If the Shia objections concerning the usurpation of the Ahlul Bayt’s rights are true then this will necessitate that all of the Muhajirin, Ansar, and Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum lacked iman, Islam, noble character, and even the most basic human qualities. Had the other Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum prevented the first two Khulafa’ from usurping their rights, and not assisted them in their oppression upon the noble Ahlul Bayt; then how would only two persons with a handful of henchmen be so audacious as to harm the Family of the Prophet salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and achieve success in that endeavour?
With regards to the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum being deprived of iman, Islam, and noble character—which is the ultimate objective of the Shia—they do not consider the dangerous and destructive consequences of such an ideology. They think that this is only an attack on the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and thus dare to make such a claim. However, a person who Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has blessed with even a little intelligence and whose soundness of mind has not been obscured by prejudice and blindness will fear these destructive consequences and instead plead to be saved from its devastating effects.
The substantiation presented for the Qur’an being the Word of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and divine assistance to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the reason it is called a living miracle is due to its tremendous spiritual effect on the hearts of people and the great change it brought in the lives of the Arabs, coupled with the guidance of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The glorious Qur’an is that magnificent force which transformed the hearts of people and influenced them both morally and spiritually; it displayed astounding divine miracles and produced everlasting factual results. These outstanding results prove that most definitely it is the Word of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.
The blessed Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was born in an era of spiritual starvation. He was sent to a country which had no moral training and was given the responsibility to reform a nation who had no goodness besides corrupt beliefs, evil bestial ways, rotten character, hypocrisy, and war mongering. Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam inspired lectures and divinely gifted address had such an amazing effect on them that it transformed them both externally and internally. Those misguided for years began treading the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and those who were asleep awoke from their negligence. The mushrik (polytheist) became a muwahhid (believer in the oneness of Allah) and the disbeliever brought iman. Those who worshipped idols now broke the same and those who were misguided began leading others to the right path. The prejudices of ignorance no more remained in them and family feuds and animosity was no more found in their lives. Their minds were purified from arrogance and pride and their hearts were filled with patience, reliance in Allah, forbearance, abstinence, piety, and all beautiful angelic qualities. The teachings of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam brought forth a group who were worshippers of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala; individuals blessed with purity of character, rightly guided, and pure hearted. They exterminated the remnants of shirk which once filled the entire Arabian peninsula and instead filled it with the call to one Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala—who has no like and no partner. Idols went into extinction and temples were destroyed. The fires of the fire worshippers were extinguished and the trinity was broken. The false ideology of intellect-worship remained no more.
وَقُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ إِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوْقًا
And say, “Truth has come, and falsehood has departed. Indeed is falsehood, [by nature], ever bound to depart.”
This proves undoubtedly that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was a true Messenger receiving divine assistance from Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Otherwise, it was not humanly possible for a person to make such a spiritual and moral transformation to the Arabs, create brotherhood between such a nation who were war mongers and bent on rivalry, and purify their hearts from inherited enmity, hatred, and malice. In fact, they became role models in character and morality for the world.
The astonishing results produced by the glorious Qur’an and the amazing effects of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam guidance compelled the enemies to acknowledge that such achievements are beyond ordinary human capacity. They were forced to admit that the message of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was truly from the Being who is unmatchable and unparalleled.
Some write that the effect of the Qur’an upon the Arabs was akin to someone having bewitched them. One of the most prejudiced Christians acknowledges that from the inception of Christianity till the time of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, spirituality never reached the heights it reached with the teachings of Islam. However, this continuous effect of the Qur’an and this constant influence of Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam companionship and guidance can only be accepted when it is our firm belief that the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum—the Muhajirin and Ansar who accepted the message first—were devoted and staunch Muslims, role models of morality for humanity, and perfect in their sincerity. On the other hand, according to the Shia, the amazing and astounding reformation which took place in the lives of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum through the companionship and guidance of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was only temporary and the effects of the Qur’an on them were short lived. Those hearts which were purified with the blessings of revelation and inspiration were soon spoiled with the filth of irtidad (apostasy) and those who were lanterns of guidance for others bid farewell to Islam. The divine light that illuminated thousands of hearts was extinguished in no time and the veil of kufr and nifaq which was removed from their hearts returned once again. The rays of the sun of nubuwwah which lit up the hearts of the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum faded. The divine voice which the friends of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam heard with the ears of their hearts became silent. If this is the case, then I do not think it is correct to think that the Qur’an produced unparalleled results nor did Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam guidance and advice yield any exceptional outcome. Allah forbid! How can the raving about the beauty of Islam which reached the skies remain then?
If the Qur’an is read with the Shia ideology in mind then the Qur’an will seem false, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala forbid! Those whose beautiful and outstanding qualities are mentioned therein will be found to be the worst of creation. When we study the Qur’an, we find it to conform to those beliefs and thoughts we have about the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum and their noble attributes. We find that at one place Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has declared regarding their iman and ‘ibadah:
مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِيْنَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُوْنَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala admires them at another place:
سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوْهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُوْدِ ذٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيْلِ
Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala praises them:
وَالسَّابِقُوْنَ الْأَوَّلُوْنَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِيْنَ وَالْأَنصَارِ وَالَّذِيْنَ اتَّبَعُوْهُمْ بِإِحْسَانٍ رَّضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ وَرَضُوْا عَنْهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِيْ تَحْتَهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِيْنَ فِيْهَا أَبَدًا ذٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيْمُ
And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajirin and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct – Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment.
At one place, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala sounds glad tidings; their reward for bearing inconvenience and difficulties:
فَالَّذِيْنَ هَاجَرُوْا وَأُخْرِجُوْا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَأُوْذُوْا فِيْ سَبِيْلِيْ وَقَاتَلُوْا وَقُتِلُوْا لَأُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ وَلَأُدْخِلَنَّهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِيْ مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ثَوَابًا مِّنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ عِنْدَهُ حُسْنُ الثَّوَابِ
And their Lord responded to them, “Never will I allow to be lost the work of [any] worker among you, whether male or female; you are of one another. So those who emigrated or were evicted from their homes or were harmed in My cause or fought or were killed – I will surely remove from them their misdeeds, and I will surely admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow as reward from Allah , and Allah has with Him the best reward.”
At one juncture, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala confirms their iman with His stamp of approval and promises them forgiveness and a noble provision [i.e. Jannat]:
وَالَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا وَهَاجَرُوْا وَجَاهَدُوْا فِيْ سَبِيْلِ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِيْنَ آوَوا وَّنَصَرُوْا أُولٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُؤْمِنُوْنَ حَقًّا لَّهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيْمٌ
But those who have believed and emigrated and fought in the cause of Allah and those who gave shelter and aided – it is they who are the believers, truly. For them is forgiveness and noble provision.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala celebrates their superiority over the nations of all the other Prophets in these words:
كُنْتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُوْنَ بِالْمَعْرُوْفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُوْنَ بِاللَّهِ
You are the best nation produced [as an example] for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allah.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala consoles them by promising them khilafah upon their perseverance in the face of adversities:
وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْا مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِيْنَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ
Allah has promised those who have believed among you and done righteous deeds that He will surely grant them succession [to authority] upon the earth.
Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala presents the parable of their multiplication in number in these pleasing words:
كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوىٰ عَلىٰ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيْظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ
As a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers – so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers.
He subhanahu wa ta ‘ala boasts of their great number:
وَرَأَيْتَ النَّاسَ يَدْخُلُوْنَ فِيْ دِيْنِ اللَّهِ أَفْوَاجًا
And you see the people entering into the religion of Allah in multitudes.
Concerning their dominance and triumph:
وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيْبًا وَمَغَانِمَ كَثِيْرَةً يَأْخُذُوْنَهَا وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيْزًا حَكِيْمًا
And He rewarded them with an imminent conquest. And much war booty which they will take. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.
In these verses, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala promises that Islam will reign supreme in the world.
On the contrary, if the Shia belief is considered correct and their ideologies regarding the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum are said to be true, then the falsification of these verses is definite. And if they only apply to the Ahlul Bayt or to those who passed away in Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam lifetime or to those who after remaining apostate for about thirty years then re-embraced Islam and assisted Amir al Mu’minin radiya Llahu ‘anhu—as is the view of the Shia—then this is tantamount to altering the meaning of the Qur’an.
و كيف يجوز لاحد من المسلمين ان يتكلم بمثل هذا و يبدل كلام الله من تلقاء نفسه و يحرفه عن موضعه فيا حسرة عليهم لما لا يتفكرون فى هذه الايات اليس فيهم رجل رشيد
How can it ever be possible for a Muslim to blurt out such drivel and change the speech of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala from his side and alter its implication? Shame on them! Why do they not ponder and reflect over these verses? Is there no sane man in their midst?
If we leave aside the Qur’anic verses and religious beliefs for a moment, and just ponder over it logically, then according to the Shia creed, the religion of Islam is the weakest of all the world’s religions and its leader the most unsuccessful of all leaders. The outcome of such a belief is that those very individuals who listened to the Qur’an directly from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and benefitted from Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam companionship, who were the first to embrace Islam and spend their lives assuring that the word of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala reigns supreme; all with the exception of a handful reneged immediately when their leader passed away. The beautiful moral jewel of truthfulness, fidelity, and honesty which illuminated and decorated their hearts fell out from their hearts in a batting of an eye. The outcome of such a belief is that Islam—which is believed to be the best religion—is the worst religion and the ummah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, which is thought to be the most superior ummah, is in fact the most despicable one. When we look at other religions, even the Buddhists, Hindus, idol, and Fire-worshippers; and study the lives of those who were its first adherents, we do not find in any religion that the first believers forgot the guidance and advices of their leader and neglected its teachings as quickly as the first followers of Islam, as suggested by the Shia. Thus, we have no choice but to understand the religion of Islam to be excluded from this natural system and to accept that its initiator’s advice and guidance is so hopeless and ineffective that the effects did not last on 124 000 Muslims and did not prevent them from falling into apostasy and returning to kufr, except for a small handful. Allah forbid!
Such an absurd deduction is frowned on by the enemies, forget the Muslims. The lives of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum forced them to acknowledge not only their devotion, but their superiority over the companions of Sayyidina Musa ‘alayh al Salam and Sayyidina ‘Isa ‘alayh al Salam.
Any person who studies the writings of the disbelievers—notwithstanding their disbelief in nubuwwah—in favour of Islam and the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum will automatically declare that those disbelievers who gave an unprejudiced view regarding the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum are more impartial than the Shia who label them as disbelievers, hypocrites, and apostates. Look at what Sir William Muir—a Christian and by no means a friend of Islam—was forced to declare after studying the incidents of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. He writes in his book Life of Mahomet:
Thirteen years before the Hijrah, Mecca lay lifeless in this debased state. What a change had those thirteen years now produced! A band of several hundred persons had rejected idolatry, adopted the worship of One God, and surrendered themselves implicitly to the guidance of what they believed a Revelation from Him; praying to the Almighty with frequency and fervour, looking for pardon through His mercy, and striving to follow after good works, almsgiving, purity, and justice. They now lived under a constant sense of the omnipotent power of God, and of His providential care over the minutest of their concerns. In all the gifts of nature, in every relation of life, at each turn of their affairs, individual or public, they saw His hand. And, above all, the new existence in which they exulted was regarded as the mark of His especial grace; while the unbelief of their blinded fellow citizens was the hardening stamp of reprobation. Mahomet was the minister of life to them, the source under God of their new-born hopes; and to him they yielded an implicit submission.
In so short a period Mecca had, from this wonderful movement, been rent into two factions which, unmindful of the old landmarks of tribe and family, arrayed themselves in deadly opposition one against the other. The Believers bore persecution with a patient and tolerant spirit. And though it was their wisdom so to do, the credit of a magnanimous forbearance may be freely accorded. One hundred men and women, rather than abjure their precious faith, had abandoned home and sought refuge, till the storm should be overpast, in Abyssinian exile. And now again a still larger number, with the Prophet himself, were emigrating from their fondly loved city with its sacred Temple, to them the holiest spot on earth, and fleeing to Medina. There, the same marvellous charm had within two or three years been preparing for them a brotherhood ready to defend the Prophet and his followers with their blood.
Godfrey Higgins writes in his book titled, An apology for the life and character of the celebrated prophet of Arabia called Mohamed or the Illustrious:
Notwithstanding many striking traits of resemblance may be perceived between circumstances in the early histories of Jesus and of Mohamed, yet there are many others in which they as decidedly differ. The twelve first proselytes of Jesus are allowed to have been uneducated men, in the most humble situations of life. On the contrary, it appears that, with the exception of his slave, the first of Mohamed’s proselytes were persons of high respectability; and their splendid actions as Caliphs and leaders of the Mohamedan armies, prove them to have possessed first-rate talents, and not to have been men likely to be easily deceived. In the humble characters of the first disciples of Jesus, Mr. Mosheim professes to see much glory to the Christian cause. I am obliged to confess, if I must speak the truth, that, on the contrary, it would have been full as satisfactory to me to have seen among its earliest professors men possessing such characters as those of the Antonines, of Locke, or of Newton. But this only proves how differently the same object appears to different persons.
The famous historian Gibbon writes:
The first four Caliphs systems were similar, genuine and exemplary. Their services were rendered with the highest level of sincerity and despite attaining supremacy and dominance; they spent their lives in fulfilling their religious and moral obligations. These were the very same people who accompanied Mohamet in the beginning stages before he gained authority. They took their swords and stood at his side at a time when he was the open target. They saved their lives and fled from their city. Their changing their religion from the beginning is testimony to their truthfulness and their conquests of the kingdoms of the world shows the power of their capacity.
In such a situation, can anyone believe that such persons, who bore persecution, were prepared to leave their homelands, and religiously obeyed him salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam; this was done for a man who had all types of evil and was for something contrary to their nature and to the prejudices of their early lives. No one can believe this. This is beyond the ambit of possibility.
It is beneficial for the Christians to remember that the teachings of Mohamet gave birth to such religious adherence amongst its adherents which cannot be possibly found in the first followers of Jesus and his religion spread like wild fire which is unparalleled even by the Christian religion. Consequently, in less than half a century, Islam overpowered many superpowers and grand kingdoms. When Jesus was taken to be crucified, his followers fled and left their leaders in the clutches of death. If, hypothetically, they were forbidden from protecting him, they should have stayed on for consolation and threatened his and their persecutors patiently. Adversely, the followers of Mahomet rallied around their oppressed Messenger, put their lives on the line for his protection and routed all of his enemies.
How nicely will the condition of the Shia change and how beautifully their religion will be reformed if they remember the advice this Christian historian gives to his brethren. The Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam possessed stronger hearts, more perfect iman, and greater sincerity than the hawariyyin of Sayyidina ‘Isa ‘alayh al Salam and were prepared to sacrifice their lives to protect their Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. However, it is remorseful that they do not accept those historical events which even the disbelievers accept and reject those outstanding and extra-ordinary feats achieved by Islam which proves its greatness, truthfulness, and superiority.
Sir William in his book Life of Mahomet writes when comparing the hawariyyin of Sayyidina ‘Isa ‘alayh al Salam to the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum:
Both (Jesus and Mahomet) are equal when it comes to bearing difficulties and rejecting worldly desires until the era in which they can be compared. However, Mohamet’s teachings of thirteen years in comparison to the former’s entire lifetime brought such a transformation which is extremely exceptional in the sight of man. All the followers of Jesus bolted as soon as they heard the sound of danger. The teachings of our Lord had no outward effect on those five hundred people who saw him, despite the deep effect it had on their hearts. None of them left their homes willingly, neither did thousands of them choose to emigrate together like the Muslims, nor did anyone display the fervour displayed by one small town’s (Yathrib) new Muslims who protected their Messenger at the expense of their own blood.
The above-mentioned quotes were regarding the Muhajirin and Ansar radiya Llahu ‘anhum in general. I will now quote his declaration regarding Sayyidina Sheikhayn radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. He writes regarding Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu in his book titled Annals of the Early Caliphate:
Till the last breath, Abu Bakr did not allow the horizon of his heart and mind’s clarity and power to be clouded. As we have previously mentioned, he went to office on the last day of his life, pondered over the sensitive situation, and commanded Umar, “Prepare an army as quickly as possible and despatch them to Iraq.” In his last illness, these couplets came from his tongue about this fleeting world and its temporary beauty.
اپنے وارث کو نہیں جاتا ثے چہورر انجام کار
ون ایسا ہے جو حشمت و مال و متاع
جس نے ہو کر بے دہررک کی ہے بہت سی لوتت مار
ایک دن اس شخص کا بہی مال لوتتا جاۓ گا
گر مسافر نے سفر کوئی کیا ہے اختیار
لوتت کر آ جاۓ گا اک دن سفر سے بالضرور
سخت جاں فرسا ہے اور ہیبت بہرا یہ راہ گزار
موت کے رستے سے لیکن لوتتنا ممکن نہیں
A person who was sitting beside his bed quoted some relative couplets of a poet of the era of ignorance. Abu Bakr was upset at this and forbid him from the same and told him to rather say:
وَجَاءَتْ سَكْرَةُ الْمَوْتِ بِالْحَقِّ ذٰلِكَ مَا كُنْتَ مِنْهُ تَحِيْدُ
And the intoxication of death will bring the truth; that is what you were trying to avoid.
His last words spoken were that he called Umar to him and passed on to him lengthy advice. He said, “This is my final bequest. Mix harshness with leniency.”
After a little while, he began feeling dizzy and understood that the time to depart was nearing. He uttered these words and left this temporary world, “O Allah! Make me die a true believer. O Allah! Raise me among those whom You have blessed.”
After ruling for two years and three months, Abu Bakr died on the 22nd of August 634. His wife Asma and his son Abdul Rahman gave him ghusl as per his bequest. He was shrouded in the same clothes he was wearing at the time of his death because he said, “New clothes are befitting for the living while old clothes are for the dead who are going to be food for the worms.”
Those who lifted the bier of Mahomet lifted his bier and he was buried beside Mahomet. The Caliph’s head rested next to the shoulder of his master. Umar lead his funeral prayer. There was no need to take the bier far, only the courtyard of Masjid al Nabawi had to be crossed since Abu Bakr passed away in the very house which Mahomet allocated for him in front of his own from where one could easily gaze at the spacious courtyard of Masjid al Nabawi. Abu Bakr passed the majority of his time as Caliph in this house. After the demise of Mahomet, however, he lived for six months at Sunh like before which was situated near Medina. He had a humble residence here which was made of leaves of date-palm tree. He would live here with his wife Habiba – whom he married upon his arrival at Medina – and her relatives. At the time of his demise, she was pregnant and gave birth to a daughter shortly thereafter.
Every morning, Abu Bakr would go barefoot to Masjid al Nabawi where Mahomet would reside in his lifetime to fulfil the obligations of the state. Umar would fill in for him in his absence. On Friday, when he had to deliver a lecture, he would stay at home till noon. On that day, he would apply dye to his hair and beard and would take extra precaution to the cleanliness of his clothes.
He would bring fodder for the goats of his house himself and would milk them himself. In the beginning, he relied on trade for his household expenses. However, when he realised that doing so affected the affairs of the state, he left all other duties and accepted 6000 dirhams (silver coins) annually to cover his expenses.
Since Sunh was situated at a distance from Masjid al Nabawi – where the state affairs were attended to in Mahomet’s lifetime – he thus moved residence here and also shifted the treasury here. The Islamic treasury in those days was very simple. There was neither any need for a guard to protect it nor an office for records. The tax was distributed among the poor or spent on war artillery and supplies. Spoils of war, gold and silver – no matter where it came from, village or other – was spent immediately or the next morning. Everyone’s share was equal in this distribution – whether new or old Muslim, male or female, slave or free-man. All the Arab Muslims had the same claim over the treasury. When anyone would say, “I deserve a greater share because of my early Islam,” Abu Bakr would reply, “This is the speech of Allah. Allah Himself will reward those who are more deserving in the next life. This reward or favour is only applicable to this life.”
Upon his demise, Umar opened the treasury and found only 1 gold coin which must have fallen from one of the bags. Seeing this, everyone broke down into tears and sought forgiveness for him and sent blessings upon him. The allowance he took from the treasury was on his conscience. Hence, he gave orders before his demise to sell some of his land and repay the amount he had taken.
Abu Bakr had a very soft and tolerant temperament. Umar has declared, “There is no one for whom people will sacrifice their lives more happily and willingly than Abu Bakr.” He had such a soft heart, that people gave him the nickname ‘The one with cold breath’. Besides one instance when he burnt a mischief maker, which he always regretted, no act of unkindness was displayed by him.
Abu Bakr’s royal court had the same colours of simplicity and humbleness like that of Mahomet’s This couplet aptly describes it:
Pomp and glory is a veil. The inside of this court was not a court.
There was no trace of the pomp, glory, pride and splendour generally associated with royal courts in his. He was ever ready and eager to execute affairs of the state. He would patrol the streets on most nights alone to see to the needs of the needy and hard-pressed. One night, Umar found him at the house of an old blind widow who was struggling whose need he was fulfilling. The judicial court was assigned to Umar. Then again narrations suggest that in a year’s time, hardly two claimants opened a case. The words ‘What an Almighty is Allah’ was inscribed on the official stamp. Ali was assigned to correspondence. Abu Bakr would take help from Zaid – the scribe of Mahomet and the compiler of the Qur’an – Uthman or whichever literate person was around him when the need arose. Favouritism was never a feature in appointing his representatives to high posts and as army generals. His opinion and judgement regarding administration was always sound and correct.
Abu Bakr did not lack determination and will power. Despatching the army under the command of Usamah and protecting Medina from other disbelieving nations in such a situation when he stood alone and there were dangerous threats from all sides is evidence for his courage and pluck which proved successful in extinguishing the fire of mischief and anarchy and stopping the tidal wave of rebellion. The secret of his will power was that firm faith he had brought upon Mahomet. He would say, “Do not address me as the caliph of Allah for I am the caliph of the Messenger of Allah.”
He would always be plagued with this question, “What is the command of Mahomet or what would he do had he been alive?” When practicing on the answer to this question, he would not hesitate for a second. In this way, he annihilated polythiesm and idol worship and established the foundation of Islam. Although his rule was concise, there is no one after Mahomet to whom Islam is more indebted and obliged than him. Since belief in Mahomet was imbedded firmly in his heart and this belief is strong evidence to the sincerity and truthfulness of the Messenger, therefore I have dedicated a greater portion of my book to describing his life and qualities.
Had Mahomet known from the beginning that he was an imposter, he would have been unable to make such a person a friend and devotee who was not only intelligent, bright, and smart but also simple and a votary of honesty. Abu Bakr did not have the feeling of greatness or prominence. Royal power and the reigns of authority were in his hands, yet he only utilised this power and authority for the betterment of Islam and benefit of the creation. His alertness and vigilance prevented him from being deceived, and he was too devout to deceive others.
Sir William Muir writes concerning Sayyidina ‘Umar Faruq radiya Llahu ‘anhu:
Umar passed away on the 26th of Dhu al Hijjah 23 A.H after 10 and half years of leadership. He was the greatest conqueror in the Islamic empire after Mahomet since it was the fruits of his intelligence and courage that in these ten years, the Levant, Egypt and Persia were conquered – which remained under Islamic rule since. Abu Bakr was successful in defeating the polythiest tribes, but the armies of Islam only reached the borders of the Levant in his time. When Umar assumed caliphate, he only had control over the Arabs. However, at his demise, he was the caliph of a great empire which included Persia, Egypt, the Levant and Byzantine – some of the most captivating and attractive countries in his empire. Despite his administration of such a great empire, there was no need for him to level his insight or power of judgement. He did not give himself a superior title than the simple title given to him by the Arab leaders. People would come from far countries, gaze at the courtyard of Masjid al Nabawi and then ask as to where the Caliph was whereas the king wearing simple clothes was sitting right before him.
To sketch the biography of Umar needs only a few lines. Simplicity and steadfastness on his obligations were his key principles. Fulfilling all his obligations diligently without the smell of favouritism became his speciality. Answering for this great responsibility would be so worrying that he would often say: “I wish my mother hadn’t given birth to me. I wish I was a blade of grass instead.”
He had a hot temperament and got angry very quickly. During his youth and during the lifetime of Mahomet he was considered strict and orthodox. He was prepared to unsheathe his sword and it was none other than him who voiced the opinion to assassinate the prisoners after the Battle of Badr. However, time and leadership changed his strict nature into one of tolerance. His justice and fairness reached perfection. Besides his treatment of Khalid with wrath which was due to his detestation of the latter’s irresponsible ill treatment of an overpowered enemy – there was no action of his which had even the smell of injustice or oppression.
Favouritism and nepotism did not feature in his appointment of army generals and governors. The appointment of all besides Mughirah and Ammar was appropriate and proper. The different groups and organisations of his empire which were delegated various tasks and responsibilities had full reliance on his power and devoutness. His powerful shoulders supported the running of the affairs of courts and state efficiently.
Complaints came from Basrah and Kufah. There seems to be some weakness in the changing and replacement of the governors at different places. Nonetheless, he kept an iron fist on the villagers and Mecca’s surroundings and they did not have the pluck to cause mischief in Islam as long as he was alive. He would keep the prominent Companions with him in Medina. The reason for this was no doubt partly to gain strength from their counsel and advice and partly (as he himself said), “I do not desire to appoint them to a position lower than me thereby tainting their honour.”
With whip in hand, he would patrol the streets and markets of Medina and punish the criminal there and then. It became proverbial: “Umar’s whip was more frightening than the swords of others.” However, coupled with this was his extreme soft heart. There are innumerable incidents about his tolerance and mercy. For example, aiding the widows and orphans. I will mention one incident here. Once, he was travelling in Arabia in a year of famine. He passed by a nomad poor woman sitting next to a fire with her children who were howling out of extreme hunger. The poor woman put an empty pot on the stove to soothe the children. Seeing this, Umar ran to the next village and brought some meat and bread. He put the meat into the pot, cooked a delicious meal, and fed the children himself. He moved forward only after seeing them playing and laughing.
I have hope that unbiased readers will acknowledge that such incidents compelled the Christians to praise Islam and to voice the outstanding character and excellent attributes of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Perplexing indeed is when people who call themselves Muslims reject these incidents and declare the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum in general to be deprived of Islam and character. Remorsefully, man no matter how intelligent and academic he may be but religious bigotry and ancestral blind following has always prevented him from accepting and acknowledging the truth. They see the sun shining bright, but reject the same. Such a veil is cast over their eyes which totally blinds them. This is the very same story with the Shia. The Islam and outstanding character of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum is as bright as the sun at noon; the Qur’an testifies to the same, the enemies of Islam attest to it, yet the Shia remain stubborn and prejudice and are ever willing, in fact proud to label 124000 Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as murtaddin and munafiqin.
Can the foundation of Islam be strengthened and fortified by claiming that Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam 23 years of tireless efforts with iman and sincerity coupled with teaching and disseminating the divine guidance with the strength and help of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, brought forth 124000 men who brought iman outwardly but, besides four, there were no true Muslims among them who sincerely believed from their hearts in Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and his Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and followed their commands? Leave alone that, they were not only deprived of iman but were hard hearted oppressors and killers. As soon as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away, they began looting his house in whose shade they were brought up and began oppressing his children which they claimed that they loved and will obey. Such oppression which the eyes of the skies never witnessed before. Such wicked ideologies by a sect of the Muslims will give the disbelievers chance to say that the objective of nubuwwah was only the establishment of a worldly empire which gathered around its originator a group of selfish, evil, and materialistic people who looted and killed out of greed for authority and kingdom. The hearts of those thousands of men who lived day and night in the company of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were not affected in the least by the teachings of the Qur’an and by the advices of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. The relationship of sincerity, obedience, belief, and love found between a true Messenger and his followers was not found between the founder of Islam and its followers. But, both sides were desirous and ready to acquire their own objectives. Two conflicting forces were working to reach their goals. The leader desired that the kingdom and leadership established by his efforts must remain with his children and no one else must have a share in it while on the other hand his followers were desirous of receiving the fruits of their strenuous efforts and taking control of the reigns of the kingdom after their leader.
This explanation of mines is by no means an exaggeration or an unsubstantiated accusation against Shia doctrines. This is nothing but the crux of those incidents which the Shia firmly belief in and upon which rests the foundation of their creed. According to their thinking, nothing else is learnt but that Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam aspiration from the day of his nubuwwah till his demise was only that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu becomes khalifah after him, and until the Day of Qiyamah religion and worldly kingdom must remain in their family from generation to generation. Therefore, according to the Shia, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam expressed this desire of his in many different ways and left no stone unturned to reach this goal. There was no moment in privacy or in public, on journey or at home, in times of peace or battle, in health or in sickness in which Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not express this desire explicitly or implicitly and did not voice the command and message of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala regarding it. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam also sounded grand virtues and various rewards for those who follow this command and different punishments and reprimands for those who fail to comply. Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam final attempt was at Ghadir Khum where he proclaimed this in clear words in front of a gathering of a hundred thousand men and took an undertaking from every one of Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu khilafah thereby fortifying his successor in every possible way. Voices were raised with shouts of congratulations from all four sides and happiness enveloped the earth, yet astonishing is the enmity, hypocrisy, and unanimity of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum that besides four, none of them considered this nor did anyone acknowledge the khilafah of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu which was established with such glory. In fact, as soon as Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam closed his eyes, they turned away from this covenant. The worst thing is that they actually displayed ignorance with regards to the actual incident. They unanimously agreed to the extent that it is as if the incident never transpired and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not announce his successor publicly. If there were any remnants of this incident, then it was only Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam statement:
انى تارك فيكم الثقلين كتاب الله و عترتى
I am leaving for you the two weighty things viz. the book of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and my family.
If someone acknowledged anything, then it is only this prophetic statement:
من كنت مولاه فعلى مولاه
Whose guardian I am, ‘Ali is his guardian.
And the meaning and crux of this was to love him and consider him. However, instead of loving him they displayed open hatred for him and took revenge on him. They forgot Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam bequest, threw the Qur’an behind their backs, and broke their covenant. In this way, they renounced the din.
In my understanding, I do not know what reliance can be placed on nubuwwah and Shari’ah since these very people – who have corrupt qualities and wicked character – are the pillars of Islam. The Qur’an reached us through them and we learnt of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam through them. They taught us of the revelation of the Qur’an, Sayyidina Jibril’s rahimahu Llah descending, and Rasulullah’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam angelic qualities. There is nothing far-fetched if such irreligious, unprincipled, tyrannical, oppressive, untrustworthy, wicked, evil, and greedy people who conspired among themselves and appointed a leader [i.e. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam] whose fabricated good qualities they publicised to hoodwink people, with the sole intent of earning worldly pleasures and usurping the rights of the creation. They issued false commands in his name, fabricated principles, and publicised his nubuwwah just to deceive mankind. They fabricated the Qur’an by some eloquent Arabs and attributed it to him.
A group who were so wicked and such masters in conspiracy that they were able to conceal a matter their leader lectured on his whole life, which the Qur’an was revealed for, which their leader emphasised day in and day out publicly and privately, and prior to his demise announced in front of 70000 – 124000 people. An announcement which was heard by the earth and sky, trees and rocks, and man and jinn. A matter which he announced very eloquently and with much fervour and enthusiasm. The matter of the khilafah of his successor which he established and took allegiance at Ghadir Khum in front of everyone. In fact the words of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala were revealed with a stamp of approval:
الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِيْنَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِيْ وَرَضِيْتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِيْنًا
This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favour upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion.
Besides all of this, they concealed this matter, forget about practicing upon it, and rejected its very existence thus disbelieving in nass jali (explicit categorical command), and nass khafi (implicit categorical command). For such people whose conspiracies are beyond human nature and who can conceal a matter publicised in front of 70000 men, it is nothing far-fetched if they fabricated this whole nubuwwah structure and appointed someone as a nabi by propagation of their baseless ideas. Even if we accept that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam himself dissociated from them, and those who propagated his commands and shari’ah were his household members and some other special people, then too these individuals are so few in number that they do not exceed the number ten. Moreover, whatever knowledge reached the people from them was via the intermediary of the Muhajirin, Ansar, and other Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum. Their nature was such that they publicised what they wanted and enforced whatever they desired and though they were few, they commanded such awe that everyone else would obey them and fall into their deceptive claws. So just as it is possible that out of jealousy and hatred they concealed the imamah (nass jali) of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and fabricated ahadith in order to usurp the rights of the Ahlul Bayt and draw people towards their side, then it is likely possible that they changed the entire Shari’ah and propagated the very opposite of what Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam actually preached. It is possible that they altered the Qur’an, modified salah, and changed the rulings of hajj and zakat to suit their whims and fancies. If these are possibilities – and why should they not be since the possibilities I list form part of the belief system of the Shia – then the obvious result of this will be that reliance cannot be placed on the Shari’ah and no aspect of Islam remains credible.
If the Shia, by labelling the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum as immoral and apostates, are happy with this conclusion, then it is fine. That is their problem. However, those who have faith in Islam shiver at the thought of this. They dissociate themselves from it and believe these things to be impossible.
 Surah Bani Isra’il: 81.
 Surah al Fath: 29.
 Surah al Fath: 29.
 Surah al Tawbah: 100.
 Surah Al ‘Imran: 195.
 Surah al Anfal: 74.
 Surah Al ‘Imran: 110.
 Surah al Nur: 55.
 Surah al Fath: 29.
 Surah al Nasr: 2.
 Surah al Fath: 18-21.
 The life of Mohamet p. 162.
 Pg. 10.
 Surah Qaf: 19.
 Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was attacked on Wednesday 26th Dhu al Hijjah 23 A.H (3rd November 644) in salat al fajr. He passed away on the 29th of Dhu al Hijjah 23 A.H. He was buried on the 1st of Muharram 24 A.H on Saturday.
 Surah al Ma’idah: 3.