادر بقیع در آمد مردماں یک دیگر راہمی آنہا نمودند کہ اینک علی بن ابی طالب ست کہ بایں صفت می نگرید درمی رسد و سو گند یادمی کند کہ اگر کسے ایں قبور سنگی را جنبش می دہد ایں جماعت را تا بر آخر با تیغ در می گزرانم ایں وقت عمر با گروہے آنحضرت رادیدار کرد و قال لہ مالک یا ابا الحسن و اللہ انبش قبرہا و نصلین علیہا فضرب علی بیدہ الی جوامع ثوبہ فہزہ ثم ضرب بہ الارض و قال لہ یا بن اسودا ما حقی فقد ترکتہ مخافۃ ان یرتد الناس عن دینہم و اما قبر فاطمۃ فو الذی نفس علی بیدہ لئن رمت و اصحابک بشیء من ذلک لاسقینا الارض من دماءکم فان شئت فاعرض یا عمر فتلقاہ ابو بکر فقال یا ابا الحسن بحق رسول اللہ و بحق من فوق العرش الا خبلت عنہ فانا غیر فاعلین شیئا تکرہہ
When Fatimah passed away, ‘Ali buried her at night. The next morning, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar accompanied by some Muhajirin and Ansar came to ‘Ali’s house in order to perform Salat al Janazah. Miqdad ibn Aswad said that she was buried the night before. ‘Umar turned to Abu Bakr and commented, “Did I not tell you that they were going to do so?”
‘Abbas said that it was Fatimah’s bequest that they do not perform her Salat al Janazah. ‘Umar complained, “O Banu Hashim! You do not abandon your old malice. By Allah, if we want, we will exhume her body and perform Salat al Janazah upon her.”
Hearing this, the lion of Allah went into a rage and warned, “O son of Dahhak! By Allah, if you intend so, then you will cease to exist because if I have to unsheathe my sword, I will not sheathe it until I spill all your blood.” ‘Umar knowing fully well that ‘Ali will fulfil his oath remained silent.
The same incident is written in these words:
After Fatimah was buried, the Muhajirin and Ansar went to Baqi’. They found 40 graves which looked alike but could not make out the grave of Fatimah. Some said, “We will dig up all the graves, exhume the body of Fatimah, and perform Salat al Janazah upon her.”
When ‘Ali received this news, he left his house in a fit of rage – his eyes were blood-shot red and the veins of his neck were popping out. He came to Baqi’ wearing a yellow garb which he wore during battles with Dhu al Fiqar in hand. The people stared at him and commented, “Do you not see with what fury and wrath he is approaching. He has taken an oath that if anyone removes even one stone from the grave, he will kill the entire group.”
When ‘Umar and some others came before him, ‘Umar said, “O Abu al Hassan, what has happened to you? We will definitely exhume the body of Fatimah and perform her Salat al Janazah.”
Hearing this, he caught hold of ‘Umar’s clothes and shook him severely and threw him onto the ground saying, “O son of the black slave girl! You usurped my right of khilafah but I remained silent out of fear that people will turn renegade and abandon din. But I take an oath in the Being in whose hands ‘Ali’s life lies, if you intend to dig up the grave of Fatimah, I will water the earth with your blood. If you wish, advance and touch the grave.”
Upon this Abu Bakr advanced and took an oath saying, “O Abu al Hassan, I give you the oath of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Creator of the ‘Arsh, leave ‘Umar! We will not do a thing displeasing to you.”
‘Ali let go of him. All the people left and ‘Ali returned home.
Although these narrations are in harmony with the bravery, valour, courage, and pluck of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu but at the same time falsify the divine document fallacy. The promise and covenant given by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in the presence of Sayyidina Jibril, Mika’il, and the close angels that he will adopt sabr even though his honour is violated, he is humiliated, and the Ka’bah is destroyed has been breached. On one side, he displays tolerance – which is beyond human capacity – in such situations when it is religiously, intellectually, and morally obligatory to vent one’s anger and on the other hand, in situations which are not that drastic he displays his bravery, courage, and daring to the extent that the earth and skies shudder and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum are left shivering. In fact, such anger and wrath is displayed that he unsheathes Dhu al Fiqar and is prepared to kill.
These contradictory narrations about Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu found in Shia sources are beyond human comprehension. In fact, it seems as these are the mysteries of Imamah which cannot be understood by the angels and the great Prophets, so how can other people possible fathom it! The only thing we understand is that all these narrations are baseless and have been fabricated to suit the occasion. They are nothing more than fairy-tales. If one uses his brains just a little, he will understand that such incidents are improbable as far as the splendour of Allah, His Rasul, and the Imams are concerned. It is unimaginable that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala – who commanded Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to convey the pristine message and who ordered the usage of the sword to protect and uphold Islam and the Muslims – emphasises upon the khilafah, wasi of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the father of the Imams, the lion of Allah not to oppose the Khulafa’ and to remain absolutely silent despite their oppression and tyranny and even though the family of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are humiliated, the Ka’bah is destroyed, and the Qur’an is desecrated.
Firstly, this alleged covenant has no connection at all with the fundamentals of Islam, Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala general system, Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam methodology, and the objective of Imamah. In fact, it is in stark conflict to the above. If hypothetically we believe that this covenant or bequest is true and it was sent with such splendour and honour then it is surprising that it was confined to the usurpation of Fadak and the khilafah and was not upheld at other junctions. The splendour that surrounded it was that:
When such emphasis was laid upon it, then it is surprising that it was confined to the usurpation of Fadak and the khilafah and was not upheld at other junctions. This covenant was so strict that there was no permission to get angry and there was a prohibition from making a hue and cry over the severest of atrocities. Notwithstanding this, with what ease and pride they narrate incidents of its violation. In trivial matters, Amir al Mu’minin not only vented his anger but unsheathed Dhu al Fiqar and was prepared to use it and did not give two hoots about the covenant to which the angels of the heavens bore witness.
Remorse and shame on such narrations which are fabricated to suit the occasion. Their only benefit is to turn the creed into a laughing stock and to level allegations against Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Their contradictory nature alone is sufficient to prove their fallaciousness. There is no need to rebut them or falsify them further.
Furthermore, it is unfathomable as to how the contents of this covenant got divulged. How did the narrators come to know the contents which were mentioned above? To divulge its contents, was breach of trust hence it is improbable to think that the Imams disclosed it. It is learnt from the narrations that this covenant was a secret which was not to be disclosed, hence the extensive arrangement of angels accompanying it for its protection. Firstly it was written by none other than Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Secondly, it was sealed. And although there was no need for it to be sealed since Sayyidina Jibril and the other angels brought it and there was no fear of its contents being disclosed, yet for extra precaution it was sealed with a seal from Jannat. Thirdly, when Sayyidina Jibril ‘alayh al Salam entered, he ordered that everyone be evicted and the divine command was that none besides Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu should stay. Yes, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was seated behind the veil and at the end the covenant was taken from her. When such drastic measures were taken surrounding this covenant, then who disclosed its contents and how did it reach the Shia? No one can ever imagine Sayyidina ‘Ali, Sayyidah Fatimah or Sayyidina Hassanayn radiya Llahu ‘anhum disclosing such a secret covenant. After them, this document remained in the hands of the Imams who were also commanded to conceal it. Why would Imam Musa al Kazim rahimahu Llah or Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah breach the trust or disclose it to anyone even if he be among their close disciples?
This narration is very mysterious and strange. Every angle of it is mystifying and every aspect of it is puzzling.
We have learnt how Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu practised upon this covenant. Now let us see the practice of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha who was also commanded with the same. It is recorded in al Kafi that ‘Abdullah ibn Muhammad al Ju’fi reports from Imam al Baqir rahimahu Llah and Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah:
What transpired, transpired. Fatimah then caught hold of ‘Umar’s collar and pulled him to herself and exclaimed,
يا ابن الخطاب لولا انى اكره ان يصيب البلاء لا ذنب له لعلمت انى ساقسم على الله ثم اجده سريعة الاجابة
O Ibn al Khattab! Had I not wanted that the sinless will fall into difficulty, I know very well that if I supplicate to Allah, He will immediately accept my supplication.
We learn from this narration that only due to the fact that the sinless will fall into difficulty, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha did not curse. However, she did not remain firm on the level of sabr. To catch hold of a non-mahram’s collar and to pull him is far-fetched from her modesty. It is for this reason that we can classify this narration as a fabrication.
Another narration mentions something more unreal. It says that Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha caught the hands of Sayyidina Hassanayn radiya Llahu ‘anhum and went to the blessed grave to implore. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu told Sayyidina Salman radiya Llahu ‘anhu to go and stop the daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for he sees that the walls of Madinah were shaking. He explained, “If she opens her hair and tears her dress and implores at Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam grave, then immediately Madinah with its residents will sink into the earth and no one will be given respite.” Sayyidina Salman radiya Llahu ‘anhu rushed and told her that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu orders her to return and to adopt sabr and not to be the means of punishment for the ummah. Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha submitted, “If he said so, then I will return and adopt sabr.”
Another narration from Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah is that when Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anhum intended to open her hair, then Sayyidina Salman radiya Llahu ‘anhu recalls, “I was present by her. By Allah, I saw the foundations of the walls of the Masjid being uprooted and they were lifted so high that a man could pass underneath. I rushed to her and said, ‘My master! Allah sent your honourable father as a mercy to the entire world. Do not be a means for punishment to descend.’ Upon this, Sayyidah Fatimah left the Masjid and the walls returned to their places. The dust from the walls filled up in my nose.”
From here we learn that Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha did not adopt sabr and did not remember the covenant nor upheld it. She only withheld out of mercy for the people, or due to Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu command or Sayyidina Salman’s radiya Llahu ‘anha request and did not supplicate for the destruction and chastisement of the people. Had the covenant document narration being authentic, she would have adopted sabr and not have made such an intention or she would have stepped back after remembering the covenant, nor for other reasons.
چوں آنجضرت راد ستیاری و پامردی نبود دل بر صبر نہاد و محزون و مظلوم بہ نشست یک روز چناں افتاد کہ فاطمہ از تقاعد امیر المومنین و در طلب حق خویش اظہار زجرتے می فرمود گاہ بانک اذان بالا گرفت و مؤذن گفت اشہد ان محمدا رسول اللہ فقال لہا ایسرک زوال ہذا النداء من الارض قالت لا قال فانہ لا اقول لک چوں بانک اذان فرار سید و نام رسول خدا گوش زد فاطمہ گشت علی فرمود دوست داری کہ ایں نام از زبانہا مہجور افتد عرض کرد دوست ندارم فرمود من بیم دارم کہ چوں دست بشمشیر کنم یکبارہ مرد ماں مشرک شوند
Other narrations explain that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu adopted sabr on seeing the tyranny of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and remained oppressed and grieved. However, Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was unhappy and angered at his silence and not demanding his right. One day, it so happened that Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha was complaining to him about her sorrow when the mu’adhin called out the adhan. When they heard the words:
اشهد ان محمدا رسول الله
I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.
Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu addressed Fatimah saying:
ايسرك زوال هذا النداء من الارض قالت لا
“Do you want this call to cease on earth?” She replied in the negative.
He explained, “If I fight for my rights, there is a fear that everyone will turn mushrik at once.”
Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Khutbah Shaqshaqiyyah totally debunks the covenant narration. This is the khutbah the Shia consider to be equal to the glorious Qur’an and consider doubting it equivalent to doubting the Qur’an. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu declares:
اما و الله لقد تقمصها فلان و انه ليعلم ان محلى منها محل القطب من الرحى ينحدر عن السيل و لا يرقى الى الطير فسدلت دونها ثوبا و طويت عنها كشحا و طفقت ان ارتئى بين ان اصول بيد جذاء و اصبر على طخية عمياء يهرم فيها الكبير و يشيب فيها الصغير و يكدح فيها مؤمن حتى يلقى ربه فرايت ان الصبر على هاتا احجى فصبرت و فى العين قذى و فى الحلق شجى
Hark! By Allah, so and so has taken the reigns of khilafah knowing fully well that the foundation of the structure of khilafah rests on me. All knowledge, wisdom, plans, and ideas descend upon me like water flowing from a high mountain. No one can reach my perfections. I neither stretched a hand to it nor contemplated it. I pondered thoroughly over it and knew I had one of two choices. Either I fight single handed or adopt sabr. Adopting sabr in this dark situation wherein matters of the khilafah are becoming obscure and people are falling into the abyss of deviation like blind men to such a time that men will turn white and babies will become old and believers will go through difficulties and hardships until they meet their Lord. When I pondered over these matters, I realised that to adopt sabr in this difficulty and hardship is more appropriate. Hence, I persevered but there is dirt in my eyes and something stuck in my throat.
‘Allamah Fath Allah writes the translation and commentary of these lines in the following words in Sharh Farsi Nahj al Balaghah:
پس فرو گذاشتم نزد آں خلافت جامہ صبر را و دست از طلب آں باز داشتم و در نور دیدم ازاں تہی گاہ را و بیک جانب شدم یعنی اعراض نمودم ازاں و اصلا التفات بجانب او نکردم و در ایستادم بفکر کردن در امر خود و جولان دادن فکر میان آنکہ حملہ آرام بدست بریدہ ایں کنایہ ست از عدم معاون و ناصر چہ در ملازمت او بیش ازد و ازدہ کس نبودند یا صبر نمایم و شکیبائی پیشہ کنم بر ظلمتے کہ متصف بصفت کوری ست و ایں کنایہ ست از شدت التباس در امور خلافت کہ خلق بآں مہتدی نمیشوند بحق وا بواسطہ آں دروادی ضلالت می افتند مثل کوری کہ بآں راہ نبرند و در چاہ ہلاکت افتند و آں چناں ظلمتے کہ بہ نہایت پیری میر سد در آں بزرگ سال و بحال پیری میر سد در آں خورد سال بسپ عدم انتظام امور معاش و تعب و رنج میکشند در آں مومن بجہت سعی و اجتہاد در حصول حق و دفع فساد نمیر سد بآں تا برسد بہ پروردگار خود و چوں حال بریں منوال بود پس دیدم کہ صبر کردن دریں شدت ظلمت اقرب ست بعقل و اولی و الیق ست بآں بسپ انتظام اسلام بواسطہ عدم معاون و کثرت معاند پس صبر کردم و ترک منازعت و محاربہ نمودم در حالتے کہ در چشم من خاشاک بود و غبار ازاں ایذامی یافتم و متاذی می شدم و در گلوا ستخواں گرفتہ بود کہ ازاں منغض بود عیش من ایں ہر دو فقرہ کنایت انداز شدت غصہ و غم و مرارت صبر و الم
“I wore the garb of sabr concerning the first khilafah and did not claim anything. I did not turn my attention towards it and sat quietly on one side. I pondered; should I attack with a broken hand whereas I have no support or assistance.” At that time, there were no more than 12 persons to support him.
“Or should I bear patiently in darkness upon darkness.” This is metaphorical to a condition that I should rather tolerate in this dark condition than fight.
“A condition in which the matters of khilafah have become obscure and the creation will not be guided by them but will rather fall into the abyss of deviation and destruction. This era of darkness seems to last so long that due to the economic instability and ill management, the young will become old and the children will become adults. A believer will work hard to remove the corruption and acquire his right until he will pass away unsuccessful. In such a situation, it felt more appropriate to adopt sabr as this is more intelligent. In this way, I will be able to keep Islam stable. The situation is that friends are little while foes abound. Hence, I bore patiently and did not fight notwithstanding the fact that these matters are troubling my conscious and destroying my life.” These sentences are metaphorical to describe the intense emotions of grief, anger, sabr and sorrow.
Ibn Maytham al Bahrani writes in the commentary of the words I pondered thoroughly over it:
His purport is: I found two contradicting options with regards to the khilafah, viz. either I fight those who usurped the Imamah or I abandon it. I saw a great threat in both these options since to fight with a severed hand, i.e. without any support or assistance, is not permissible because not only will I harm myself but it causes disorder among the Muslims. And by abandoning it, there will be no differentiation between truth and falsehood. Seeing disorder is very hurtful. He then voiced his choice by choosing the latter, i.e. abandoning Imamah and adopting sabr and said, “I deemed perseverance as the better option understanding it to be better for the order of the Muslims so that din remains established and its principles and fundamentals continue to be upheld and stability remains – which is the objective of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Had there been fighting then disorder will spread in the ranks of the Muslims and anarchy and chaos will increase since love for Islam has not yet been imbedded in the hearts of the majority and they have not yet tasted the sweetness of Islam whereas the hypocrites, enemies and mushrikin are in the ranks of the Muslims and in every corner in the world with their full force and might.”
Although he witnessed the prevalent condition, it was impossible for him to stand up to fight for Imamah. Adopting patience was the better option although it was also contrary to his objective and would cause deficiency in din according to his thinking. Had he stood up for Imamah then din would be established in totality. However this harm was less than the harm caused by him fighting for and demanding Imamah. Thus, he chose the lesser of the two evils.
Just these words which Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu mentioned in the khutbah is sufficient to utterly debunk the narration of the covenant and bequest. He did not withhold from fighting because he was bequeathed to do so and there was no divine instruction regarding the matter of khilafah. He says clearly in his khutbah that he pondered deeply over both the options and weighed the cons of both. He found not fighting to be easier and saw the destruction of din in fighting. Hence, he chose the lesser of the two evils. He reached this decision solely out of his own accord. Just as an unselfish, intelligent and far-sighted person who has a pure temperament and the benefit of people at heart, looks at both options and chooses the easier one, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu chose not to fight. Had there been a Command from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and a special bequest from Him, then there was no need nor was it permissible for him to use his intellect. One’s intellect has no say in front of the Command of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Therefore, by means of this khutbah – which the Shia believe to be the most authentic speech of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and do not doubt any word or letter of it – the narration of the covenant or bequest is utterly debunked. In fact, it proves that although by him becoming the khalifah the structure of din would find greater stability, nonetheless the structure of din remained erect by others becoming Khulafa’, people remained steadfast as Muslims, and the strength of the hypocrites, mushrikin, and enemies had no effect on Islam.
The second reason presented for Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu not fighting and bearing every type of hardship and cruelty is that he had no supporters and helpers. No matter how brave, courageous, and daring people were, no one was prepared to assist him. He could not do anything alone. Had his supporters amounted to the participants of Badr, he would have definitely fought. The reason why he had no supporters was that as soon as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away, all the Muhajirin, Ansar, and the rest of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum turned murtad. Mulla Baqir Majlisi has written this narration in Bihar al Anwar with reference to Rijal al Kashshi from Imam Muhammad al Baqir rahimahu Llah:
Everyone turned renegade after Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam demise besides three persons viz. Miqdad ibn al Aswad, Abu Dhar al Ghifari, and Salman al Farsi.”
The name of Sayyidina ‘Ammar ibn Yasir radiya Llahu ‘anhu does not feature here. However, his name has been excluded from the renegades in another narration.
Abu Bakr al Jafri has reported that Imam Muhammad al Baqir rahimahu Llah has stated: “Besides three persons: Salman, Abu Dhar, and Miqdad, everyone turned apostate.”
I asked about ‘Ammar to which he replied, “At first, he also turned away from the truth but later returned to the same.”
Thereafter the Imam said, “If you wish to know of someone who did not have the slightest of doubt and no evil thought passed his mind, then it is only Miqdad. Salman had this fleeting thought that ‘Ali knows al Ism al A’zam (the greatest name of Allah). If he recites it, all his opponents will be sunk into the earth. And this was correct.”
It is recorded a little further in this narration that Abu Sasan al Ansari, Abu ‘Amrah, and Shaybarah returned to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum. In essence, those who recognised his right numbered seven.
‘Abdul Malik ibn A’yan reports, “I began asking Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah about the apostasy of the Sahabah and continued until I said that all of them were destroyed in such a situation. The Imam replied, ‘Yes, by Allah, O Ibn A’yan. All of them were destroyed.’
I asked whether those living in the East as well as those living in Arabia were destroyed to which he replied, ‘Yes, by Allah! All were destroyed besides three. However, Abu Sasan, ‘Ammar, Shaybarah, and Abu ‘Amrah returned thereafter and they numbered seven.’”
It is also reported that after pledging allegiance to Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the Muhajirin and Ansar expressed their desire to take bay’ah at the hands of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu but did not remain firm.
Abu Basir has narrated from Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah that the Muhajirin and Ansar later came to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and submitted, “You are Amir al Mu’minin and the rightful khalifah. Extend your hand; we will take bay’ah at your hands.”
Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu responded by saying, “If you are truthful, then return tomorrow with shaven heads.”
No one however shaved their heads besides Sayyidina Salman, Sayyidina Miqdad, and Sayyidina Abu Dhar radiya Llahu ‘anhum. They came a second time and expressed their desire to take bay’ah. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu made the same request but it was not fulfilled.
The narrator says that he asked the Imam whether Sayyidina ‘Ammar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not included among those who fulfilled the command. The Imam replied in the negative. The narrator then asked whether Sayyidina ‘Ammar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was included among the apostates to which he replied, “He thereafter fought on the side of ‘Ali.” The meaning of this is that although initially he turned apostate, he supported Sayyidina ‘Ali and fought on his side later on due to which his iman remained intact.
Al Kafi has a narration from Abu al Haytham ibn Tihan who says that Amir al Mu’minin Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu delivered a lecture in front of the people of Madinah wherein after praising Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and listing the virtues of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam he proclaimed:
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam fulfilled his obligation of nubuwwah and stipulated the roads of guidance. O people, those who were deceived and recognised the deception of the deceivers but remained hell-bent on it knowingly and chose to follow their evil desires, the truth was manifest before them but they turned away from it and the clear open road was in front of them but they diverted from the same. By the Being who makes the seed grow and creates the child! Had you acquired knowledge from its source, drank sweet water, gathered virtuous deeds hoping for reward, chosen the open road of guidance and treaded it, then the clear roads would have opened before you, signs would have manifested for you, and Islam would have brightened in your eyes. You would have eaten lavishly, none of you would have suffered poverty, and neither any Muslim nor disbeliever with whom there is a pact of peace would have been oppressed. However, you treaded the path of darkness, so the world has narrowed for you despite its vastness and the doors of knowledge have been shut on your faces. You spoke from your whims and fancies and differed in your din. You passed rulings in the divine religion without knowledge. You followed the misguided who misguided you and abandoned the Imams, thus they abandoned you. You will soon reap the ills of the seeds you planted and taste the bitterness of the sins you committed. By the Being who makes the seed grow and creates the child! You know that certainly I am your companion, your ruler, and scholar. I am the one; your salvation lies in my knowledge. I am the wasi of your Messenger salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Your Lord has chosen me. Calamities will soon befall you which you were promised and which have afflicted the nations before you. By Allah! Had I had supporters equal in number to Talut’s men or the participants of Badr, I would have fought you with the sword until you returned to the truth. I will withhold myself and deal with you with softness and tenderness. O Allah! Judge between us in truth, for You are the best of judges.”
After delivering this lecture, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu left the Masjid and passed by a herd of sheep numbering 30. He commented, “Had I had people equal in number to these sheep who were sincere friends of Allah and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, I would have removed the son of akalat al dhibban (Abu Bakr) from leadership.”
In the evening, 360 people gave him bay’ah upon death. He told them to shave their heads and meet him in the morning at Ahjar al Zayt (a place near Madinah). Sayyidina ‘Ali shaved his head, but none of the others besides Sayyidina Abu Dhar, Miqdad, Hudhayfah, and ‘Ammar radiya Llahu ‘anhum complied. Sayyidina Salman radiya Llahu ‘anhu came last. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu lifted his hands to the skies and supplicated, “O Allah! These people have found me weak just as the Banu Isra’il found Sayyidah Harun ‘alayh al Salam to be weak. O Allah, You know what we conceal and what we reveal. Nothing in the earth or heavens is hidden from You. Grant me death on Islam and join me with the pious. I swear by the house of Allah, by those who leave the desolate areas for hajj and by Muzdalifah that had I not upheld the covenant which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took from me, I would have flung the opponents into the valley of death and rained upon them torrential rain from the cloud of death and sent lightning upon them. Undoubtedly, they will come to know very soon.”
‘Umar ibn Thabit relates that he heard from Abu ‘Abdullah that when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away, all the people turned renegade and only three remained as Muslims, viz. Salman, Miqdad, and Abu Dhar radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Another narration states that after Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam demise, 40 men approached Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and said, “By Allah! We will never obey anyone besides you.” When Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu asked them the reason, they said, “We heard in your favour on the Day of Ghadir.” Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu asked them if they will act accordingly and they replied in the affirmative. He ordered them to return the following day with their heads shaven. Abu ‘Abdullah says that none besides the three came. He continues to narrate that Sayyidina ‘Ammar ibn Yasir radiya Llahu ‘anhu came after Salat al Zuhr. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu hit his chest and said, “Has not the time come for you to awaken from the sleep of negligence? Go! I do not need you! You did not obey me by shaving your head. How will you obey me when it comes to fighting mountains of steal? Get out! I have no need for you.”
It is understood from these narrations that everyone turned renegade besides three. Conversely, al Kafi has a conflicting narration which suggests that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not claim his rights and bore all the calamities out of mercy for the people for fear that they might turn renegade. Zurarah narrates that Imam al Baqir rahimahu Llah stated, “When people took bay’ah at the hands of Abu Bakr and did what they did, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not call them to himself out of compassion. He feared that it should not happen that people leave the fold of Islam and the kalimah shahadah, and begin worshipping idols. He desired that people do not renounce Islam and remain steadfast. Therefore, those who intentionally did not take bay’ah at his hands and jumped on the moving wagon and pledged allegiance at the hands of Abu Bakr without knowledge and without harbouring enmity for Amir al Mu’minin, cannot be termed as kuffar because of this bay’ah and did not leave the fold of Islam. For this very reason, ‘Ali concealed his right and pledged allegiance unwillingly.”
This narration conflicts the previous narrations which mention the apostasy of all the Muslims. It states that the reason for Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu not standing up and claiming his rights is that he feared that this might lead to the apostasy of the people. For this reason, Mulla Baqir al Majlisi quotes this narration and explains: “The meaning of not renouncing Islam is that they adopted Islam outwardly and continued reciting the kalimah. Goodness for the ummah lied in them remaining on Islam so that after time passes, they or their children will accept the truth and have a chance to accept iman. In this case, this narration does not conflict the narration which states that only three were saved. The meaning of apostasy there is that majority of them abandoned din in reality and the meaning here is that the outward form of Islam remained on them although they joined the kuffar in majority of ahkam. This only applies to those who did not here the explicit appointment of Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Imamah and did not harbour hatred and enmity for him. If anyone did perpetrate any of the above, then he has rejected the command of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and is therefore outwardly a kafir. No aspect of Islam applies to him and he should be necessary killed.”
Sayed Hamid Hassan Qiblah supports this view and states in volume 2 of Istiqsa’:
حدیث ارتدت الصحابۃ کلہم الا ثلاثۃ و امثالہ ہر گز اہل حق محمول بر ردت شرعی و کفر ظاہری نمی سازند چنانچہ در عبارت بحار کہ آنفا منقول شد صریح مذکور ست کہ مراد از ارتداد دریں احادیث ارتداد در دین واقعی ست یعنی نہ ارتداد از دین و ظاہر بالجملہ مراد از ارتداد در امثال ایں احادیث ارتداد بمعنی عام ست کہ منافی اسلام ظاہری نیست و در معنی عام ارتداد ہمہ ہا داخل می تواند شد ہم مرتدین شرعی و ہم کسانیکہ بر اسلام ظاہری با قیماند ند و از ایمان بدر رفتند
The people of the truth do not take “All the Sahabah accept three turned apostate” to refer to shar’i irtidad and outward kufr. It appears clearly in the text of Bihar al Anwar that irtidad refers to dini irtidad which is not in disagreement with outward Islam. All of them can be included in this general irtidad whether they committed shar’i irtidad or renounced iman although they remained outwardly on Islam.
The author further writes:
و توضیح مقام اینست کہ ارتداد را دو معنی ست یکے عام و یکے خاص اما ارتداد عام پس بمعنی لغوی ست یعنی برگشتن از چیزے و ایں معنی شامل ست جمیع انواع ارتداد را خواہ ارتداد از اخلاف حسنہ و عادات جمیلہ و امثال ذلک و اما ارتداد خاص پس ارتداد شرعی ست یعنی برگشتن از اسلام و اختیار کردن کفر کہ موجب جریان احکام حفار در دار دنیا بر صاحب آں تواند شد
The explanation is that irtidad has two meanings; one is general while the other is specific. General irtidad means turning away from anything. This includes all the general types of irtidad, viz. from Islam, from iman, from good character, or from beautiful habits and qualities. Specific irtidad refers to shar’i irtidad, i.e. renouncing Islam and adopting kufr. Ahkam applicable to the kuffar will apply to such a person in this world.
The author thereafter claims that both types of irtidad apply to the three Khulafa’:
فان كفرهم و ارتدادهم واضح لا سترة فيه
Their kufr and irtidad is as clear as daylight; it cannot be hidden.
In short, the Shia have divided irtidad into two types: irtidad haqiqi, i.e. turning murtad externally and internally – wherein they include the three Khulafa’ radiya Llahu ‘anhum and those who heard the alleged appointment of ‘Ali, and internal irtidad, i.e. remaining outwardly a Muslim – wherein they included those who out of ignorance and without hatred fell into deception or followed the people and took bay’ah at the hands of the three Khulafa’. These people later on were included among the Mu’minin when they joined Amir al Mu’minin.
Firstly, this division makes absolutely no sense to us since the original meaning of irtidad is to turn away from Allah, His Rasul, and what Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has brought. Such rejection is not established regarding the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum especially the three Khulafa’ radiya Llahu ‘anhum and their supporters. Majority of Shia statements acknowledge their steadfastness on external Islam. ‘Alam al Huda writes in answer to the author of al Mughni:
For Qadi to say, “Just as Imam Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu opposed Yazid and exposed his wrongs, Amir should have opposed his opponents, criticised and rejected them, and incited people against them,” is a far cry from the truth since the fear for Yazid was nothing in comparison to the fear for the Khulafa’. Yazid would sin and commit transgression openly and had no concern for piety. Everyone knew that he was not fit for khilafah and Imamah and none of the requisites of Imamah were found in him. This is contrary to fearing a person who is the leader of his people, possesses excellent praiseworthy attributes, and is believed to be worthy of Imamah by a large group. In fact, they considered his status to be higher than that of Imamah. To make an analogy of the former upon the latter is corrupt.”
‘Alam al Huda has acknowledged here that Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the leader of his people and respected among them. He possessed excellent qualities and people understood his level to be higher than that of Imamah. His exact words are:
و كيف يكون الخوف من مظهر الفسق و الخلاعة و لا شبهة فى ان امامته ملك و غلبة و انه لا شرط من شرائط الامامة فيه كالخوف من مقدم معظم جميل الظاهر برى اكثر الامة ان الامامة دونه و انها ادنى منازله و ما الجمع بين الامرين الا كالجامع بين الضدين
How can fear for a man who openly commits transgression and acts of immorality – there is no doubt that his Imamah is nothing but kingdom and dominance and that he does not possess any of the requisites of Imamah – be similar to fear for a leader who is respected, possesses beautiful external qualities, whose status people regard to be higher than that of Imamah, considering Imamah as his lowest rank. To join these two is akin to joining two opposites.
Muhaqqiq al Jilani writes in Fath al Subul:
سپ دیگر در تقویت حسن ظن مردم بعاقدین بیعت آں شد کہ آنہا نفوس خودرا از اموال باز داشتند و شیوہ زہد در دنیا پیش گرفتند و رغبت بدنیا و زینت آنرا ترک کردند و قناعت بقلیل و اکل خش و لباس کرہاس ملک خود ساختند در حالتی کہ اموال براۓ ایشاں حاصل و دینار و کردہ بودند و آنرا در میان قوم قسمت می کردند و خو را بآں اصلا آلودہ نمی کردند پس دلہاۓ مردم بایشاں مائل شد و ایشاں را دوست داشتند و ظنون مردم بایشاں نیک شد و ہر کس را کہ در بارہ ایشاں شبہ در خاطر بود یا توفقے داشت با خود گفت کہ اگر ایشاں بہواۓ نفس مخالفت نص پیغمبر کردہ بودند بایست اہل دنیا باشند و ترک دنیا و لذات نکںد تا خسران دنیا و آخرت ہرد و براۓ ایشاں نباشد و اینہا اہل عقل و رای صحیح اند چگونہ خسران دنیا و عقبی ہر دورا پسندیدہ باشند پس فعل ایشاں صحیح ست و کسی را شکے در صلاح ایشاں باقی نماند و اعتقاد بولایت ایشاں کردند و افعال ایشاں بسندیدند
People had full conviction due to which they pledged allegiance. He (Abu Bakr) distanced himself from worldly wealth, adopted abstinence from the world, had no desire for the world or its pleasures and was content with a little. He ate dry bread and wore course clothes. It was an era when wealth and ministers were under his control yet he would distribute the wealth among the people and would not take any garb for himself. He did not pollute himself with public funds. For this reason, people’s hearts were attracted to him, they befriended him, and maintained good thoughts about him. The people who had misgivings about these Khulafa’ or who hesitated to take bay’ah thought to themselves, “Had these Khulafa’ opposed the laws of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then definitely they would be worldly mongers and would not have abandoned worldly pleasures and wealth. But they are neither disgraced in this world or the Hereafter.” This is apparent that since these Khulafa’ were intelligent and reached the correct decisions, they neither desired worldly harm nor harm in the Hereafter. For this reason, their actions remained proper and suitable. No one had the slightest doubt in their capabilities. People began believing firmly in their leadership and khilafah and looked at their actions with a positive eye.
In light of the above, it is improper to say that the Khulafa’ and their supporters renounced Islam in the meaning that they rejected Allah and His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. It might be claimed that they did not give Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu his right of Imamah, thus becoming rejecters, nay usurpers of Imamah. If the Shia wish to call them murtad for this reason according to their terminology of irtidad then they are at liberty. However, it makes absolutely no sense why the other Sahabah – who numbered in the thousands and who supported Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his khilafah – turned away from him in the beginning and abandoned supporting him? If it is claimed that they were deceived, then this is unrealistic since Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam announced Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu Imamah with such force — according to Shia belief — and publicised it to the extent that no one had the chance to present excuses or fall into deception with regards to it. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam publicly declared him as Imam in front of 70000 people in Ghadir Khum, took a covenant from them, and made them pledge allegiance and they all congratulated him. Moreover, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam elucidated on the rewards promised by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala for those who will uphold this covenant and the punishments for those who will violate it. He also determined this aspect of Imamah to be an integral part of iman and Islam just like believing in the oneness and divinity of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. After this, only madmen and ignorant children will fall into deception. Not even the ignorant and bedouins could be deceived. Only those can reject such a explicit nomination and “mutawatir” fact who have not an iota of iman, who usurped the khilafah out of greed for the world, or who helped the usurpers for their own benefit. In this case, just as the Khulafa’ and those who helped them are out of the fold of Islam – according to the Shia – similarly the rest of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and Muslims who supported them and who pledged allegiance to them should be out of its fold. No one’s excuse can be accepted. Even if they did not hear any explicit nomination, did not Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu proclaim publicly his khilafah? Did he not label the Khulafa’ as oppressors and usurpers? Did he not beg the people for help? Did he not go house to house with Sayyidah Fatimah and Sayyidina Hassanayn radiya Llahu ‘anhum asking for support? He left no stone unturned in order to acquire his right as the Shia profess. In this case, no one had the chance of falling into deception and no one’s excuse will be heard.
If we hypothetically accept the excuse of them falling into deception with regards to the first khilafah, then what excuse do they have for taking bay’ah at the hands of the usurpers and accepting the khilafah of the second and third? The only sound explanation is that all the Muslims of that era besides three turned apostate. According to Shia principles, their Islam can never be established in any way whatsoever. If the Shia had remained firm upon their claim that all the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum – royals or laymen; from Makkah or Madinah; city dwellers or village dwellers – besides three or four individuals turned renegade and no one’s excuse was accepted, then Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu failure to oppose and his endurance of oppression and tyranny would make some sense. But the irony is that they did not remain firm on this claim. In order to display their strength and the abundance of supporters of their creed, they mentioned such narrations which debunk this claim. These narrations suggest that those who remained steadfast upon Islam and iman were a huge number and many tribes were his supporters and helpers.
Sadr al Din Hassani Hussaini writes in Riyad al Salikin Sharh Sahifah Sajjadiyyah in the fourth rawdah wherein mention is made of the curse of Imam Zayn al ‘Abidin rahimahu Llah for the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum that at the demise of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam there were 124000 Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He quotes with reference to al Khisal from Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah that there were 12000 Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam of which 8000 were from Madinah, 2000 from outside Madinah and 2000 were freed slaves who were neither from the Qadariyyah, Khawarij, Mu’tazilah or rationalists. They would cry day and night and would supplicate for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to take their souls away before they eat fine bread. The tribes of Aws, Khazraj, Banu Hanif, Hamdan, Mudh-haj, Rabi’ah, Mudar, Azd, Wa’il, Khuza’ah and Tayy were among the supporters of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and had such strong conviction, sincerity, reliance, assistance, and support that he mentioned them in his poems and praised them.
Qadi Nur Allah al Shustari writes in Majalis al Mu’minin titled, Majlis two concerning the situation of a few groups who were known to be Shia and treading the path of iman:
Aws and Khazraj were two large tribes of the Ansar. They are well known and need no introduction. Their sincerity is known to all especially the connection of Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah Khazraji and his noble offspring to Sayyidina ‘Ali Murtada radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
Qadi Mir Hussain al Shafi’i – the commentator of Diwan Murtadwi – says that it is reported from Sayyidina Sa’id ibn Jubayr radiya Llahu ‘anhu that when Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu prepared to battle against Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu he had 90000 supporters; 800 of which were from the Ansar and 900 from those who took Bay’at al Ridwan, concerning whom Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu affirmed:
|اووا فاعطوا فوق ما وهبوا||الاوس و الخزرج القوم الذين هم|
Aws and Khazraj are the people of a nation who gave sanctuary and bestowed more than their capacity.
Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said regarding the Hamdan:
|و كنده فى كحم وحى جزام||و نادى ابن هند ذا الكلاع و يخصبا|
|اذا ناب امر جنتى و سهامى||تيممت الهمدان الذين هم|
|سهام العدى فى كل يوم خصام||جزى الله الهمدان الجنان فانهم|
|لقلت لهمدان ادخلى بسلام||فلو كنت بوابا على باب الجنة|
When Ibn Hindah, i.e. Muawiyah, called the tribes of Dhu al Kula’, Yakhsab, and Kindah, I called the tribes of Hamdan since they are my sword and shield in the thick of battle. May Allah grant the Hamdan Jannat as a reward for they are the arrows against the enemies in every battle. Had I been the doorkeeper of Jannat, I would have told Hamdan, “Enter peacefully.”
He composed the following couplets about the tribe of Azd:
|و سيف احمد من دانت له العرب||الازد سيفى على الاعداء كلهم|
|لا يجمعون و لا يدرون ما الهرب||قوم اذاناجاه و اوفوا و ان غلبوا|
Azd are my sword against all the enemies and the sword of Ahmed to whom the Arabs are indebted. A tribe if they are summoned they fulfil even if they are defeated. And they do not know the meaning of fleeing.
Qadi has translated these couplets into Persian in the following words.
|مائل بخدا از جہاں سیر ہمہ||یاران من اند اہل شمشیر ہمہ|
|باشند بروز حرب چوں شیر ہمہ||معنی گریختن نداںد کہ چیست|
They are my friends who are warriors
Aloof from the world and engrossed with Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala
They do not know the meaning of fleeing
They are lions on the battlefield
The translation of another couplet regarding the tribe of Azd goes as follows:
کہ حضرت امیر المومنین علی می فرمایداۓ جماعت ازد بدر ستیکہ من از ہمہ شما خوشنودم و شما سرہاۓ کار خلافت من آید ہر گز نا امید نشوید از راحت و آمر زیدن و خدا نگاہ دارد ایشاں را از ہر جا کہ روند پاکید شما در حالیکہ تو آید چناں کہ پاکست اول شما و خار چیدہ نشود از سر شاخ انگور
Hadrat Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali said, “O tribe of Azd, I am pleased with you. Be diligent about the establishment of my khilafah and do not be despondent. Wherever you go, may Allah protect you with ease and comfort. Remain pure in your present state as you were pure in the past. There are no thorns on the branches of a grapevine which need to be separated.
No one can say that these praises in favour of the tribes of the Ansar which are recorded in Majalis al Mu’minin cannot be used as proof against the Shia since they have been taken from non-primary sources such as Ansab Sam’ani, etc., because Qadi al Shustari understood these tribes to be sincere and included them among the Shia of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, thus he presented these couplets as substantiation. In this case, these couplets are proof against the Shia just as the statements of their historians. The purpose of al Shustari was to prove that the supporters of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu were not few in number but comprised of many tribes. If the Shia reject the view of al Shustari and deem it to be incorrect and believe these tribes to be included among the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt, then too they cannot reject the fact that there were 124000 Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum alive after the demise of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. They also cannot deny that 12000 Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum had pure beliefs and remained engaged in the worship of Allah day and night. If all of these turned renegade besides three or four, then we should perform the Salat al Janazah for Islam as a whole and not mention its beauty to anyone. Nevertheless, the Shia cannot reject the fact that not only were the general Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum supporters of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, but he had a huge army comprising of Muhajirin, Ansar, and those who followed them. This is recorded in those books which the Shia regard as authentic as the Qur’an.
Sayyidina Amir al Mu’minin wrote to Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma in a letter:
You wrote in your letter to me that nothing besides the sword will decide between us. This has amused me and surprised me. Have the sons of ‘Abdul Muttalib ever feared the enemy and the sword? They are lions of the jungle and men of the battlefield. It will not be long until that which you seek will seek you and that which seems far to you will close in upon you. I am advancing with a huge army with innumerable warriors. This huge army includes the Muhajirin, Ansar, and their followers who are strong and their dust flies high. They have donned the garb of death. Nothing is more beloved to them than dying for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and this is their hope. They are accompanied by the offspring of the participants of Badr and the swords of the Hashim family.”
Mulla Fath Allah has translated this letter into Persian in these words:
و یاد کردہ در نامہ خود آنکہ نیست مراد نہ مر اصحاب مرا نزد تو مگر شمشیر آبدار پس ہر آئینہ بخندہ آوردی مرا و یاران مرا پس از اشک فرو آوردن بایں گفتار یعنی ہر کہ شنید ایں کفتار ترا از مومنین خندید از روی تعجب بعد از گریستن ایشاں بر دین بجہت تصرف بے وجہ تودارد کجا یافتہ شدند پسران عبد المطلب کہ از دشمناں واپس رفتگاں بودہ باشند از جہت جبانت و بشمشیر ترسانیدہ شدہ باشند و ہر اساں چہ ایشاں شیر بیشہ رجولیت اند و از رو باہ صفتاں چہ اندیشہ دارند پس درنگ کن اند کے تا ملحق شود بصف جنگ جمل بن بدر و ایں مثلی ست براۓ وعید اعداء الحرب و قائل آں جمل بن بدر ست و او مردے بود از قشیر کہ شتراں اورا بغارت بردہ بودند اور درمیان ہیجا رفت بدلاوری و شتران خودا باز ستد از اعداء پس زود باشد کہ طلب کند ترا کسیکہ طلب میکنی اورا و نزدیک شد بتو آنچہ دوری می جوئی ازو و من شتا بندہ ام بجانب تو در لشکر عظیم بے شمار از مہاجرین و انصار و تابعان بہ نیکوئی کہ سخت ست انبوہے ایشاں مرتفع ست غبار ایشاں گویند کہ ںود ہزار کس بودند و در بر کںد گاہ پراہن ہاۓ مرگ را ایں کنایہ ست از زرہا و جوشنہا کہ در برداشتند ہم چوں پوشش اکفان دوست ترین ملاقات کردن ایشاں ست بر رحمت پروردگار خود بہ تحقیق کہ ہمرا ہست ایشاں را زریہ بدریہ یعنی فزندان بدری خونخوار و سیوف ہاشمیہ یعنی شمشیر ہاۓ ہاشمی آتشبار
You have written in your letter that the sword will decide between us. My friends and I were amused and amazed at this, i.e. your useless efforts on Islam have surprised us and made us laugh after we shed tears. Have the sons of ‘Abdul Muttalib ever turned their backs from fighting their enemies? Have they ever displayed cowardice and were they ever afraid? Remember that our noble men are warriors of battle and lions who are not afraid of the traits of foxes. Wait a little so that Jamal ibn Badr might frighten you in battle. This is the statement of Jamal ibn Badr who was a Qushayri. People stole his camel. He immediately reached the enemy and managed to free it with valour and courage. Very soon, the thing which is sought will seek you and that which you see far will come to you. I am advancing swiftly with a massive army comprising of the Muhajirin, Ansar, and their followers. These warriors have noble actions and the dust rising from their steeds are high. These 90000 soldiers are covered in armour, wearing breastplates and have their weapons ready. Their greatest desire is to be martyred; to attain the mercy of their Lord. Remember that these warriors by me are the children of the participants of Badr and owners of the fiery hashimi swords.
When Sayyidina Amir al Mu’minin radiya Llahu ‘anhu himself speaks about a massive army comprising of the Muhajirin, Ansar, Sahabah, and Tabi’in radiya Llahu ‘anhum and when he himself praises their steadfastness, bravery, courage, and fighting in the path of Allah and the commentators of Nahj al Balaghah mention their number to be 90000 then how can it be fathomed that these people are not Muslims whose hearts are devoid of the light of iman and the love for the Ahlul Bayt? Or that they turned murtad at one stage and were enemies of the Ahlul Bayt and denied supporting Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wasi after falling into deception? It just makes no sense that if Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu regarded the first three Khulafa’ as murtad and usurpers, then why did he not fight them? Had he intended to fight them, then would these warriors, who are prepared to sacrifice their lives for him and whom he praised in his letter, not support him and fight with him against his enemies? The truth is that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu neither regarded these Khulafa’ as usurpers nor intended to fight them. He accepted them and supported and assisted them just like everyone else. He understood the unanimity of the Muhajirin and Ansar to be in conformity to the pleasure of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. This is not the product of our imagination. It is based on the lectures and sermons delivered by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu which he used to prove the validity of his own khilafah.
Do the Shia not ponder over the letter written by Sayyidina ‘Ali to Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhuma? His words as recorded in Nahj al Balaghah are:
و من كتاب له عليه السلام الى معاوية انه بايعنى القوم الذين بايعوا ابا بكر و عمر و عثمان على ما بايعوهم عليه فلم يكن للشاهد ان يختار و لا للغائب ان يرد و انما الشورى للمهاجرين و الانصار فان اجتمعوا على رجل و سموه اماما كان ذلك لله رضى فان خرج من امرهم خارج بطعن او بدعة ردوه الى ما خرج منه فان ابى قاتلوه على اتباعه غير سبيل المؤمنين و ولاه ما تولى ولعمري يا معاوية لئن نظرت بعقلك دون هواك لتجدني أبرأ الناس من دم عثمان ، ولتعلمن أني كنت في عزلة عنه إلا أن تتجنى ، فتجن ما بدا لك . والسلام
From the letters he wrote to Muawiyah: The people have pledged allegiance to me who took bay’ah at the hands of Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman on the same clauses they pledged allegiance to them. No one present has the choice to choose and no one absent has the choice to reject. Mutual counsel belongs solely to the Muhajirin and Ansar. If they unite on someone and appoint him as a leader, this is proof of the pleasure of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. If anyone forsakes their unanimity due to criticism or innovation, they will return him to the same. If he refuses, they will fight him for following something besides the path of the Mu’minin and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will hand him over to his misguidance. O Muawiyah! I swear that if you leave emotions aside and ponder deeply with your mind, you would find me the most innocent from the blood of ‘Uthman and you will most certainly come to know that I had nothing to do with it, unless you accuse me. So accuse as you desire. Peace.
The commentators of Nahj al Balaghah have explained that this address to Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was according to those who believed that khilafah is decided by mutual counsel and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu practiced Taqiyyah. However this is incorrect. Firstly, there is no contextual evidence which suggests this. Secondly, had there been any explicit declaration regarding his khilafah, this was the opportune time to voice it. This would have been the strongest and perfect proof for his claim. He could have said that his khilafah was publicly announced by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in Ghadir al Khum. He left this authentic and strong proof aside and chose such a thing as proof which he himself considers incorrect and false, and which further proves the correctness of the previous Khulafa’s usurped khilafah.
إِنَّ هٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ
Indeed, this is flummoxing.
Some explain that Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu and his supporters would not have accepted this proof, hence Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu used a corrupt evidence as proof in accordance to the opposition’s belief. This is also flawed due to the fact that the opposition believe in Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and some of them (allegedly) had also heard the declaration. Hypothetically, if they did not accept, then the Muhajirin and Ansar and 90000 soldiers with him believed. When these people were prepared to sacrifice their lives and spill their blood and were ready to practice what they claimed, then would they not believe the declaration of khilafah in his favour and would they not present it as proof against their opposition? In fact, had there been such a clear declaration, then his supporters would have most certainly presented it as verification that they are on truth by supporting him in accordance to the command of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This would have strengthened the stance of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the supporters of Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu would not have the courage to deny the testimony of such a massive army.
To leave aside such a strong proof and to present something false instead is actually an attack on the purity and truthfulness of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
With regards to Taqiyyah, it was not the place or time to be observed. If those narrations of the Shia are authentic wherein mention is made of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu listing the evils of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum publicly, then what fear did he have which forced him to falsely praise them? In short, if one uses his sound intellect then there remains no doubt that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu also believes that his khilafah was decided by the Muhajirin, Ansar, and the Ahl al Hall wa l-’Aqd, and not by a declaration of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Muhajirin and Ansar never opposed him. When his time came, the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum appointed him as khalifah and took bay’ah at his hands and left no stone unturned in supporting him. Every just and unbiased person will accept that if the people usurped his rights, usurped Fadak, and oppressed Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, then definitely Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would have confronted them and fought them and those who supported him when he assumed the position of khalifah would have assisted him. Just as they presented their lives for sacrifice against the Amir of Syria, they would have done the same to protect Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha and fight her oppressors and shown their love and allegiance to the Ahlul Bayt. From this we easily come to the obvious conclusion that those narrations which speak about the incidents of torture and tyranny with much hyperbole are totally baseless and fabricated.
Besides what I have mentioned above, another point of contemplation is that the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum consisted of two massive groups, the Muhajirin and the Ansar. The Shia say regarding the Muhajirin that they harboured enmity for Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu because their relatives and friends were killed at his hands in most of the battles and this grudge remained in their hearts. For this reason, the Muhajirin did not support him but rather supported those who usurped his rights. This is nothing but a humourless joke in reality. First of all, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not the only one who fought in the battles and he did not kill everyone. The Muhajirin themselves left their relatives and friends and joined Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam campaigns of jihad against the enemy and spared no effort to kill their own blood. Besides, whatever Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu did was through the command of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam so the Muhajirin ought to have the greatest enmity for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and reject his nubuwwah, may Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala forbid. It makes no sense that they are prepared to sacrifice their lives for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and use their blood to light the lamps of his nubuwwah and at the same time harbour enmity for Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu whereas he only acted in accordance to the command of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Even if we accept this for argument’s sake, then too what grudge do the Ansar have against him? He did not kill their relatives. So why do they harbour hatred for him? This hatred justification which the Shia present is not found in the Ansar. They are that noble group whom Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam desired till his last moments and for whose help and assistance he was grateful to the extent that he declared them as his family and bequeathed that honour and kindness be shown to them. Such people ought to have a special bond, attachment, and love for Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu; not enmity and hatred.
Do the Shia not study those narrations which extol the virtues of the Ansar and command kindness to them? Have a look at Manhaj al Sadiqin and Majma’ al Bayan of al Tabarsi; what the Shia commentators have written. This is not the occasion to quote all such narrations. I will, however, quote one narration from Manhaj al Sadiqin. He writes in the commentary of the verse:
لَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ فِيْ مَوَاطِنَ كَثِيْرَةٍ وَيَوْمَ حُنَيْنٍ
Allah has already given you victory in many regions and [even] on the day of Hunayn.
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave most of the spoils of the Battle of Hunayn and Awtas to al mu’allafat al qulub, more to the Muhajirin and a minimal amount to the Ansar. Some of the Ansar were saddened by this distribution and said that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam gave all the spoils to his people and deprived them. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was deeply saddened when this news reached him. He thus gathered the Ansar and said, “You were on the brink of falling into Jahannam but Allah saved you at my hands. Is this not true?”
They all replied in the affirmative. In this way, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam enumerated other favours upon them and then said, “You can respond by saying that I came alone and you gave me shelter and assistance; I was fearful and you granted me security; people belied me and you accepted me.”
Hearing this, the Ansar began to sob bitterly. They caught hold of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam leg and pleaded, “O Rasulullah! Our lives and wealth are at your disposal. If you wish to give your people then do so. What some of the lowly among us have said, forgive them and seek forgiveness on their behalf.”
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then raised his hands and supplicated:
اللهم اغفر للانصار و ابناء الانصار و ابناء ابناء الانصار يا معشر الانصار اما ترضون ان ينصرف الناس بالشاة و الغنم و فى سهمكم رسول الله قالوا بلى يا رسول الله رضينا بالله و عنه و برسوله فقال الانصار كرشى و عيبتى لو سلك الناس واديا و سلك الانصار شعبا لسلكت شعب الانصار
“O Allah! Forgive the Ansar, their children and grandchildren. O gathering of the Ansar, are you not pleased that people will return with sheep and goats and you will return with the Rasul of Allah?”
“Most definitely,” was their reply, “We are pleased with Allah and His Rasul.”
Majma’ al Bayan of al Tabarsi has the following addition:
و لولا الهجرة لكنت امرأ من الانصار اللهم ارحم الانصار و ابناء الانصار و ابناء ابناء الانصار فبكى القوم حتى اخضبت لحاهم
“Had it not been for hijrah, I would be one of the Ansar. O Allah! Have mercy on the Ansar, their children and grandchildren.”
They cried so profusely that their beards were soaked with tears.
Al Ihtijaj of al Tabarsi has a narration from Abu al Fadl Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah al Shaybani that in his last illness before death, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam came for the salah with the support of Sayyidina Fadl ibn ‘Abbas and his slave Sayyidina Thawban radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. After the salah, he returned to his house and ordered Sayyidina Thawban radiya Llahu ‘anhu to remain seated by the door instructing him that if any of the Ansar come, they should not be prevented from entering. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then fell unconscious. Meanwhile, the Ansar came and requested to enter. The doorkeeper explained that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was unconscious and that his pure wives were by him. Hearing this, the Ansar wept. When Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam heard their cries, he asked as to who they were. “The Ansar,” was the answer. At this, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with the support of Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidina ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma went outside and proclaimed:
يا معشر الناس انه لم يمت نبى قط الا خلف تركة و قد تركت فيكم الثقلين كتاب الله و اهل بيتى فمن ضيعهم ضيعه الله الا و ان الانصار كرشى و عيبتى اوى اليها و انى اوصيكم بتقوى الله و الاحسان اليهم فاقبلوا من محسنهم و تجاوزوا عن مسيئهم
O gathering! No Nabi dies but he leaves behind a legacy. I have left behind two weighty things: the Book of Allah and my household. Whoever discards them will be destroyed by Allah. Hark! The Ansar are my family and my close ones whom I sought refuge in. I command you to fear Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and be kind to them. Accept their good and forgive their mistakes.
These are the last words of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in favour of the Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Shame on those people who believe Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as the Messenger of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, claim to believe in him, quote these words from his blessed tongue and narrate his bequest in favour of the Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum; yet label these very people as renegades and enemies of the Ahlul Bayt and declare them to be out of the fold of Islam. Can anyone believe for a moment that the Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum whom Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam marked as his children and family would harbour enmity for Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and abandon him without any reason and support his opponents? Would they after hearing the open declaration intend to make Sayyidina Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah radiya Llahu ‘anhu their imam and forget Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu or completely ignore him? This is beyond imagination, forget reality.
Al Shustari tries to answer this in Ihqaq al Haqq:
و اما خامسا فلان قوله فلو كان الانصار سمعوه غير مسموع لانهم سمعوا ذلك النص و تذاكروه فيما بينهم لكنهم لم يجعلوا ذلك اليوم حجة على ابى بكر بشبهة اوقعها اولياء ابى بكر و غيره فى قلوب الناس من ان عليا قد تقاعد عن تصدى الخلافة و التزم البيت و امسك عن احياء هذا الميت فان المذكور فى المعتبر من كتب السير و التواريخ انه لما توفى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و اشتغل على مع اصحابه من بنى هاشم و غيرهم بتجهيز النبى و تعزيته معتقدا ان احدا لا يطمع فى هذا الامر مع وجوده اوقع بعض المنحرفين عن على فى قلوب الناس انه قد تقاعد عن تصدى الخلافة بشدة ما اصابه من مصيبة النبى و سكن قربته مشتغلا بالحزن و التعزية فجاء خزيمة بن ثابت الانصارى و قال لقومه من الانصار ما سمعه من حال على و ذكر انه لا بد ممن على هذا الامر و ليس سواه قرشى يليق بذلك فخاف الانصار ان يشتد عليهم البلية و يلى هذا الامر قرشى فظ غليظ ينتقم منهم للثارات الجاهلية و الاضغان البدوية فتوجهوا الى سعد بن عبادة سيد الانصار و حضروا سقيفة ملتمسا منه قبول الخلافة فابى سعد عن ذلك لمكان على و انه المنصوص بالخلافة عن الله تعالى و رسوله فلما سمع قريش بذلك و كانوا منتهرين للفرصة و السوافى الامر و عجلوا فى البيعة لابى بكر فبادروا الى السقيفة لتسكين نائرة الانصار و التمسوا بيعة ابى بكر بالطوع و الاجبار فقال لهم الانصار اذا تركتم فعل الله و رسوله فليس احد منا و منكم بعد على بن ابى طالب الى من غيره فمنا امير و منكم امير فابى ابو بكر و اصحابه عند ذلك محتجين فى ذلك بان الائمة من قريش و ابى سعد عن قبول امارتهم متمسكا بان النص لذلك لغيرهم فاضطرب الحال الى ان مال قلب بشر بن سعد بن ثعلبة الانصارى زعما لابن عبادة الى ترجيح جانب قريش و موافقتهم فقوى امر قريش و بادر عمر الى صفق يده على يد ابى بكر و بايعه هو و جماعة من اضرابه فتنة كما اخبر عنه هو بعد ذلك بقوله كانت بيعة ابى بكر فلتة وقى الله شرها عن المسلمين
Fifthly, his statement “If the Ansar heard it,” is non-acceptable since the Ansar heard this declaration and would mention it among themselves. However, they did not use it as proof against Abu Bakr on that day due to the doubt created by the friends of Abu Bakr and others in the hearts of people that ‘Ali did not claim the khilafah and remained glued to his house and withheld from reviving this dead claim. What appears in reliable books of siyar and history is that when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away, and ‘Ali and his family of the Banu Hashim got occupied with organising the ghusl and shrouding of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam knowing well that no one will undertake this task in his presence, some of those who turned away from ‘Ali spread the rumour that he is not going to claim khilafah because of the great calamity which has befallen him, i.e. the demise of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and he is engaged in grieving and mourning. Khuzaimah ibn Thabit al Ansari came and said to his tribe what he had heard about ‘Ali. He mentioned the necessity of a khalifah and that no other Qurayshi besides ‘Ali has the potential for this mammoth task. The Ansar feared that the calamity might worsen and a Qurayshi might take over the reins of khilafah who is hard-hearted and stony and who will take revenge from them due to his grudges and bedoiuc malice. Therefore, they turned to Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah, the leader of the Ansar. They proceeded to the Saqifah and implored him to accept the khilafah. The latter refused due to the presence of ‘Ali explaining that his khilafah is declared from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. When the Quraysh heard of this, they were waiting for an opportunity; they hastily took bay’ah at the hands of Abu Bakr and hastened to the Saqifah to cool the tenseness of the Ansar. They implored the Ansar to take bay’ah at the hands of Abu Bakr, willingly or unwillingly. The Ansar said, “When you have abandoned the command of Allah and His Rasul, then besides ‘Ali bin Abi Talib there is no person from us or you more worthy than others, so let there be a leader from us and a leader from you. Abu Bakr and his cronies refused and substantiated their claim by saying that the Imams will be from Quraysh. On the other hand, Sa’d refused their leadership taking support from the fact that the declaration is for someone other than them. They began quarrelling and arguing. Then Bishr ibn Sa’d ibn Tha’labah al Ansari’s heart inclined towards giving the Quraysh preference and agreeing with them. Thus, the Quraysh’s view was strengthened. ‘Umar rushed to put his hand into the hand of Abu Bakr and he took bay’ah followed by a group like him. This was done in haste as he acknowledged thereafter with the words, “The bay’ah of Abu Bakr happened in haste but Allah protected the Muslims from its evil.”
و روى الشيخ الفاضل ابو السعادات الحلى فى شرح دعاء صنمى قريش انه اجتمع ابو بكر و عمر و ابو عبيدة و اخوانهم فى سقيفة بنى ساعدة يطلبون الحكم و البيعة من غير اكثرات باهل البيت و بنى هاشم و كل واحد من هؤلاء الثلاثة يرجو الحكم و الامر لنفسه و يعطفه على صاحبه فانكر عليهم الانصار و اصروا على الدفاع و الامتناع و احتجوا عليهم بما قال رسول الله فى على من التوكيد فى امامته فى مواطن شتى و امر اياهم بالتسليم عليه بامارة المؤمنين فقال ابو بكر قد كان ذلك لكن نسخه النبى بقوله انا اهل البيت كرمنا الله و اصطفانا بالنبوة و لم يرض لنا بالدنيا و ان الله لا يجمع لنا النبوة و الخلافة فصدقاه عمر و ابو عبيدة فى ذلك و عللا قعود على فى بيته و الاشتغال بتجهيز النبى دون تصدى امر الخلافة بعلمه بتحويل الامر عنه فقالت الانصار اذا لا نرضى و الله بامارة غيرنا علينا منا امير و منكم امير فذكروا عن رسول الله الائمة من قريش و شبهوا الامر على الانصار و سائر الامة و قطعوا بذلك حجتهم و اخذوا بيعتهم و لما فرغ على و اصحابه عن تجهيز النبى و دفنه و تكلموا فى ذلك اعتذروا تارة بان الناس بايعوا و لم يكن لهم علم بانك تنازعهم فى الامر و نكث البيعة الواقعة يورث مفاسد بين المسلمين و خلال فى اركان الدين و تارة بانهم ظنوا انك لشدة مصيبة النبى طرحت الخلافة و الامارة فاتفق اصحاب رسول الله على تفويض الامر الى ابى بكر الى غير ذلك من الاعذار الذى سيجيء مع جوابها فى المواضع لائق بها
Sheikh Abu al Sa’adat al Hilli has narrated in Sharh Du’a’ Sanami Quraysh that Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, Abu ‘Ubaidah, and their friends gathered in Saqifah Bani Sa’idah seeking leadership and bay’ah without many of the Ahlul Bayt and Banu Hashim being present. All three of these men were hoping to acquire leadership himself but were passing the buck onto his partner. The Ansar refused vehemently. They verified their stance by quoting the statements of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam regarding ‘Ali’s Imamah on many occasions and the emphasis laid upon it. They ordered them to accept him as the leader of the Mu’minin. Abu Bakr said, “This was in the past but was later abrogated by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who said, ‘Verily, we are the Ahlul Bayt. Allah honoured us and chosen us for the station of nubuwwah and was not pleased with the world for us. Allah will not join nubuwwah and khilafah for us.’”
‘Umar and Abu ‘Ubaidah agreed with him. They further substantiated their claim by using ‘Ali’s sitting at home and engagement in the burial proceedings of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to show that he does not want khilafah and knew fully well that it will go to someone else. The Ansar then said, “In that case, by Allah we will not be happy with the leadership of anyone over us besides us. So let there be a leader from us and a leader from you.”
The three quoted Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as saying, “The Imams are from Quraysh.”
They thus muddled things up in front of the Ansar and the entire ummah and destroyed the latter’s proof. Finally, they took bay’ah from them. On the other hand, when ‘Ali and his comrades were complete with the burial proceedings and spoke to the Ansar about this, the latter presented excuses. They said that people took bay’ah and they had no knowledge that ‘Ali would fight for khilafah. They explained that breaking the bay’ah will cause chaos and disunity among the Muslims and an imbalance in the pillars of din. They also said that they thought that due to the intensity of the grief of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam demise, he renounced khilafah and leadership, thus resulting in the consensus of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum to hand over the matter to Abu Bakr. They presented other excuses as well which will come with their answers in their appropriate places.
These narrations establish the fact that the Ansar were not from the enemies of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and did not desire khilafah themselves. The intention of Sayyidina Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah radiya Llahu ‘anhu was only a deception. He did not conceal the declaration he heard in favour of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu but mentioned it in Saqifah Bani Sa’idah. This shows that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was worthy of khilafah. However, when he was ‘duped’ into believing that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu quitted Imamah due to extreme grief, he then said that they will not accept the Imamah of another Qurayshi. It is for this reason that the Aws and Khazraj have been listed among the devout followers of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Majalis al Mu’minin and Sayyidina Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah radiya Llahu ‘anhu – the one who claimed Imamah – has been reckoned among his sincere supporters. Al Shustari writes:
الاوس و الخزرج دو قبیلہ بزرگ انداز انصار کہ حال ایشاں از غایت اشتہار حاجت باظہار ندارد و اخلاص ایں دو طائفہ خصوصا سعد بن عبادہ خزرجی و اولاد امجاد او نسبت بحضرت علویہ مرتضویہ غایت ظہور دارد
Aws and Khazraj are two huge tribes of the Ansar whose bravery and valour is well-known. Both these tribes especially Sa’d ibn ‘Ubadah Khazraji’s children had genuine sincerity for ‘Ali Murtada.
If Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu really wanted to fight and combat the usurpers for his rights, then would the Ansar not support and help him? The level of the Ansar’s iman and Islam and their deep love for the noble Ahlul Bayt has already been proven from Shia narrations.
With regards to the second group, i.e. the Quraysh included among whom are the Muhajirin whom the Shia regard as out of the fold of Islam especially Sayyidina Sheikhayn and their devout supporters radiya Llahu ‘anhum, no one can deny that after Sayyidina Abu Bakr, Sayyidina ‘Umar, and Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhum became Khulafa’, Islam spread far and wide and progressed in their eras. Many wars were fought in their eras and the kingdoms of Kisra and Qaisar crumbled at their feet. These facts cannot be denied by anyone. The difference is that the Shia claim that they were devoid of iman and were hypocrites and renegades and whatever happened in their eras does not prove their iman. Many oppressive and worldly kings have passed who were open sinners and transgressors, yet Muslims gained victories and Islam spread accross kuffar countries in their eras. Hence, their battles are just like other kings’ battles which are fought for nothing but worldly gain; they are not included in jihad in the path of Allah. Whereas on the other hand, we the Ahlus Sunnah wa al Jama’ah regard their jihad and conquests to be a verification of the correctness of their khilafah and the fulfilment of the promise of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala:
وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِيْنَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ
Allah has promised those who have believed among you and done righteous deeds that He will surely grant them succession [to authority] upon the earth.
We see their conquests to be in conformity to this glad tiding and promise of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. It now should be ascertained whether our belief or the Shia’s belief is established as correct from reliable and authentic Shia books and the statements of the noble Imams. I will present one hadith from al Kafi which will totally debunk all of the beliefs of the Shia regarding the righteous Khulafa’ radiya Llahu ‘anhum. This hadith proves the iman and good actions of these luminaries and cannot be answered academically nor intellectually.
عن على بن ابراهيم عن ابيه عن بكير بن صالح عن القاسم بن يزيد عن ابى عمير الزبيرى عن ابى عبد الله قال قلت اخبرنى عن الدعاء الى الله و الجهاد فى سبيله ا هو بقوم لا يحل الا لهم و لا يقوم لا من كان منهم ام هو مباح لكل من وعد الله عز و جل و امن برسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و من كان كذا فله ان يدعوا الى الله عز و جل و الى طاعته و ان يجاهد فى سبيله فقال ذلك لقوم لا يحل الا لهم و لا يقوم بذلك الا من كان منهم قلت من اولئك قال من قام بشرائط الله عز و جل فى القتال و الجهاد على المجاهدين فهو الماذون له فى الدعاء الى الله عز و جل و من لم يكن بشرائط الله عز و جل فى الجهاد على المجاهدين فليس بماذون له فى الجهاد و لا الدعاء الى الله تبارك و تعالى اخبر فى كتابه ادعاء اليه و وصف الدعاة اليه فجعل ذلك لهم درجات يعرف بعضها بعضا و يستدل بعضها على بعض فاخبر انه تبارك و تعالى اول من دعا الى نفسه فدعا الى طاعته و اتباع امر فبدا بنفسه فقال وَاللَّهُ يَدْعُوْ إِلىٰ دَارِ السَّلَامِ وَيَهْدِيْ مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيْمٍ ثم ثنى برسوله فقال ادْعُ إِلىٰ سَبِيْلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِيْ هِيَ أَحْسَنُ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ ضَلَّ عَنْ سَبِيْلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِيْنَ اى بالقران و لم يكن داعيا الى الله عز و جل من خالف امر الله و يدعو اليه بغير ما امر فى كتابه و الدين امر لا يدعى الا به و قال فى النبى صلى الله عليه و سلم وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِيْ إِلىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيْمٍ يقول يدعو ثم ثلث بالدعاء اليه بكتابه ايضا فقال إِنَّ هٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ يَهْدِيْ لِلَّتِيْ هِيَ أَقْوَمُ وَيُبَشِّرُ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ ثم ذكر من اذن فى الدعاء بعده و بعد رسوله فى كتابه فقال وَلْتَكُنْ مِّنْكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُوْنَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُوْنَ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَأُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُوْنَ ثم اخبر عن هذه الامة و ممن هى و انها من ذرية ابراهيم و من ذرية اسماعيل من مكان الحرم ممن لم يعبد غير الله قط الذين وجبت لهم الدعوة دعوة ابراهيم و اسماعيل من اهل المسجد الذين اخبر عنهم فى كتابه انهم اذهب عنهم الرجس و طهرهم تطهيرا الذين وصفناهم قبل هذا فى صفة امة ابراهيم الذين عناهم الله تبارك و تعالى فى قوله أَدْعُوْ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَلىٰ بَصِيْرَةٍ أَنَا وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِيْ يعنى اول من اتبعه على الايمان به و التصديق له و بما جاء به من عند الله عز و جل منه الامة التى بعث فيها و منها و اليها قبل الحق ممن لم يشرك بالله قط و لم يلبس ايمانه بظلم و هو الشرك ثم ذكر اتباع نبيه صلى الله عليه و سلم و اتباع هذه الامة التى وصفها فى كتابه بالامر بالمعروف و النهى عن المنكر و جعلها داعية اليه و اذن له فى الدعاء اليه فقال يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ حَسْبُكَ اللَّهُ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ ثم وصف اتباع نبيه من المؤمنين فقال عز و جل مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِيْنَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُوْنَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا سِيْمَاهُمْ فِيْ وُجُوْهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ذٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيْلِ و قال يَوْمَ لَا يُخْزِي اللَّهُ النَّبِيَّ وَالَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا مَعَهُ نُوْرُهُمْ يَسْعىٰ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيْهِمْ وَبِأَيْمَانِهِمْ يَقُوْلُوْنَ رَبَّنَا أَتْمِمْ لَنَا نُوْرَنَا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا إِنَّكَ عَلىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيْرٌ يعنى اولئك المؤمنين فقال قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُوْنَ ثم حلاهم و وصفهم كيلا يطمع فى اللحاق بهم الا من كان منهم فقال فيما حلاهم و وصفهم اَلَّذِيْنَ هُمْ فِيْ صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُوْنَ وَالَّذِيْنَ هُمْ عَنِ اللَّغْوِ مُعْرِضُوْنَ وَالَّذِيْنَ هُمْ لِلزَّكَاةِ فَاعِلُوْنَ وَالَّذِيْنَ هُمْ لِفُرُوْجِهِمْ حَافِظُوْنَ إِلَّا عَلىٰ أَزْوَاجِهِمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَيْرُ مَلُوْمِيْنَ فَمَنِ ابْتَغىٰ وَرَاءَ ذٰلِكَ فَأُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الْعَادُوْنَ وَالَّذِيْنَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَاعُوْنَ وَالَّذِيْنَ هُمْ عَلىٰ صَلَوَاتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُوْنَ أُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الْوَارِثُوْنَ الَّذِيْنَ يَرِثُوْنَ الْفِرْدَوْسَ هُمْ فِيْهَا خَالِدُوْنَ و قال فى وصفهم و حليتهم ايضا وَالَّذِيْنَ لَا يَدْعُوْنَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلٰهًا آخَرَ وَلَا يَقْتُلُوْنَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِيْ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا يَزْنُوْنَ ثم اخبر إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ يُقَاتِلُوْنَ فِيْ سَبِيْلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُوْنَ وَيُقْتَلُوْنَ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيْلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ ثم ذكر وفائهم له بعهده و مبايعته فقال وَمَنْ أَوْفىٰ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوْا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِيْ بَايَعْتُم بِهِ وَذٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيْمُ فلما نزل هذه الاية إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ يُقَاتِلُوْنَ فِيْ سَبِيْلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُوْنَ وَيُقْتَلُوْنَ قال رجل الى النبى صلى الله عليه و سلم فقال يا نبى الله ارايتك الرجل ياخذ سيفه فيقتل حتى يقتل الا انه يقترف من هذه المحارم اشهيد هو فانزل الله عز و جل اَلتَّائِبُوْنَ الْعَابِدُوْنَ الْحَامِدُوْنَ السَّائِحُوْنَ الرَّاكِعُوْنَ السَّاجِدُوْنَ الْآمِرُوْنَ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ وَالنَّاهُوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَالْحَافِظُوْنَ لِحُدُوْدِ اللَّهِ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ ففسر النبى صلى الله عليه و سلم المجاهدين من المؤمنين الذين هذه صفتهم و حليتهم بالشهادة و الجنة و قال التائبون من الذنوب العابدون الذين لا يعبدون الا الله و لا يشركون به شيئا الحامدون الذين يحمدون الله على كل حال فى الشدة و الرخاء السائحون و هم الصائمون الراكعون الساجدون الذين يواظبون على الصلوات الخمس الحافظون لها و المحافظون عليها بركوعها و سجودها و الخشوع فيها و فى اوقاتها الامرون بالمعروف بعد ذلك و العاملون به و الناهون عن المنكر و المنتهون عنه قال فبشر من قتل و هو قائم بهذه الشروط بالشهادة و الجنة ثم اخبر تبارك و تعالى انه لك يامر بالقتال الاصحاب هذه الشروط فقال عز و جل أُذِنَ لِلَّذِيْنَ يُقَاتَلُوْنَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوْا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلىٰ نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيْرٌ الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوْا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلَّا أَنْ يَقُوْلُوْا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ و ذلك ان جميع ما بين السماء و الارض لله عز و جل و لرسوله و لاتباعه من المؤمنين من اهل هذه الصفة فيما كان من الدنيا فى ايدى المشركين و الكفار و الظلمة و الفجار من اهل الخلاف لرسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم و المولى عن طاعتها مما كان فى ايديهم ظلموا فيه المؤمنين من اهل هذه الصفات و غلبوهم عليه ما افاء الله على رسوله فهو حقهم افاء الله عليهم و رده اليهم و انما معنى الفىء كلما ساء الى المشركين ثم رجع مما قد كان عليه او فيه فما رجع الى مكانه من قول او فعل فقد فاء مثل قول الله عز و جل فَإِنْ فَاءُوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُوْرٌ رَّحِيْمٌ اى رجعوا ثم قال وَإِنْ عَزَمُوا الطَّلَاقَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيْعٌ عَلِيْمٌ و قال وَإِنْ طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ اقْتَتَلُوْا فَأَصْلِحُوْا بَيْنَهُمَا فَإِنْ بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الْأُخْرىٰ فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِيْ تَبْغِيْ حَتّىٰ تَفِيْءَ إِلىٰ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ فَاءَتْ فَأَصْلِحُوْا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُوْا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِيْنَ يعنى يقوله تفىء ترجع فذاك الدليل على ان الفىء كل راجع الى مكانه قد كان عليه او فيه و يقال للشمس اذا زالت قد فائت الشمس حين تفىء الفىء عند رجوع الشمس الى زوالها و كذلك ما افاء الله على المؤمنين من الكفار فانما هى حقوق المؤمنين رجعت اليهم بعد ظلمهم اياهم فذلك قوله أُذِنَ لِلَّذِيْنَ يُقَاتَلُوْنَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوْا ما كان المؤمنون احق به منصر و انما اذن المؤمنون الذين قاموا بشرائط الايمان التى وصفناها و ذلك انه لا يكون ماذونا له فى القتال حتى يكون مظلوما و لا يكون مظلوما حتى يكون مومنا و لا يكون مومنا حتى يكون قائما بشرائط الايمان التى شرط الله عز و جل على المؤمنين و المجاهدين فاذا تكاملت فيه شرائط الله عز و جل كان مومنا و اذا كان مومنا كان مظلوما و اذا كان مظلوما كان ماذونا فى الجهاد بقوله عز و جل أُذِنَ لِلَّذِيْنَ يُقَاتَلُوْنَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوْا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلىٰ نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيْرٌ و ان لم يكن مستكملا بشرائط الايمان فهو ظالم ممن ينبغى و يجب جهاده حتى يتوب و ليس مثله ماذونا فى الجهاد و الدعاء الى الله عز و جل لانه ليس من المؤمنين المظلومين الذين اذن لهم فى القتال فلما نزلت هذه الاية اذن للذين يقاتلون بانهم ظلموا فى المهاجرين الذين اخرجهم اهل مكة من ديارهم و اموالهم احل لهم جهادهم بظلمهم اياهم و ان لهم فى القتال فقلت فهذه الاية نزلت فى المهاجرين بظلم مشركى اهل مكة لهم فما بالهم فى قتال كسرى و قيصر و من دونهم من مشركى قبائل العرب فقال لو كان انما اذن لهم فى قتال من ظلمهم من اهل مكة فقط لم يكن لهم فى قتال جموع كسرى و قيصر و غير اهل مكة من قبائل العرب سبيل لان الذين ظلموهم غيرهم و انما اذن لهم فى قتال من ظلمهم من اهل مكة لاخراجهم اياهم من ديارهم و اموالهم بغير حق و لو كانت الاية انما عنت المهاجرين الذين ظلمهم اهل مكة كانت الاية مرتفعة الغرض عمن بعدهم اذ لم ييق من الظالمين و المظلومين احد و كان فرضا مرفوعا عن الناس بعدهم و ليس كما ظننت و لا كما ذكرت و لكن المهاجرين ظلموا من جهتين ظلمهم اهل مكة باخراجهم من ديارهم و اموالهم فقاتلوهم باذن الله تعالى لهم فى ذلك و ظلمهم كسرى و قيصر و ما كان دونهم من قبائل العرب و العجم بما كان فى ايديهم مما كان المؤمنون احق بهم منهم فقد قاتلوهم باذن الله عز و جل لهم فى ذلك و الحجة هذه الاية يقاتل مومنو كل زمان و انما اذن الله عز و جل للمؤمنين الذين قاموا بما وصف الله عز و جل من الشرائط التى شرطها الله على المؤمنين فى الايمان و الجهاد و من كان قائما بتلك الشرائط فهو مومن و هو مظلوم و ماذون له فى الجهاد بذلك المعنى و من كان على خلاف ذلك فهو ظالم و ليس من المظلومين و ليس بماذون له فى القتال و لا بالنهى عن المنكر و الامر بالامعروف لانه ليس من اهل ذلك و لا ماذون له فى الدعاء الى الله عز و جل لانه ليس هذا كمثله
‘Ali ibn Ibrahim narrates from his father from Bukayr ibn Salih from Qasim ibn Yazid from Abu ‘Umair al Zabiri who reports that he asked Abu ‘Abdullah to inform him of inviting towards Allah and waging Jihad in His path; is it specific to a certain group or is it permissible for all who believe in the oneness of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and his Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to call towards Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His obedience and to wage Jihad in His path.
He replied, “It is only permissible for a certain group and no one else has the right to practice it.”
“Who are these people?” he asked.
The reply was, “Those who fulfil the requirements mentioned by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala for the mujahidin are permitted to call towards Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala whereas those who do not possess these qualities are not permitted to wage jihad and call towards Allah until Allah creates in him the qualities of jihad.”
The narrator then asked him to explain these requisites and qualities. He elucidated by saying, “Certainly, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has mentioned about inviting to Himself in His book and has mentioned the qualities of those who call towards Him. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has made for them different levels so that they may recognise one another and be informed of one another. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala informed that He is the first Who called towards Himself; His obedience and fulfilling His commands. He began with Himself declaring:
وَاللَّهُ يَدْعُوْ إِلىٰ دَارِ السَّلَامِ وَيَهْدِيْ مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيْمٍ
And Allah invites to the Home of Peace and guides whom He wills to a straight path.
He mentioned His Rasul second saying:
ادْعُ إِلىٰ سَبِيْلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِيْ هِيَ أَحْسَنُ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ ضَلَّ عَنْ سَبِيْلِهِ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِيْنَ
Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has strayed from His way, and He is most knowing of who is [rightly] guided.
That person cannot be a caller towards Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala who acts contrary to His commands and calls to Him in a manner other than what He has stipulated in His book. Din is following commands. No claim can be made except with it. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says regarding Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:
وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِيْ إِلىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيْمٍ
And indeed, [O Muhammad], you guide to a straight path.
He then mentioned thirdly about calling towards Him through His book:
إِنَّ هٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ يَهْدِيْ لِلَّتِيْ هِيَ أَقْوَمُ وَيُبَشِّرُ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ
Indeed, this Qur’an guides (calls) to that which is most suitable and gives good tidings to the believers.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala then mentioned who is permitted to invite after Him and His Rasul in the Qur’an:
وَلْتَكُنْ مِّنْكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُوْنَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُوْنَ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَأُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُوْنَ
And let there be [arising] from you a nation inviting to [all that is] good, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong, and those will be the successful.
He then mentioned this ummah and specified who among them. Those who are the progeny of Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam and Ismail ‘alayh al Salam, who lived by the haram and who never ever worshipped anyone besides Allah. Those for whom the invitation of Ibrahim ‘alayh al Salam and Ismail ‘alayh al Salam is necessary; from the people of the Masjid. Those regarding whom He subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has mentioned in the Qur’an that He has removed filth from them and thoroughly purified them. Those whom we have specified before in the qualities of the ummah of Ibrahim. Those whom Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala referred to in His statement:
أَدْعُوْ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَلىٰ بَصِيْرَةٍ أَنَا وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِيْ
I invite to Allah with insight, I and those who follow me.
This refers to those who followed him in the very beginning by believing in him and in that which he brought from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. They are the ummah from whom he was sent and to whom he was sent who accepted the truth and never ascribed partners to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Their iman was never blemished with shirk. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala then spoke about following His Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and following this ummah whom he described in his Qur’an with enjoining good and forbidding evil. He made them callers to Himself and permitted them to invite, saying:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ حَسْبُكَ اللَّهُ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ
O Prophet, sufficient for you is Allah and for whoever follows you of the believers.
He then mentioned the qualities of the Muslims who followed his Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:
مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِيْنَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُوْنَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا سِيْمَاهُمْ فِيْ وُجُوْهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ذٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيْلِ
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel.
And He subhanahu wa ta ‘ala said:
يَوْمَ لَا يُخْزِي اللَّهُ النَّبِيَّ وَالَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا مَعَهُ نُوْرُهُمْ يَسْعىٰ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيْهِمْ وَبِأَيْمَانِهِمْ يَقُوْلُوْنَ رَبَّنَا أَتْمِمْ لَنَا نُوْرَنَا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا إِنَّكَ عَلىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيْرٌ
[On] the Day when Allah will not disgrace the Prophet and those who believed with him. Their light will proceed before them and on their right; they will say, “Our Lord, perfect for us our light and forgive us. Indeed, You are over all things competent.”
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:
قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُوْنَ
Certainly will the believers have succeeded.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala thereafter listed their qualities so that no one should hope to be included in them except those who have similar qualities. He describes them:
اَلَّذِيْنَ هُمْ فِيْ صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُوْنَ وَالَّذِيْنَ هُمْ عَنِ اللَّغْوِ مُعْرِضُوْنَ وَالَّذِيْنَ هُمْ لِلزَّكَاةِ فَاعِلُوْنَ وَالَّذِيْنَ هُمْ لِفُرُوْجِهِمْ حَافِظُوْنَ إِلَّا عَلىٰ أَزْوَاجِهِمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَيْرُ مَلُوْمِيْنَ فَمَنِ ابْتَغىٰ وَرَاءَ ذٰلِكَ فَأُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الْعَادُوْنَ وَالَّذِيْنَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَاعُوْنَ وَالَّذِيْنَ هُمْ عَلىٰ صَلَوَاتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُوْنَ أُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الْوَارِثُوْنَ الَّذِيْنَ يَرِثُوْنَ الْفِرْدَوْسَ هُمْ فِيْهَا خَالِدُوْنَ
They who are during their prayer humbly submissive. And they who turn away from ill speech. And they who are observant of zakat. And they who guard their private parts. Except from their wives or those their right hands possess, for indeed, they will not be blamed – But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors – And they who are to their trusts and their promises attentive. And they who carefully maintain their prayers – Those are the inheritors. Who will inherit al Firdaws. They will abide therein eternally.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala also mentioned regarding them:
وَالَّذِيْنَ لَا يَدْعُوْنَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلٰهًا آخَرَ وَلَا يَقْتُلُوْنَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِيْ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا يَزْنُوْنَ
And those who do not invoke with Allah another deity or kill the soul which Allah has forbidden [to be killed], except by right, and do not commit unlawful sexual intercourse.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala informed us:
إِنَّ اللَّهَ اشْتَرىٰ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُم بِأَنَّ لَهُمُ الْجَنَّةَ يُقَاتِلُوْنَ فِيْ سَبِيْلِ اللَّهِ فَيَقْتُلُوْنَ وَيُقْتَلُوْنَ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنجِيْلِ وَالْقُرْآنِ
Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties [in exchange] for that they will have Paradise. They fight in the cause of Allah, so they kill and are killed. [It is] a true promise [binding] upon Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur’an.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala then mentioned the fulfilment of their covenant and pledge:
وَمَنْ أَوْفىٰ بِعَهْدِهِ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَاسْتَبْشِرُوْا بِبَيْعِكُمُ الَّذِيْ بَايَعْتُم بِهِ وَذٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيْمُ
And who is truer to his covenant than Allah? So rejoice in your transaction which you have contracted. And it is that which is the great attainment.
When this verse was revealed, a man stood up and asked, “O Nabi of Allah! If a person takes his sword and slays until he is slain; except that he also commits sins; is he a martyr?” Upon this Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala revealed:
اَلتَّائِبُوْنَ الْعَابِدُوْنَ الْحَامِدُوْنَ السَّائِحُوْنَ الرَّاكِعُوْنَ السَّاجِدُوْنَ الْآمِرُوْنَ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ وَالنَّاهُوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَالْحَافِظُوْنَ لِحُدُوْدِ اللَّهِ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ
[Such believers are] the repentant, the worshippers, the praisers [of Allah], those who fast, those who bow and prostrate [in prayer], those who enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong, and those who observe the limits [set by] Allah. And give good tidings to the believers.
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then commentated upon the Mujahidin of the Mu’minin who have these qualities and have been promised martyrdom and Jannat saying:
“The repentant from their sins. The worshippers who only worship Allah and do not ascribe any partner to Him. The praisers who praise Allah in every condition; adversity or prosperity. Those who keep fast. Those who bow and prostrate – are regular in their five times salah, protecting their salah and guarding their ruku’, sujud, concentration and performing salah on its appointed time. Those who enjoin what is right and practice accordingly. Those who forbid what is wrong and abstain accordingly. And give glad tidings to those who are killed and possess these beautiful qualities of martyrdom and Jannat.”
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala then explained that He commands fighting for those who possess these qualities:
أُذِنَ لِلَّذِيْنَ يُقَاتَلُوْنَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوْا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلىٰ نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيْرٌ الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوْا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ إِلَّا أَنْ يَقُوْلُوْا رَبُّنَا اللَّهُ
Permission [to fight] has been given to those who are being fought, because they were wronged. And indeed, Allah is competent to give them victory. [They are] those who have been evicted from their homes without right – only because they say, “Our Lord is Allah.”
The entire space between the sky and earth belongs to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and the Mu’minin who possess these qualities. The land which is in the hands of the mushrikin, kuffar, oppressors, transgressors, and those who oppose Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam belongs to the oppressed Mu’minin who possess these qualities and who overpower them. Whatever Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has returned to His Rasul is their right. The meaning of al Fay’ is to return. Whatever has gone to the mushrikin and then has returned to its place is called Fay’. It can refer to words or actions as Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala said:
فَإِنْ فَاءُوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُوْرٌ رَّحِيْمٌ وَإِنْ عَزَمُوا الطَّلَاقَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيْعٌ عَلِيْمٌ
But if they return [to normal relations] – then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. And if they decide on divorce – then indeed, Allah is Hearing and Knowing.
وَإِنْ طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ اقْتَتَلُوْا فَأَصْلِحُوْا بَيْنَهُمَا فَإِنْ بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الْأُخْرىٰ فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِيْ تَبْغِيْ حَتّىٰ تَفِيْءَ إِلىٰ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ فَاءَتْ فَأَصْلِحُوْا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُوْا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِيْنَ
And if two factions among the believers should fight, then make settlement between the two. But if one of them oppresses the other, then fight against the one that oppresses until it returns to the ordinance of Allah. And if it returns, then make settlement between them in justice and act justly. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly.
This is proof that all Fay’ returns to its place where it had been. It is said regarding the sun when it passes its zenith,
قد فائت الشمس
Similarly, whatever Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala returns to the Mu’minin of the wealth of the kuffar, it is the right of the Mu’minin which has returned to them after them being oppressed. This is the meaning of Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement:
أُذِنَ لِلَّذِيْنَ يُقَاتَلُوْنَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوْا
Permission [to fight] has been given to those who are being fought, because they were wronged.
Not all the Mu’minin have rights over it. Only those Mu’minin have been permitted who possess the qualities of iman which we have mentioned. In short, no one has permission to wage jihad except the oppressed and you cannot be oppressed unless you are a mu’min and you cannot be a mu’min until you possess the qualities of iman which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has specified for them and the mujahidin. So when all of these qualities are found, then automatically he will be permitted to fight as Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:
أُذِنَ لِلَّذِيْنَ يُقَاتَلُوْنَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوْا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلىٰ نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيْرٌ
Permission [to fight] has been given to those who are being fought, because they were wronged. And indeed, Allah is competent to give them victory.
A person who does not possess all these qualities in totality is an oppressor who has rebelled and it is necessary to fight him until he repents. Such persons are not permitted to wage jihad or invite towards Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala since they do not fulfil the requisites, i.e. Mu’minin who are oppressed. When this verse was revealed regarding the Muhajirin who were evicted from their houses and wealth by the people of Makkah, jihad against the oppressors was permitted due to their oppression.”
The narrator explains that he asked that when this verse was revealed regarding those who were oppressed by the mushrikin of Makkah, then why they fought Kisra and Qaisar and other mushrikin tribes.
The Imam explained, “Had there been only permitted to fight those who oppressed them from the people of Makkah then they would not have any right to fight the armies of Kisra and Qaisar and the other Arab tribes since these people did not oppress them. Yes, they were permitted to fight the people of Makkah who oppressed them by evicting them out of their homes and wealth unjustly. If the verse only referred to the Muhajirin who were oppressed by the people of Makkah, then the verse would not apply to those after them since none of the oppressors or oppressed remain. It would then be an abrogated command for those after them. However, it is not as you think or have supposed. The Muhajirin were oppressed from two angles, viz. the people of Makkah oppressed them by evicting them from their houses and wealth hence they fought the former; and Kisra and Qaisar as well as other Arab and non-Arab tribes oppressed them by withholding their wealth and power which the Mu’minin were more deserving of, hence they fought them with the permission of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. This verse gives permission to the Mu’minin of every era to wage jihad. Yes, only those Mu’minin are permitted who possess the conditions and qualities mentioned by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, viz. iman, jihad, etc., since they are Mu’minin and oppressed. Those who do not possess these qualities are oppressors, not oppressed. Hence, they are not permitted to wage jihad, to enjoin good and forbid evil since they are not worthy and they are not allowed to invite towards Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala for the same reason.
The narration proves that the jihad waged against Kisra and Qaisar was by divine command and the Muhajirin who fought were permitted by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to do so. This hadith clearly states that only those are permitted to wage jihad who possess the qualities:
اَلتَّائِبُوْنَ الْعَابِدُوْنَ الْحَامِدُوْنَ السَّائِحُوْنَ الرَّاكِعُوْنَ السَّاجِدُوْنَ الْآمِرُوْنَ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ وَالنَّاهُوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَالْحَافِظُوْنَ لِحُدُوْدِ اللَّهِ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ
[Such believers are] the repentant, the worshippers, the praisers [of Allah], those who fast, those who bow and prostrate [in prayer], those who enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong, and those who observe the limits [set by] Allah. And give good tidings to the believers.
When the Muhajirin were divinely permitted to wage jihad against Kisra and Qaisar, then their possessing these great qualities is established by the Imam’s statement. This fact can never be denied since no one will ever dare to deny the fact that the Muhajirin fought Kisra and Qaisar and no one can deny that the Imam has termed their jihad as divinely permitted coupled with mentioning the proof and reason for it. Had their jihad been without divine consent, the Imam would have responded to the questioner by saying, “That was not Jihad, nor were the people divinely permitted to wage jihad.” Conversely, the Imam has emphatically declared them to be divinely permitted coupled with mentioning the proof for this in clear terms. And only those are permitted to wage jihad who possess iman and carry out righteous acts. So the apparent logical result of the afore-mentioned is that the Imam has termed those Muhajirin who fought against Kisra and Qaisar as believers and possessors of the qualities (conditions) of jihad.
The Shiaah scholars were in a predicament to answer this hadith and could not come up with any logical explanation. Dildar ‘Ali writes in Tash’id al Mabani in answer to Molana Haydar ‘Ali:
نہایت آنچہ ازیں حدیث ظاہر می شود ایں ست کہ مہاجرین ماذون بجہاد کسری و قیصر بودند و حقیت خلافت خلفاء ازاں اصلا مستفاد نمی شود زیراکہ در احادیث معتمدہ اہل سنت وارد شدہ کہ جناب رسالت مآب مسلمین را خبر تسلط خلفاء جور دادہ و امر باطاعت آنہا نمودہ بود
The thing apparent from this hadith is that the Muhajirin were permitted to wage jihad against Kisra and Qaisar. This does not in any way prove the validity of the khilafah of the Khulafa’ since it appears in the ahadith of Sunni books that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam informed about the dominance of tyrannical Khulafa’ and commanded that they be obeyed.
This passage proves at the very least that Dildar ‘Ali has nothing against the authenticity of this hadith nor against its content. And this is sufficient to prove our stance. Furthermore, the readers can ponder and draw conclusions for themselves whether Dildar ‘Ali’s answer has proven or disproven our claim which is established by this hadith. When he could not find a suitable answer; he could not deny the Muhajirin’s jihad against Kisra and Qaisar, he could not object to them being permitted by Allah and had not the courage to reject them fulfilling all the conditions mentioned by the Imam to be fit for this task, he turned to the books of the Ahlus Sunnah. But by which stretch of intelligence is that going to disprove the hadith? Our discussion is not whether the Khulafa’ Rashidin were righteous or treacherous according to Sunni narrations. The point of contention is whether this hadith does or does not prove that the Muhajirin who fought Kisra and Qaisar were divinely permitted, which in turn necessitates them being righteous practicing individuals. This cannot be rejected unless you reject two obvious facts: 1. The Muhajirin’s jihad against Kisra and Qaisar 2. The Imam’s statement that the Muhajirin were divinely permitted to wage jihad. If the Shia have the courage to declare that the Muhajirin did not wage jihad and did not conquer the lands ruled by Kisra and Qaisar, but in fact the Iranian Shia or Lucknow’s Mu’minin were the ones who fought then we will accept our blunder. Or they are prepared to declare that the Imam did not state that the Muhajirin were divinely permitted but were rather prevented, then too both our claim and proof will be disproven. And if not, then our assertion is correct.
Since Dildar ‘Ali fully understood that his answer is extremely weak, he gave another answer to it which is better, stronger, and unbreakable. It is that this jihad took place by the advice and consent of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. As if Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was permitted by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and then granted permission to the Muhajirin to wage jihad against Kisra and Qaisar. We also applaud this answer so that the readers do not have evil thoughts about us. No one should doubt that this is Dildar ‘Ali’s answer. I will quote the original text from Tash’id al Mabani:
و دریں مقام سرے دیگر ست کہ تعرض بآں پر ضرور و آں اینست کہ خلیفہ ثانی بلکہ خلفاۓ ثلاثہ چوں براۓ العین مشاہدہ بودند کہ جناب ولایت مآب افضل و اعلم صحابہ ست لہذا در اکثر امور عظام مثل جہاد و اجراۓ حدود و غیرہ بطریق مشورہ مرضی مبارک جناب امیر دریافت می نمودند چنانچہ ایں امر بر متتبع خبیر ظاہر و روشن ست و کلام صدق نظام خلیفہ ثانی لولا علی لہلک عمر و معضلۃ لا ابا حسن لہ کر در کتب معتمدہ اہل سنت وارد شدہ نیز دلالت صریح براں دارد و در خصوص جہاد فارس فاضل دہلوی نیز مشورہ نمودن خلیفہ ثانی بآں حضرت مذکور ساختہ پس بریں تقدیر ماذون بودن مہاجرین و انصار براۓ جہاد فارس و شام و غیرہ مستغنی عن البیان ست و آنچہ جناب امام جعفر صادق در باب اذن آنہا فرمودہ بسپ اذن و اذن جناب امیر بود نہ سپ حقیت خلافت ثلاثہ
There is another subtle point here which cannot be ignored. The second khalifah – in fact all three Khulafa’ – saw for themselves that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was the most superior and knowledgeable of all the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Hence, they sought his consent in important matters like jihad, legal punishments, etc., by seeking his advice. This is a well-known fact. The second Khalifah’s truthful statement, “Had it not been for ‘Ali, ‘Umar would be destroyed,” is found in many reliable Sunni books. This is a clear proof of taking his advice and consent. Fadil Dehlawi has documented ‘Umar consulting Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu about the jihad against the Persians. Therefore, there is no need to say anything further regarding the Muhajirin and Ansar being permitted to wage jihad against Persia, Sham, etc. Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah has declared with regards to permission that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu gave permission to wage jihad but did not give permission when it came to the khilafah of the three.
Dildar ‘Ali’s answer has given further credibility to our claim instead of refuting it. Let us analyse it logically.
Minor premise: The Muhajirin were permitted to wage jihad
Major premise: Only those are permitted to wage jihad who possess all the qualities of iman as mentioned in verse 112 of Surah al Tawbah
Conclusion: The Muhajirin possess all the qualities of iman as mentioned in verse 112 of Surah al Tawbah
And this is exactly our stance!
If Dildar ‘Ali had to reject this hadith or claimed that the Muhajirin were not permitted to wage jihad, then our claim could have been challenged. However, the man not only acknowledged this fact, he lent further support to it by saying that they were granted permission by Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. The Khulafa’ would consult him in such matters and would seek his consent. So in them being granted permission lies the permission of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu which indicates the permission of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.
We now state that if the Muhajirin did not possess the qualities of iman which are necessary for the mujahidin, then Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would have not permitted them to fight and would have remained aloof from those seeking to consult him. Moreover, he would have deemed their jihad a means of fitnah and anarchy and their killing to be necessary as demanded by the hadith.
Dildar ‘Ali’s claim that this does not prove the validity of the three’s khilafah is extremely perplexing. Those who possessed the qualities mentioned in the hadith, i.e. perfect faith and righteous deeds, and are included in the verse of Surah al Tawbah, such persons will definitely be seeking the pleasure of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Loving the Ahlul Bayt, helping them, and dissociating from their enemies will be their duty. This duty can only be fulfilled when the three Khulafa’ are believed to be superior to the rest of the Muhajirin radiya Llahu ‘anhum – in accordance to our ‘aqidah – or at least on their level. Otherwise, it is impossible to think that people who possess perfect iman and righteous deeds will accept the leadership of men deprived of iman and righteous deeds, who are hypocrites and renegades, enemies of the Ahlul Bayt, and the ones who usurped their rights and harmed the beloved daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Only those people will be obedient to them who are hypocrites and renegades like them. When this hadith has proven that the Muhajirin were permitted to fight jihad from Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala side and from the side of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, which proves that they possessed perfect faith and carried out righteous deeds, the obvious conclusion will be that the leaders of this group have the same outstanding qualities and are included in the verse:
اَلتَّائِبُوْنَ الْعَابِدُوْنَ الْحَامِدُوْنَ السَّائِحُوْنَ الرَّاكِعُوْنَ السَّاجِدُوْنَ الْآمِرُوْنَ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ وَالنَّاهُوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَالْحَافِظُوْنَ لِحُدُوْدِ اللَّهِ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ
[Such believers are] the repentant, the worshippers, the praisers [of Allah], those who fast, those who bow and prostrate [in prayer], those who enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong, and those who observe the limits [set by] Allah. And give good tidings to the believers.
All praise is due to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala for this!
The Muhajirin being granted permission from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to wage jihad from this hadith has been attested to by Dildar ‘Ali’s answer. I will now present another narration which shows that the jihad which took place in the reign of the three Khulafa’ and the lands conquered by them was prophesied by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam many years earlier. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam deemed their conquests as his conquests. Ibn Babawayh narrates that in the Battle of Ahzab which is also known as the Battle of Khandaq, a trench was dug on the proposal of Sayyidina Salman al Farsi radiya Llahu ‘anhu. While digging, they came across a huge boulder which would not break. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was informed of it. He came to the scene and gave a blow to it with a pick which resulted in a light coming out of it seeing which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exclaimed, “Allahu Akbar! Allah has given me the keys of Sham. By Allah, I see the red castle.” He then gave a second blow which broke off a third of it seeing which he exclaimed, “Allahu Akbar! Allah has given me the keys of Persia. By Allah, I see the white castle of Mada’in.” When he struck it for the third time and the boulder broke, he shouted, “Allahu Akbar! Allah has given me the keys of Yemen. By Allah, I see the door of San’a’.”
The last words of the narration are:
بالجملہ در ایام حفر خندق قطعہ از سنگی سخت پدید شد کہ مردم از شکستن آں بے چارہ گشتند و سلمان ایں خبر برسول خدا برداشت جابر بن عبد اللہ انصاری گوید دریں ہنگام روسل خدا در مسجد فتح بر پشت خوابیدہ بود و از شدت جوع سنگ بر شکم مبارک بستہ داشت چہ سہ روز می رفت کہ ہیچ کس بطعامے دست نیافت بایں ہمہ چوں ایں قصہ بشنید متین بر گرفت و بخندق در آمد براء بن عازب گوید چوں بامتین بر سر سنگ آمد فرمود بسم اللہ و بضرب نخستین یک ثلث آن سنگ را بیفگند و گفت اللہ اکبر و برقے از سنگ جستن کرد پغمبر فرمود مفاتیح شام مرادادند سو گند باخدای کہ شام را با قصور احمر مشاہدت می کنم و در ضربت دوم ثلث دوم را فرود آورد و ہم برقے بجست فرمود اللہ اکبر مفاتیح فارس مرادادند سو گند باخدای کہ قصور ابیض مدائن را می نگرم و در ضربت سیم سنگ را بجملہ پراگندہ ساخت و نیز برقے جہید و رسول خدا فرمود اللہ اکبر مفاتیح یمن بہرہ من افتاد سو گند باخدائیکہ ابواب صنعاء نظارہ کنم و در ہر کرت مردم با پیغمبر موافقت می کردند و بانگ تکبیر برمی داشتند آنگا روۓ با سلمان کرد و صفت کوشک مدائن را بتمامت باز گفت سلمان عرض کردید سوگند خدای کہ ترا فرستادہ ایں ہمہ صفت کوشک مدائن ست و گواہی می دہ کو تو رسول خدای پیغمبر فرمود بعد از من ست من ایں ممالک بکشایند و دفائن کسری و قیصر را نفقہ دہند
While digging the trench, a boulder appeared which people could not break. Therefore, Salman al Farsi radiya Llahu ‘anhu informed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam about it. Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah relates that at that time, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was resting in Masjid al Fath and a stone was tied to his blessed stomach out of extreme hunger for he had not eaten a morsel for the last three days. Hearing this news, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam took his pick and came into the trench. Bara’ ibn ‘Azib radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates that when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam approached the boulder with pick in hand; he recited “Bismillah al Rahman al Rahim” and struck it which caused a third of it to break off. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exclaimed, “Allahu Akbar!”
A light beamed from the boulder seeing which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “Allah has given me the keys of Sham. By Allah, I can see the red castle.”
Upon the second strike, another third of the boulder broke off and a light beamed from it. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam shouted “Allahu Akbar! Allah has given me the keys of Persia. By Allah, I can see the white castle of Mada’in.”
Upon the third strike, the boulder was broken into pieces. This time also a light beamed from it and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exclaimed, “Allahu Akbar! Allah has given me the keys of Yemen. By Allah, I see door of San’a’.”
The atmosphere was such that when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam screamed Allahu Akbar, those around him chorused with him. Thereafter, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam described to Salman al Farsi the castles of Mada’in hearing which the latter commented, “By Allah Who has made you a true Messenger, this is the exact description of Mada’in. I testify that you are a true Messenger.”
Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then proclaimed, “My followers will conquer all these countries after me and spend the treasures of Kisra and Qaisar.
This narration informs us of the prophecy of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam of the conquests of Sham, Persia, and Yemen and that his followers will conquer it. Moreover, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has attributed those conquests to himself by declaring that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has granted him their keys. If the khilafah of these Khulafa’ was incorrect, and they together with those who followed them and fought at their command were all hypocrites and renegades, then would Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam have attributed their actions to his noble being and understood their conquests as his own? Dildar ‘Ali answers this in Tash’id al Mabani:
نہایت آنچہ ازیں روایت ثابت می شود ایں ست کہ ملک شام و یمن و غیرہ در قبضہ اسلام خواہد آمد و ازاں ظاہر نمی شود کہ کسانیکہ در ایام حکومت آنہا ایں ممالک در قبضہ خواہد آمد خلیفہ بحق خواہند بود زیراکہ از جملہ احادیث معتمدہ اہل سنت ست کہ ان اللہ یؤید ہذا الدین بالرجل الفاجر پس اگر قوت دین و رواج شرح متین در عہد احدے دلیل حقیت اباشد لازم آید حقیت خلافت ہر بادشاہ فاجر و جابر و ہو خلاف مزعوم المجیب
The gist of this narration is that the countries of Sham, Yemen, etc., will fall into the hands of the Muslims. However, this is not apparent that those men – under whose rulership these countries will be conquered – are truthful and rightful Khulafa’. It is a reliable hadith in Sunni books that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will aid this din with a transgressor. Taking this point into consideration, if the strength of Islam and the enforcement of Shari’ah in an era is accepted to be proof for the correctness of the ruler of that time, it will necessitate that every transgressing and tyrannical ruler was rightful for the post of khilafah whereas this is contrary to the answerer’s thoughts.
In this answer Dildar ‘Ali presented a hadith of the Ahlus Sunnah, as he did with the first hadith mentioned previously, whereas he ought to answer this narration. Nevertheless, the answer he presents has – and all praise belongs to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala – authenticated this narration and the Sunni hadith has not benefitted him in the least. The reason for this is that when it is recorded that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam exclaimed thrice that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has given him the keys of a certain country and he was happy at this and shouted out the takbir, then why would Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam attribute his blessed hands to the Khulafa’s hands if they had been transgressors? How could he be pleased with this? How could he give glad tidings to the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum, “Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has awarded me these countries which will be conquered by my ummah.”? That pure Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam whose hands Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala referred to as His own and declared:
إِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ يُبَايِعُوْنَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُوْنَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيْهِمْ
Indeed, those who pledge allegiance to you, [O Muhammad] – they are actually pledging allegiance to Allah. The Hand of Allah is over their hands.
Rebellious transgressors who changed the din, usurped the rights of his family members, transgressed the borders of transgression and disobedience, and entered the domain of irtidad and kufr – in fact who the Shia regard to be bereft of iman and filled with hypocrisy from the very beginning; could he ever attribute their actions to his noble pure being, express happiness upon them, and boast about their actions which led to conquests and Islamic advancement?
More amazing is that the hadith Dildar ‘Ali furnished as proof is of no benefit to him. The hadith mentions, “After me there will be Khulafa’, i.e. rightful Khulafa’, followed by leaders and then oppressive kings.” So this Sunni hadith can never apply to the honourable Khulafa’.
If distorted meanings can be given to such ahadith and their objectives can be changed, then the ahadith quoted in praise of al Mahdi that din will be strengthened through him and Islam will spread in the entire world, can be misinterpreted by the Khawarij. They can say the same thing about Shia narrations. They may declare that the narration:
ان الله يؤيد هذا الدين بالرجل الفاجر
Indeed Allah will aid this din by a transgressor.
applies to the conquests in the era of al Mahdi thereby blackening their book of deeds. The answer the Shia give them should be understood as our answer to the Shia.
I have now established that the two groups, the Muhajirin and Ansar, were special Muslims and possessed remarkable sincerity. I have also shown that the answers presented by Shia scholars do not falsify those ahadith but in fact are interpretations which reach the stage of distortion of meaning.
Besides ahadith in praise of the Muhajirin and Ansar, there are many ahadith concerning the Khulafa’ Rashidin radiya Llahu ‘anhum which are documented in Shia books which prove their iman, sincerity, and excellent qualities. In fact, they also explain their high status in Islam and the detriment caused to din by their demise. I have narrated some of these narrations in the first portion of part 1 of this book, some in various places of part 2 and I will now mention some.
Such statements of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu are recorded in Nahj al Balaghah which depict the high and noble thoughts he had about Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He understood him as the reference of the Arabs and their pivot, his safety as a boon, and he would give him friendly advice and compassionate counsel. At the time when Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu intended to go himself to fight the Persians and sought counsel from Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the latter said:
Divine help is not dependent on the number of soldiers. This is the din of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala which He makes dominant. Islam’s army is His army, whom He aided and assisted until Islam reached this height and spread across the world. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has promised us and He will fulfil this promise and help His army. The khalifah is like the string which has pearls on it. The necklace will only remain intact as long as the string is intact. If the string has to break, the pearls will scatter all over and will not be able to be gathered again. Today, although the Arabs are few in number; yet they are numerous due to Islam and dominant due to unity. Stay as a pivot and keep the Arabs united. The fire of war will break out between the Arabs in your absence. If you leave this land, the Arabs will gather from every nook and corner against you and the things you left behind will be more vulnerable and sensitive then the things you chasing after. When the non-Arabs will see you leaving, they will develop more courage and greed and say that the Arabs were only a handful. You say that the Persians have advanced against the Muslims; the evil of this is known better to Allah than to you. And Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has the power to remove what He deems as evil. You have spoken about their great numbers. Whatever jihad we waged was not on the strength of numbers but on the strength of the aid and assistance of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.
There is mention of a letter of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu addressed to Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu which begins with:
فاراد قومنا قتل نبينا الخ
Our nation intended to kill our Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.
Ibn Maytham al Bahrani writes in the commentary that this is one portion of the letter Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu wrote in response to Sayyidina Muawiyah’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu letter wherein he sought the killers of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He wrote that the greatest among the Muslims was the first khalifah, then the second, and thereafter the third. He accused Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu of having jealousy for them, rebelling against them, having greed for khilafah, and delaying giving bay’ah until he was forced like how a camel is pulled forcefully by the rope, etc. Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu sent this letter with Abu Muslim al Khawlani to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. In response, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu wrote a lengthy letter in which he writes the following concerning the Khulafa’:
و ذكرت ان الله اجتبى له من المسلمين اعوانا ايدهم به فكانوا فى منازلهم عنده على قدر فضائلهم فى الاسلام و كان افضلهم فى الاسلام كما زعمت و انصحهم لله و لرسوله الخليفة الصديق و خليفة الخليفة الفاروق و لعمرى ان مكانهما فى الاسلام لعظيم و ان المصاب بهما لجرح فى الاسلام شديد يرحمهما الله و جزاهما الله باحسن ما عملا
You mentioned that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala chose helpers for him salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from the Muslims who would assist him. Their proximity to him was proportionate to their prominence in Islam. And the most superior of them as you have determined and the one who had wished for the greatest good for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was al Khalifah al Siddiq [i.e. Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu] and then the khalifah of the khalifah, al Faruq [Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu]. By my life, their status in Islam is lofty and their demise is a great devastation to Islam. May Allah shower His mercy upon them and grant them the best reward for the good they have done.
It is documented in Nahj al Balaghah that when the rebels surrounded the house of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu went to him and addressed him, “People have sent me as a messenger to you. However, I do not know what to say to you. I do not know something which you have no knowledge about and cannot tell you something you cannot fathom. You know what we know. We have not beaten you in anything which we can boast about to you. You have seen what we have seen and have heard what we have heard. You sat in the company of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam like us. Ibn Abi Quhafah was not superior to you nor was Ibn al Khattab more rightful. You are closer to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam for you have the privilege of being his son-in-law which they do not have.” He told him few other things and explained to him.
Our object of quoting these words at this juncture is to show that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not understand himself to be superior to Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu in any aspect. Instead, he stated clearly, “You know what I know. You have seen what I have seen and have heard what I have heard. You have the privilege of sitting in the company of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam like me.” The original text is:
و الله ما ادرى ما اقول لك ما اعرف شيئا تجهله و لا ادلك على امر لا تعرفه انك لتعلم ما نعلم و الله ما سبقناك الى شىء فنخبرك عنه و لا خلونا بشىء فنبلغكه و قد رأيت كما رأينا و سمعت كما سمعنا و صحبت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كما صحبنا و ما ابن ابى قحافة و لا ابن الخطاب باولى بعمل الحق منك و انت اقرب الى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم وشيجة رحم و قد نلت من صهره ما لم ينالا
By Allah, I do not know what to say to you. I do not know something which you have no knowledge of and I cannot tell you something you cannot fathom. Indeed, you know what we know. By Allah, we have not beaten you in anything which we can boast about to you and we have nothing special which we can present to you. You have seen what we have seen and have heard what we have heard. You sat in the company of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam like us. Neither Ibn Abi Quhafah nor Ibn al Khattab were more rightful than you in practicing good. You are closer to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with regards to family ties for you have the privilege of being his son-in-law which they do not have.
These statements of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the narrations of the noble Imams sourced from ‘reliable’ Shia books will leave no doubt in the minds of the readers that the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum were praiseworthy in the sight of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The Imams’ tongues were moist with their virtues and praises and they supplicated to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to reward them for their good actions and sent mercy upon them. Were such people out of the fold of Islam and deprived of iman regarding whom Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:
و لعمرى ان مكانهما فى الاسلام لعظيم و ان المصاب بهما لجرح فى الاسلام شديد
By my life, their status in Islam is lofty and their demise is a great catastrophe to Islam.
Can it ever be imagined that those Khulafa’ were usurpers and oppressors regarding whom he stated:
يرحمهما الله و جزاهما الله باحسن ما عملا
May Allah shower His mercy upon them and grant them the best reward for the good they have done.
Can any Muslim speak disrespectfully about such men?
Can the son-in-law of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam ever be a hypocrite and kafir regarding who he said:
و الله ما سبقناك الى شىء فنخبرك عنه و لا خلونا بشىء فنبلغكه و قد رأيت كما رأينا و سمعت كما سمعنا و صحبت رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم كما صحبنا و ما ابن ابى قحافة و لا ابن الخطاب باولى بعمل الحق منك و انت اقرب الى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم وشيجة رحم و قد نلت من صهره ما لم ينالا
By Allah, we have not beaten you in anything which we can boast about to you and we have nothing special which we can present to you. You have seen what we have seen and have heard what we have heard. You sat in the company of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam like us. Neither Ibn Abi Quhafah nor Ibn al Khattab were more rightful than you in practicing good. You are closer to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with regards to family ties for you have the privilege of being his son-in-law which they do not have.
How can it ever be possible for the Muhajirin and Ansar to renege – as is the belief of the Shia – whereas Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said regarding the Ansar:
الانصار كرشى و عيبتى
The Ansar are my vital organs.
لو سلك الناس واديا و سلك الانصار شعبا لسلكت شعب الانصار
If the people had to tread a path and the Ansar had to tread another, I would tread the path of the Ansar.
اللهم اغفر للانصار و ابناء الانصار و ابناء ابناء الانصار
O Allah! Forgive the Ansar, their children, and grandchildren.
And the Imam has regarded the Muhajirin to be divinely permitted to wage jihad and to possess the qualities in the verse:
[Such believers are] the repentant, the worshippers, the praisers [of Allah], those who fast, those who bow and prostrate [in prayer], those who enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong, and those who observe the limits [set by] Allah. And give good tidings to the believers.
How could such people forget Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam bequest, desert the Ahlul Bayt, and fail to assist Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu who is Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam rightful wasi and undisputed khilafah?
Only such a person can utter such drivel who in his intoxication of religious prejudice bids his intelligence and understanding farewell and begins denying categorical and historical facts. Otherwise, no man in his sane mind will utter such drivel. In fact, it can never cross the mind of an intelligent man. If the evil of such thoughts and beliefs cannot be comprehended by a person, then he is excused. We should pray that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala grants him understanding and opens his heart and eyes to reality.
 Kitab al Hujjah pg. 172.
 Surah Yasin: 12.
 This narration has been quoted in the discussion on the claim over Fadak. It can be viewed there.
 Bihar al Anwar pg. 96; Kitab al Khara’ij wa al Jara’ih pg. 123 by Qutb al Din Rawindi.
 Izalat al Ghayn.
 Nasikh al Tawarikh vol. 14 pg. 141.
 Usul al Kafi pg. 219.
 Haqq al Yaqin. Whoever wishes should compare this with the actual text. I felt that there was no strong need to quote it verbatim.
 Nasikh al Tawarikh vol. 4 pg. 52.
 Bihar al Anwar Kitab al Fitan pg. 46, 47.
 Nahj al Balaghah vol. 2 pg. 627.
 Nahj al Balaghah vol. 2 pg. 603.
 Surah Sad: 5.
 Surah al Tawbah: 25.
 To those who were inclined to accept Islam or who recently accepted Islam but their faith was still weak.
 Karish: Family members and offspring. It is said, they are small children. Al ‘aybah: it is said so and so’s ‘aybah when it is his hiding place (confidant).
 Manhaj al Sadiqin vol. 2 pg. 1.
 Majma’ al Bayan vol. 2 pg. 10.
 Al Ihtijaj of Tabarsi vol. 1 pg. 171, 172.
 Ihqaq al Haqq pg. 65.
 Ihqaq al Haqq pg. 65.
 Surah al Nur: 55.
 Surah Yunus: 25.
 Surah al Nahl: 125.
 Surah al Shura: 52.
 Surah Bani Isra’il: 9.
 Surah Al ‘Imran: 104.
 Surah Yusuf: 108.
 Surah al Anfal: 64.
 Surah al Fath: 29.
 Surah al Tahrim: 8.
 Surah al Mu’minun: 1.
 Surah al Mu’minun: 1-11.
 Surah al Furqan: 68.
 Surah al Tawbah: 111.
 Surah al Tawbah: 111.
 Surah al Tawbah: 112.
 Surah al Hajj: 39-40.
 Surah al Baqarah: 226, 227.
 Surah al Hujurat: 9.
 Izalat al Ghayn vol. 2 pg. 105 – 109; Furu’ al Kafi; Kitab al Jihad pg. 609; al Shafi Urdu translation of Furu’ vol. 4 pg. 547, 548.
 Surah al Tawbah: 112.
 Surah al Tawbah: 112.
 This narration is recorded on page 376 of vol. 2 of Hayat al Qulub printed by Nolkashor Printers and page 216 of vol. 1 of Nasikh al Tawarikh printed in Iran.
چون ایں خبر بحضرت رسول رسید اصحاب خود را طلبید و بایشان مشورت کرد ہفتصد نفر بودند پس سلمان گفت یا رسول اللہ جماعت قلیل در مطادلہ و مبارزہ در برابر جماعت کثیر نمیتو اند ایستاد حضرت فرمود پس چہ کنیم سلمان گفت خندق می کنیم بر در خود کہ حجابے باشد میان تو و ایشاں کہ ایشاں از ہر جانب بر سر مانیایند و جنگ از یک جانب باشد و مادر بلاد عجم وقتیکہ لشکر گرانے متوجہ مامی شد چنیں می کردیم کہ جنگ از موقع معینے واقع شود پس جبریل بر حضرت رسول نازل شد و گفت راۓ سلمان صوابست و بآں عمل می باید کرد حضرت فرمودہ زمیں را بمیودند از ناحیہ احد تا برابح و مر بست گام و باسے گام را بجماعتے از مہاجران و انصار داد کہ حفر نمایند و امر کرد کہ بیلہا و گلنکہا آوردند و حضرت خود ابتدا کرد در حصہ مہاجران کلنگے برداشت و خود می کند حضرت امیر المومنین خاک را نقل می کرد تا آنکہ عرق کردہ ماندہ شد و فرمود کہ عیشے نیست مگر عیش آخرت خداوندا بیا مرز انصار و مہاجران راو چوں مردم دیدند کہ حضرت خود متوجہ کندن گردید اہتمام بسیار کردند در کندن و خاک را نقل می کردند چوں روز دوم شد بامداد آمدند بر سر خندق و حضرت در مسجد فتح نشست و صحابہ مشغول کندن شدند ناگاہ بسنگے رسید کہ کلنک براں کار نمیکر دپس جابر بن عبد اللہ انصاری رانجدمت حضرت فرستادند کہ حقیت حال را عرض نماید جابر گفت کہ چوں مسجد فتح رفتم دیدم کہ حضرت بر پشت خوابیدہ است در داشے مبارک را در زیر سر گزاشتہ و از گرسنگی برشکم خود سنگی بستہ است گفتم یا رسول اللہ سنگے در خندق پیدا شدہ کہ کلنک دراں اثر نمیکند پس بر خاست و بسرعت روانہ شد چوں بآں موضع رسید آبے طلبید و ازاں آب وضو ساخت و کف آبے دردہان حکمت نشان کرد و مضمضہ نمود و برآں سنک ریخت پس کلنک را گرفت و ضربتے براں سنک زد کہ ازاں برقے ساطع شد و از برق قصر ہاۓ شام را دیدیم پس بارد گر کلنک راز دو برقے ساطع شد کہ قصرہاۓ مدائن را دیدم پس بارد گر کلنک راز دو برقے لامع شد کہ قصرہاۓ یمن را دیدم پس فرمودہ ایں مواضع را کہ برق بر آنہاتابید شما فتح خواہید کرد مسلماں را از استماع ایں بشات شاد شدند و خدارا حمد کردند و منافقاں گفتند کہ وعدہ ملک کسری و قیصر میدہد و از ترس بر در خود خندق میکند پس حق تعالی ایت قل اللہ مالک الملک را براۓ تکذیب و تادیب منافقاں فرستاد و ابن بابویہ روایت کردہ است کہ چوں کلنک اول راز دسنک شکست فرمود کہ اللہ اکبر کلید ہاۓ شام را خدا بمن داد بخدا سو گند کہ قصرہاۓ سرخ آں را می بینم پس کلنک دیگر زد و ثلث دیگر را شکست و گفت اللہ اکبر کہ کلید ہاۓ ملک فارس را بمن داد و خدا سوگند کہ الحال قصر سفید مدائن را می بینم و چوں کلنک سوم راز دو دہاقے سنک جدا شد گفت اللہ اکبر کلید ہاۓ یمن بمن دادند و بخدا سو گند کہ دروازہ ہاۓ صنعاء را می بینم و کلینی بسند معتبر روایت کردہ است از حضرت صادق کہ کلنک را از دست امیر المومنین یا سلمان گرفت و یک ضربت زد کہ سنک بس پارہ شد فرمود کہ فتح شد بر من در ایں ضربت گنجہاۓ کسری و قیصر پس ابو بکر و عمر بایکدیگر گفتند کہ نمیتوا نیم از ترس بقضاۓ حاجت بردیم داد وعدہ ملک بادشاہ عجم و بادشاہ روم بمامی دہد
 Nasikh al Tawarikh vol. 1 pg. 216.
 Surah al Fath: 10.
 This address is so well-known that there is no need to reproduce it verbatim. I will present the commentary of it written by Ibn Maytham al Bahrani. He writes on page 306:
و قوله فكن قطبا شروع فى الرائى الخاص بعمر فاشار عليه ان يجعل نفسه مرجعا للعرب تئول اليه و تدور عليه و استعار له لفظ القطب و لهم لفظ الرحى و رشح بالاستعارة فكنى بذلك عن جعل العرب و ربة دونه و حيطة له و لذلك قال و اصلهم دونك نار الحرب لانهم ان سلموا و غنموا لذلك الذى ينبغى و ان انقهر و الم يكن لهم ظهر يلجأون اليه كما سبق بيانه و قوله فان كان شخصت الى قوله فيك بيان للمفسدة فى خروجه بنفسه من وجهين احدهما ان الاسلام كان فى ذلك الوقت غضاد و قلوب كثير من العرب ممن اسلم غير مستقرة بعد فاذا انصاف الى من لم يسلم منهم و علموا خروجه و تركه للبلاد كثر طمعهم و هاجت فتنتهم على الحرمين و بلاد الاسلام فيكون ما تركه وراءه اهم يطلبه و يلتقى عليه الفريقان من الاعداء الثانى ان الاعاجم اذا اخرج اليهم بنفسه طمعوا فيه و قالوا المقالة فكان خروجه محر صالهم على القتال و هم اشد عليه كلبا و اقوى فيه طمعا قوله فاما ذكرت من سير القوم الخ فهو انه قال له ان هؤلاء الفرس قد قصدوا المسير الى المسلمين و قصدهم اياهم دليل قوتهم و انا اكره ان يغزونها قبل ان نغزوهم فاجابه ان كان كرهت ذلك فان الله تعالى اشد كراهية و اقدر عليك على التغير و الازالة و هذا الجواب يدور على حرف و هو ان مسيرهم الى المسلمين و ان كان مفسدة الا ان القاءه لهم بنفسه فيه مفسدة اكبر و اذا كان كذلك فينبغى ان يدفع العظمى و يكل دفع المفسدة الاخرى الى الله تعالى فانه كان لها و مع كراهية لها فهو اقدر على ازالتها
“You remain the pivot.” This is the beginning of his sincere an earnest counsel which he gave to ‘Umar. He told ‘Umar to make himself the sanctuary of the Arabs who they will return to. He used the word pivot metaphorically here to refer to ‘Umar and the word mill for the Arabs. The object of this metaphor is that the Arabs should be your ihatah (guard). If the Arabs return safely with booty, then the object is attained. And if they are defeated, you will be their refuge. This is in contrast to when you go with them for if they are victorious then it is great. However, if they are defeated, there remains no refuge for them to return to. This has been explained previously. He further states, “If you go out to fight, there are two negative points. Firstly, Islam has still not spread and the hearts of those Arabs who accepted Islam are still not firm. Thus if you advance to those who have not yet accepted Islam and the Arabs find out that you are no more around and you have left their cities, their greed will increase and their corruption in Muslim lands – the lands of the Haramayn – will intensify. So that which you have left behind will become more sensitive and vulnerable than that which you are pursuing. Thereafter, both the enemies will unite to attack you. Secondly, when you will advance to the non-Arabs, they will develop hope and utter drivel. So your advancement will spur them on to battle. And they are more anxious and ready to fight than you.” “What you have mentioned about the intentions of the people …” this means that, “You say that the Persians intend to attack the Muslims and their intention is proof for their strength and that you dislike them attacking you first, hence you wish to attack them. If this displeases you then it displeases Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala all the more and He has the ultimate power to remove it.” The gist of this answer is that although Persia attacking the Muslims is a catastrophe, you going personally to engage with them is an even greater one. When this is the case, it devolves upon you to remove the major threat and hand over the minor threat to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala for He has the full power to remove it.
 Nahj al Balaghah vol. 1 pg. 449, 450.
 Surah al Tawbah: 112.Back to top