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April 22, 2016
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April 22, 2016

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Ninth Testimony

Sayyidina ‘Umar’s Nikah to Sayyidah Umm Kulthum

 

It is authenticated by both reliable shia and sunni authorities that Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu married Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha, who was the daughter of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha. The following points can be discerned from this union.

  1. The contraction of this marriage indicates that no enmity existed between Sayyidina ‘Ali and Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. In fact, they were bosom friends. Had there been enmity, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would have never married his daughter — the daughter born from the blessed womb of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha — to Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu and would have never brought an enemy into his family.
  2. Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was not a kafir, hypocrite or renegade. If this were true then Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu — the Lion of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, the overpowering, the desire of every wisher, the manifestation of the amazing and astonishing — would not have given his beloved daughter in his marriage. And he would have never made him his son-in-law if he did not have perfect conviction on his iman, worship, abstinence and piety.
  3. This proves that Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not harm Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu or Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha in any way and he did not harbour enmity or hatred for them. If this were not rue then it is unfathomable that Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would have handed his daughter to someone who perpetrated these crimes.
 

This is such a testimony to the sincerity, unity and mutual love between Sayyidina ‘Umar and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhuma that no shia tongue can ever utter a word of hatred after this, and no amount of trickery or justification can refute this — even after endless effort. There has not been as much hue and cry as there has been in this matter. In reality, this discussion ought to be studied deeply: how the Shia have changed colours from the time of ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’ to Mujtahid Qiblah and Ka’bah; and what ridiculous interpretations they have given. Some have totally rejected the nikah, some denied Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha was the daughter of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, and some have used the words “forcefully taken” when referring to this marriage. Some claim that Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not consummate the marriage with her, while others claim that it was actually a female Jinn, in the form of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha with who Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu would have conjugal relations. Some have attributed it to Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu high level of patience while others have attributed it to Taqiyyah. Nonetheless, everyone sings his own song and every soul has a different tale. Listening to their melody and tune does not only stun us, but in fact throws the universe out of control and into an ecstasy where everyone screams, “Congratulations! Awesome!”

 

اک ہم ہی تیری چال سے پستے نہیں صنم پامال کبک بہی تو ہوۓ کوہسار میں

We do not dance to your tune only, O idol

The partridge was also violated in the mountain

 

I will now mention the various views of the Shia scholars:

 

First View

Some bigoted Shia have rejected this nikah entirely and declare the narration to be baseless. Mujtahid[1] Qiblah and Ka’bah writes in one article:

 

و انتساب تزوج حضرت ام کلثوم بابن الخطاب بہ ثبوت نرسیدہ و مثل سید مرتضی کہ قریب العہد از زمان ائمہ معصومین بود و غیر ایشاں انکار بلیغ ازاں نمودہ اند

There is no proof of the nikah of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab to Umm Kulthum bint Fatimah. Sayed Murtada, etc. who lived close to the era of the infallible Imams have totally rejected the existence of this nikah.

 

However, this claim of the Mujtahid is falsified with the following proofs.

 
 

Proof One

Mujtahid’s statement that Sayed Murtada, who lived close to the era of the Imams, has rejected this nikah is incorrect. The reason being that there are two Sayed Murtadas. One is Abu al Qasim — brother of Sharif al Radi, and the second is Sayed Murtada Razi — the author of Tabsirat al ‘Awam. The first is among the early shia theologians and scholars, who was born in 355 A.H — according to what the third martyr has written in Majalis al Mu’minin. The second was born well after him. So the Sayed Murtada concerning whom Mujtahid claims:

 

قریب العہد از زمان ائمہ معصومین

Who lived close to the infallible Imams

 

is not a rejecter of the nikah and his writings such as Shafi and Tanzih al Ambiya’ wa al Imams are witness to this. The reason why Mujtahid attributed rejection of the nikah to him is unknown.

And if the second Sayed Murtada is implied — and perhaps he did reject it — then this portion,

 

قریب العہد از زمان ائمہ معصومین

Who lived close to the infallible Imams

 

is not correct. I will now present the writings of the Sayed Murtada — who lived close to the era of the infallible Imams — which will falsify the Mujtahid’s claim.

It should be noted that Sayed Murtada has recorded this in two books, viz. Shafi in detail and Tanzih al Ambiya’ wa al Imams in brief. I will present his statement from Nuzhah Ithna ‘Ashariyyah — which is a Shia reply to Tuhfah Ithna ‘Ashariyyah:

 

سید مرتضی علم الہدی در کتاب تنزیہ الانبیاء می فرماید فاما انكاحه فقد ذكرنا فى كتاب الشافى الجواب عن هذا الباب مشووحا و بيينا انه عليه السلام ما اجاب عمر الى نكاح ابنته الا بعد توعد و تهدد و مراجعة و منازعة و كلام طويل ماشور اشفق معه من سوء الحال و ظهور ما لا يزال الخ

Sayed Murtada writes in his book Tanzih al Ambiya’: “I have given a detailed answer to ‘Umar’s nikah to Umm Kulthum (which the Ahlus Sunnah list among his virtues) in Kitab al Shafi. I have mentioned there that he (Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu) did not gladly accept the nikah of his daughter with ‘Umar until it reached a level of dispute, intimidation, and coercion. When Amir ‘Ali saw that the religion was in jeopardy and the rope of Taqiyyah was being snatched from his hands, and Sayyidina ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu also pleaded with him; then only did Amir accept this nikah against his desires and choice.[2]

 

Someone should just compare this text of Sayed Murtada in Tanzih al Ambiya’ to Qiblah’s text, “Sayed Murtada, etc. who lived close to the era of the infallible Imams have totally rejected the existence of this nikah,” and evaluate the truthfulness of this great mujtahid. If someone still does not doubt Mujtahid’s honesty after reading this, then I will prove his dishonesty on the tongue of his father. Molana Dildar ‘Ali states in Mawa’iz Husayniyyah as quoted in Izalat al Ghayn:

 

سید مرتضی گفتہ ست کہ تزویج ام کلثوم باختیار حضرت امیر واقع نشدہ و احادیث بسیار مؤید قول خود ذکر کردہ و ہرگاہ باختیار حضرت امیر واقع نشد محل اشکال نیست

Sayed Murtada has mentioned that Umm Kulthum’s nikah did not take place with Amir’s choice. He has quoted many ahadith to prove this view. When the nikah did not take place with Amir’s happiness, there is no room for objection.

 

It is clear from these quotes that Sayed Murtada did not reject Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu nikah. In fact, he believes it to be certain and definite. Not to accept that the nikah took place with Amir’s consent and happiness is a separate matter and rejecting the incident altogether is another matter. Mujtahid’s credibility is astonishing! The fallacy of his claim needs no rebuttal. He did not even consider his own integrity and honesty!

The crux of the above is that Mujtahid’s claim that Sayed Murtada has rejected this nikah has been falsified by Sayed Murtada’s own text and his father’s admission. However, his claim that others have rejected it is somewhat correct. Among the latter day Shia scholars who have rejected this nikah is Qutb al Aqtab Rawindi — author of Kharayij wa Jara’ih — who has claimed that this nikah does not reach the requirements to be established. Mujtahid Qiblah has quoted his view in Mawa’iz Husayniyyah the translation of which I will quote from Izalat al Ghayn:

 

گفت عرض نمودم بخدمت حضرت صادق علیہ السلام کی مخالفین بر ما حجت می آرند و میگویند کہ چرا علی دختر خود را بخلیفہ ثانی داد پس حضرت صلوات اللہ علیہ کہ تکیہ کردہ نشستہ بودند درست نشستہ فرمودند کہ آیا چنیں حرفہامی گویند بدر ستیکہ قومی چنیں زعم می کںد لا یہتدون سواء السبیل

I asked Imam Jafar Sadiq, “The Sunni use this as proof against us and question, why did Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu give his daughter to the second khalifah?” The Imam who was reclining on a pillow sat up and said, “Do people say such things? People who think such things cannot find the straight path.”

 

Qutb al Aqtab’s claim is completely erroneous. This nikah is proven by the narrations of the Imams. I will prove it from their books of hadith, fiqh and polemics.

 

Evidence of Sayyidina ‘Umar’s Nikah to Sayyidah Umm Kulthum

 

Evidence 1

Qadi Nur Allah Shostari has acknowledged this nikah in Majalis al Mu’minin and expressed its authenticity in the following words:

 

اگر نبی صلی اللہ علیہ و سلم دختر بہ عثمان داد ولی دختر بہ عمر فرستاد

If Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married his daughter to ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu, then ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu married his daughter to ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[3]

 

Evidence 2

Shara’i’ is a well-known Shia fiqh book. Its commentary is Masalik, written by Abu al Qasim al Qummi[4]. He writes while commenting on this text of Shara’i’:

 

يجوز نكاح العربية بالعجمى و الهاشمية غير الهاشمى و بالعكس

It is permissible for an Arab woman to marry a non-Arab man and for a Hashimi woman to marry a non-Hashimi man and vice versa.

 

He cites as proof for his verdict:

 

زوج على بنته ام كلثوم من عمر

‘Ali married his daughter Umm Kulthum to ‘Umar.

 

Evidence 3

Abu al Hasan ‘Ali ibn Ismail al Shi’i, concerning whom Imam A’zam Imamiyyah has stated in Khulasat al Aqwal that he is the first person to prove the mazhab of the Ahlul Bayt according to the principles of the scholars of polemics, has also acknowledged this nikah. Qadi Nur Allah Shostari has quoted his statement in Majalis al Mu’minin, which I will quote from Izalat al Ghayn:

 

اورا از چند امر پر سیدند کہ از انجملہ مقدمۂ نکاح خلیفۂ ثانی است جواب داد کہ دادن دختر بہ عمر کہ جناب امیر المومنین را اتفاق افتاد بایں جہت بود کہ اظہار شہادتین مینمود و زبان اقرار بہ فضیلت رسول می کشود و دران باب اصلاح غلظت و فظاظت او نیز منظور بود

Ask him a few questions. One is concerning the second khalifah’s nikah. He answered by saying that Amir al Mu’minin gave his daughter in marriage to ‘Umar for this reason that ‘Umar would recite the kalimah and attest to the virtue of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. His objective of giving the second daughter was to rectify his hard nature and harshness.

 

Evidence 4

It is written in Majalis al Mu’minin that after Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu demise, Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha married Muhammad ibn Jafar Tayyar radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This is his text:

 

محمد بن جعفر الطیار بعد از فوت عمر بن خطاب بشرف مصاہرت حضرت امیر المومنین مشرف گشتہ ام کلثوم را کہ ازروی اکراہ در حبالہ عمر بود تزویج نمود

Muhammad ibn Jafar Tayyar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was blessed by being the son-in-law of Amir al Mu’minin after the demise of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab. He married Umm Kulthum who was in the nikah of ‘Umar under coercion and duress.[5]

 

Evidence 5

It is recorded in Tahdhib — a renowned hadith book among the Shia — that Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu had children from Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha. He had a son by the name Zaid ibn ‘Umar. This scholar has reported this narration with a chain of narration going up to the infallible Imams:

 

عن محمد بن احمد بن يحيى عن جعفر بن محمد القمى عن القداح جعفر عن ابيه عليهم السلام قال مات ام كلثوم بنت على عليه السلام و ابنها زيد بن عمر بن الخطاب فى ساعة واحدة و لا يدرى ايهما هلك قبل فلم يورث احدهما من الاخر صلى عليهما جميعا

Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Yahya — from Jafar ibn Muhammad al Qummi — from al Qaddah Jafar — from his father rahimahu Llah who said, “Umm Kulthum bint ‘Ali and her son, Zaid ibn ‘Umar ibn al Khattab, passed away at the exact same time. It was not known who passed away first, so none inherited from the other. He performed Salat al Janazah on both of them.[6]

 

Evidence 6

Sayed Murtada’s statement recorded in al Shafi and Tanzih al Ambiya’ which Kashmiri quoted in his book, Nuzhah, in reply to Tuhfah, and which Mujtahid quoted in Mawa’iz Husayniyyah, which I reproduced above:

 

انه عليه السلام ما اجاب عمر الى نكاح ابنته الا بعد توعد و تهدد

Indeed ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not permit ‘Umar to marry his daughter except after intimidation and coercion

 

Evidence 7

Mulla Yaqub al Kulayni writes in Kitab Shafi that someone enquired from Imam Jafar al Sadiq rahimahu Llah concerning this nikah to which he replied:

 

ان ذلك فرج غصبناه

This was one who was forcefully taken from us.[7]

 

Evidence 8

It is recorded in Masa’ib al Nawasib that the muhaddithin have attested that this nikah took place under coercion and duress.

In short, narrations of the nikah of Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha are profuse in Shia literature, whether they pertain to hadith, fiqh, or polemics, to such an extent that it cannot be denied and none can falsify such a well-established fact.

The sound minded should gauge the bigotry, prejudice and ambiguous speech of this group. Notwithstanding their Imams rahimahu Llah authenticating this narration, it being found in their hadith books with their chains of narration, fiqhi rulings being deducted from it, its authenticity being accepted and passed on from generation to generation and thousands of pages being blackened trying to interpret it; yet some people forsake their honour and integrity, brazenly claiming it to be a lie and completely deny its existence. They do not consider, even for a moment, that if Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha was married to Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu only for a day or a week or a month and it was not known and its occurrence had not become known; then only would there have been scope to deny it. However when Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha remained the queen of Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu home for years until his demise, and bore him children, his son named Zaid ibn ‘Umar ibn al Khattab and only after his demise was she married to Sayyidina Muhammad ibn Jafar al Tayyar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma; who can now conceal such a well-established fact and who can hide the radiant sun in his hands?

All that I have mentioned above are not the statements of my scholars and are not found in my books. I have only reproduced what the Shia have said and what their Muhaddithin and scholars have written to prove this nikah did indeed take place. If anyone denies this nikah after all this proof, then in fact he has denied reality.

 
 
 

NEXT⇒ Second View


[1]  Mujtahid refers to Sayed Muhammad the successor of Molana Dildar ‘Ali.

[2]Tanzih al Ambiya’ pg. 138 – 141

[3]Majalis al Mu’minin pg. 85 – Miqdad ibn Aswad

[4]  Abu al Qasim al Qummi Sheikh Zayn al Din Ahmed al ‘Aamili commonly known as the second martyr has written a commentary on Shara’i’ al Islam by the name Masalik al Afham in 964 A.H, which is considered to be extremely reliable. While commenting on Muhaqqiq al Hilli’s (d. 676 A.H) text, the second martyr has listed five couples as proof. Among these five is Sayyidah Umm Kulthum radiya Llahu ‘anha. The Arabic text is:

و زوج النبى ابنته عثمان و زوج ابنته زينب بابى العاص بن ربيع و ليسا بن بنى هاشم و كذلك زوج على ابنته ام كلثوم من عمر و تزوج عبد الله بن عمرو بن عثمان فاطمة بنت الحسين و تزوج مصعب بن الزبير اختها سكينة و كلهم من غير بنى هاشم

Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married his daughter to ‘Uthman and his daughter Zainab to Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’, whereas they were not from Banu Hashim. Similarly, ‘Ali married his daughter Umm Kulthum to ‘Umar. ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Uthman married Fatimah bint al Husayn and Mus’ab ibn al Zubair married her sister, Sakinah, whereas all of them were not from the Banu Hashim. (Masalik al Afham commentary of Shara’i’ al Islam, Kitab al Nikah, bab lawahiq al ‘aqd vol. 1) [Sheikh Muhammad Firasat]

[5]Majalis al Mu’minin pg. 82 – Muhammad ibn Jafar

[6]Tahdhib al Ahkam last volume Kitab al Mirath pg. 380 – The chapter concerning the inheritance of those who drowned or perished at the same time

[7]Furu’ Kafi vol. 2 pg. 141 – Kitab al Nikah; the chapter on Sayyidah Umm Kulthum’s radiya Llahu ‘anha marriage

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