Introduction

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Introduction

 

When the forces of falsehood became weak before the overwhelming progress of Islam, and they were unable to combat it’s ever growing strength and might, they resolved to plot against it covertly. Their hypocrisy was a destruc tive tool in their favour which proved useful in dismantling the unity of the ummah. They had no opportunity to achieve their ends during the caliphate of Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. During the caliphate of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, while on the one hand their frustration and animosity blazed like the pits of hell — due to the abundant blessings during his reign — on the other hand it became easy for them to conspire (against the Muslims) in its vast and wide lands; These conspiracies surfaced as soon as the reign of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu terminated and were instigated by ‘Abdullah ibn Saba’. They created doubt in the minds of people by forging narrations regarding the “oppression” and “deprivation” ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Ahlul Bayt (the family of the Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). This group of hypocrites had woven such a web of propaganda into which many vulnerable Muslims became ensnared, and ever since, the doors of disunity amidst the ummah have been impossible to shut.

After extensive study and research, the author of the book, entitled Ruhama’ Baynahum, has unveiled the reality of this foreign doctrine, and has exposed the conspiracies, its origins, founders and the manner in which this contemptible movement started, that cleave at the brotherhood and unity of Islam. He has also highlighted the manner in which Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Ahlul Bayt, with earnestness, had disassociated themselves from this erroneous ideology.

The author of this book, Molana Muhammad Nafi’ has explained in detail the reciprocal assistance, bond, and kinship that existed between Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman, and ‘Ali and his offspring radiya Llahu ‘anhum, quoting from more than 200 old and contemporary texts. It would not be incorrect to claim that this is the first well established book written in basic and simple Urdu in these times.

This book plays a fundamental and primary role with regard to the unity of the Muslims and the Muslim world, because the author has unequivocally pinpointed the ploys of causing disunity in ummah, and rendered them impotent. While reading this book will leave one entirely convinced that all the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were in harmony with the Ahlul Bayt, it will also, simultaneously, make establish in the minds of the reader that falsehood was never capable of standing its ground before the truthfulness, veracity, might, and comprehensive nature of Islam. Since such deceptive means always fail, inevitably the weapon of disunity is employed as a last resort.

Just as the Jews had avenged their defeat in battle by sowing disunity the seeds of disunity amongst the Muslims so too have the forces of falsehood in our times used the very same tool to weaken the strength of Islam. It is the responsibility of every sincere and concerned Muslim to be well acquainted with this agenda and endeavour to save the ummah from dissent and discord.

This volume of the book is regarding Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu, the sections pertaining to ‘Umar and ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhuma have also been compiled and have been published as well. The answer to the allegation of nepotism against Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu has also been published as the fourth volume of this book. This book, Ruhama’ Baynahum is the most detailed and well substantiated book regarding a pertinent topic in the history of Islam, and many doubts will be cleared from the minds of the impartial, and any obscurity regarding the nature of the relations that existed between the Sahabah in the initial stages of Islam will be removed.

May Allah ta’ala make this book a means of benefit for the entire ummah, Amin.

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

الحمد لله رب العالمين و الصلوة والسلام على من هو رحمة للعالمين سيد الأولين والآخرين إمام الرسل وخاتم النبيين وعلى أزواجه المطهرات وعلى بناته الطاهرات زينب و رقية وأم كلثوم و فاطمة وعلى آله الطيبين و أصحابه المزكين المنتخبين الذين هم لإخوانهم أولياء وعلى رفقاءهم أذلاء و على أعدائهم أشداء و فيما بينهم رحماء وعلى سائر أتباعه بإحسان إلي يوم الدين و علي عباد الله الصالحين رضوان الله عليهم أجمعين.

 

After this introductory sermon, this unworthy one, Muhammad Nafi’ (may Allah pardon him) the son of Molana ‘Abdul Ghafur, the son of Molana ‘Abdur Rahman (may Allah have mercy upon them), a resident of the Muhammadi village (adjacent to Jami’ah Muhammadi, District Jhang, state Punjab, Pakistan) wishes to state: the thought of compiling a book on the relationships that existed between the close Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam — especially the first three khalifas — and Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu had been on my mind for some time now. The humble author despite his incompetence and meagre knowledge has strived constantly to accomplish this goal, and with the grace and mercy of Allah was able to gather some material, and shall now take the courage of presenting it.

 

The Title of the Book and its Subject Matter:

The title of this book has been taken form the noble Qur’an and it has been named Ruhama’ Baynahum. Its theme is evident from the name, and there remains no need for further elaboration (i.e. the Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are compassionate amongst themselves).

The sequence in which the book has been written is as follows:

  1. In the beginning some prefatory issues have been discussed wherefrom all subsequent discussions will be drawn. The definitive and core discussions thereafter have been divided into three volumes.
  2. In the first volume, the love and affinity that existed between the family of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the family of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu will be examined; this volume can be called the Siddiqi section.
  3. In the second volume, the bond and connection between ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the family of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu will be examined; this volume can be envisioned as the Faruqi section.
  4. In the same vein, in the third volume, the relation between ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu will be explained; this volume can be classified as the ‘Uthmani section.
 

First study the preliminary issues; thereafter the definitive topics will be presented.

 

Preliminary Aspects

1. All the issues that we are to discuss in this work are directed towards our brethren of the Ahlus Sunnah and have been primarily written for laymen, the scholars are already aware of these issues.

Our brothers from the other sect are requested to read and consider with justice and impartiality, and accept whatever seems to be harmonious with sheer reality. The references have been prepared with complete honesty and truthfulness, and the citation of correct historical facts has been taken into full consideration. However, a human being is full of flaws, may Allah forgive me for anything that has been misinterpreted unwittingly and I would be appreciative to any person who brings that to my attention.

I have adhered to quoting from the works of authentic and earlier scholars and supporting it with the works of later scholars as well. However, wherever I was unable to locate the reference from the earlier scholars, but the latter scholars mentioned it, I still quoted such narrations. But it should be borne in mind that these latter scholars reported it with reference to the earlier scholars. In some instances, I have also quoted the texts of the Shia in some discussions so that each sect can reflect better over them.

2. Some academic discussions also appear in this book which might be difficult for the laymen to understand, but by means of them many accusations and heinous matters are eliminated, hence, it was deemed inappropriate to leave out such discussions. In such instances, footnotes have been added to some important discussions, and in some places “this discussion is suitable for scholars only” has been added. In this manner the learned and the layman will not experience any difficulty and each one will benefit according to his capacity.

3. The theme prepared in the book Ruhama’ Baynahum is a theme upon which the previous scholars of the ummah have also worked, such as:

  • Thana’ al Sahabah ‘ala al Qarabah wa Thana’ al Qarabah ‘ala al Sahabah of Hafiz Darqutni (d. 375 A.H).
  • Al Muwafaqah Bayn Ahl-al bayt wa al Sahabah of Abu Sa’id Ismail ibn ‘Ali ibn Al Hassan al Samman (d. 445 A.H).
  • Al Muwafaqah Bayn Ahlul Bayt wa al Sahabah of ‘Allamah Abu al Qasim Mahmud ibn ‘Amr al Zamakhshari (d. 538 A.H).
 

These books have coincidently, by the will of Allah, become scarce, and in fact unheard of in this country. Despite my research and enquiries I was unable to attain any of them, however, a brief summary in Urdu of the last book of ‘Allamah Zamakhshari has been published in India which was without the Arabic text of the original book and had no references whatsoever. It is stated in the introduction of this book, “This is a translation of the Kitab al Muwafaqah of al Zamakhshari,” but I did not rely upon it and nor have I quoted any text from it. My intention initially was to compile a book basing it upon the works of these early scholars, but due to them being scarce I endeavoured to elaborate on these “connections” by gathering material from easily accessible books, and have selected a unique sequence of chapters from my side. May Allah most benevolent accept it and make it a means of success and forgiveness for me in the hereafter. Amin Rab al ‘Alamin.

I have according to my inadequate study brought to the fore these few incidents, for no one can possibly do justice to these sacred topics and cover them all.

4. The most essential evidence that we have about the issue of “affinity among the Sahabah and the Ahlul Bayt” is the glorious Qur’an. The Qur’an in its plain expression informs us that the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum are a clear manifestation of the mercy and compassion of Allah Ta’ala. They are all innately kind to one another and their hearts have been filled with compassion and tenderness, the bonds of Islamic brotherhood and spiritual support has always been within them.

Besides the verses of the Qur’an, all other narrations, historical facts, incidents and unanimously agreed upon matters that will be cited, serve as collaboration to the proof of the Qur’an and will not constitute any evidence by themselves. All readers should make a mental note of this, for this is an established principle.

5. When the primary proof for our claim is the verses of the noble Qur’an, then only those ahadith[1] will be accepted which are coherent with the Qur’an and authentically reported narrations, wherein the mutual affection, tenderness, attachment and brotherhood of the Sahabah are described.

And contrary to this, all ahadith in which the image of discord, dispute, antagonism and disunity among the Sahabah is portrayed will not be accepted in these discussions, and to debate by means of them will be invalid. The reason being that both groups — the Ahlus Sunnah and Shia — unanimously concur that any hadith which contradicts any verse of the Qur’an or an undeniably authentic hadith, and which has no valid interpretation nor is reconciliation possible, will be rejected. Few quotations from the books of both sects will be cited to further illustrate this principle:

 

Verdicts of the Honourable Imams[2] from Shia Sources:

1. Imam Muhammad al Baqir rahimahu Llah whilst mentioning the sermon delivered by Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam during the Hajjat al Wada’, narrates that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

 

فإذا أتاكم الحديث فأعرضوه علي كتاب الله عزوجل وسنتي فما وافق كتاب الله و سنتي فخذوا به وما خالف كتاب الله وسنتي فلا تأخذوا به

When a hadith reaches you, verify its authenticity first by examining it through the Book of Allah and my Sunnah, then practise upon whatever is in accordance with them and reject whatever is incongruous with them.[3]

 

2. Mughirah ibn Sa’id was a deceitful person. He would fabricate many ahadith and ascribe them to Imam Muhammad al Baqir rahimahu Llah. Therefore, Imam Jafar al Sadiq when mentioning his tendency of forging narrations, warned the people and said:

 

فاتقوا الله ولا تقبلوا علينا ما خالف قول ربنا و سنة نبينا محمد صلي الله عليه و سلم.

Fear Allah and do not accept everything that is ascribed to us and is against the word of our Rabb and the sunnah of our Nabi Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[4]

 

I have quoted many statements of the honourable Imams in this regard in my book Hadith al Thaqalayn, but will suffice here with mention of these two.

3. The very same rule is found in the al Amali of Sheikh al Saduq on the authority of Imam Jafar al Sadiq and Imam Muhammad al Baqir that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

 

فما وافق كتاب الله فخذوه و ما خالف كتاب الله فدعوه

Take whatever is in accordance with the book of Allah and leave whatever contradicts it.[5]

 

4. The exact same principle is quoted with reference to Imam Muhammad al Baqir in the Amali of Sheikh Muhammad ibn Hassan al Tusi:

 

وانظروا أمرنا و ما جاءكم عنا فإن وجدتموه للقرآن موافقا فخذوا به و إن لم تجدوه موافقا فردوه

Be wary in our matter and in whatever reaches you from our side, if you find it harmonious with the Qur’an, accept it, and if you find it to be extraneous, reject it.[6]

 

Few References From Ahlus Sunnah Sources

Just as this is an undisputable principle according to the Shia that any tradition which is in conflict with the Qur’an and sunnah is unacceptable, it is a principle well adhered to by us — the Ahlus Sunnah — as well.

1. Hence in Usul al Sarakhsi, a famous book on Usul al fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence), in the chapter regarding the reasons for a hadith being disrupted, it is stated:

 

و ذاك تنصيص علي أن كل حديث هو مخالف لكتاب الله فهو مردود,قال عليه السلام:”تكثر الأحاديث لكم بعدي فإذا روي لكم عني حديث فأعرضوه علي كتاب الله تعالي فما وافقه فاقبلوه واعلموا أنه مني وما خالفه فردوه واعلموا أني منه بريئ.

And this is emphatic regarding the invalidity of any hadith that is in contradiction with the Book of Allah, the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Ahadith will be quoted excessively to you after my demise, therefore, when any hadith is mentioned before you, examine it through the Book of Allah and accept whatever is congruous with it and know well that it is from me, and reject whatever is incongruent with it and understand that I am free from every such fabrication.[7]

 

2. In another book of Usul al fiqh, al Tawdih wa al Talwih, in the chapter pertaining to sunnah, under the sub-chapter regarding discontinuity in hadith, after the above stated hadith, it is mentioned:

 

فدل هذا الحديث علي أن كل حديث يخالف كتاب الله فإنه ليس بحديث الرسول و إنما هو مفتري

This hadith indicates that any narration which is against the Book of Allah is not in essence the hadith of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, instead it is a forgery.

 

3. Al Khatib al Baghdadi has quoted a reliable hadith on the authority of Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu in this regard in his book, al Kifayah fi ‘Ilm al Riwayah:

 

عن أبي هريرة عن النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم أنه قال: سيأتيكم عني أحاديث مختلفة فما جاءكم موافقا لكتاب الله و سنتي فهو مني و ما جاءكم مخالفا لكتاب الله و سنتي فليس مني.

Abu Hurairah radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said: “Several different narrations that are ascribed to me will reach you, therefore those ahadith which are congruous with the Book of Allah and my teachings are from me, and I am free of all narrations which are incongruous with the Book of Allah and my teachings.”

 

It has become obvious from the stance of both sects that any narration which is against the Qur’an and sunnah is unacceptable even if extracted from the books of hadith, history, or books of feats and merits.

These invaluable principles are found in books of both parties, and only by implementing them can our faith and religion be secured, and the requirement of religious and national solidarity is nothing but that we adhere to these principles, so that both parties are safeguarded against the tragedy of disunity and conflict.

Lastly it would be suitable to mention a rule unanimously accepted by the scholars of hadith, which ‘Allamah al Dhahabi has made mention of in his book Tadhkirat al Huffaz whilst commenting on the life of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He has first quoted the saying of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu upon which he has expounded sincerely from his side:

 

عن أبي الطفيل عن علي رضي الله عنه قال حدثوا الناس بما يعرفون و دعوا ما ينكرون أ تحبون أن يكذب الله ورسوله؟ قال الذهبي: فقد زجر الإمام علي رضي الله عنه عن رواية المنكر و حث علي التحديث بالمشهور وهذا أصل كبير في الكف عن بث الأشياء الواهية والمنكرة من الأحاديث في الفضائل والعقائد و الرقاق.

Abu Tufayl radiya Llahu ‘anhu narrates that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said: “Quote well known and widely accepted matters and do not quote reprehensible and dubious ones, would you like that Allah and his messenger be belied?”

 

Al Dhahabi said: “Imam ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu has prohibited us from quoting rare and reprehensible ahadith and has encouraged us to report well-known and widely accepted ones. This the major principle with regards to abstaining from reporting ahadith which have no basis whatsoever and are contradictory, whether they be concerning ‘aqa’id (beliefs), fada’il (merits), or riqaq (ahadith of motivation).[8]

Hence it is necessary for us all to adhere to this rule.

 

Core Discussions

We now begin the definitive discussions with the help of Allah Ta’ala.

Amongst the many remarkable attributes of the believers, of which Allah has made mention in the Noble Qur’an, is the brotherhood, love, compassion, tenderness of heart, mutual help, unity and reciprocal veneration that were deeply entrenched within them and which they exuded perfectly, hence the coming verses allude to this emphatically:

 

Verse 1

 

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُوْنَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوْا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوْا اللّٰهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُوْنَ

Muslims are but brothers to one another so reconcile between your brothers, and fear Allah so that mercy may be shown to you.[9]

 

Verse 2

 

وَاعْتَصِمُوْا بِحَبْلِ اللّٰهِ جَمِيعًا وَّلَا تَفَرَّقُوا۪ وَاذْكُرُوْا نِعْمَتَ اللّٰهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنتُمْ أَعْدَآءً فَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوْبِكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم بِنِعْمَتِهٖٓ إِخْوَانًاۚ وَكُنْتُمْ عَلٰى شَفَا حُفْرَةٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ فَأَنقَذَكُمْ مِّنْهَاؕ كَذٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللّٰهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهٖ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

And hold on firmly to the rope of Allah altogether and do not separate, and recollect the favour of Allah upon you when you were enemies and he united your hearts subsequent to which you became brothers through his grace. You were on the edge of an abyss of hellfire and he emancipated you from it, in this way does Allah make his signs clear to you so that you are rightly guided. [10]

 

Shah ‘Abdul Qadir mentions in his book Fawa’id Mudih al Qur’an:

Allah Ta’ala is warning the believers not to be deceived and is instructing them to cherish the unity that they enjoy and refrain from sectarianism and corruption like that of the Jews.

 

Verse 3

 

هُوَ الَّذِيْٓ أَيَّدَكَ بِنَصْرِهٖ وَبِالْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ وَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوْبِهِمْؕ لَوْ أَنفَقْتَ مَا فِيْ الْأَرْضِ جَمِيْعًا مَّا أَلَّفْتَ بَيْنَ قُلُوْبِهِمْ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللّٰهَ أَلَّفَ بَيْنَهُمْۚ إِنَّهعَزِيْزٌ حَكِيْمٌ

He is the one who assisted you through his divine help and the believers, and he united their hearts. If you were to spend all that is in the earth, you would not have succeeded in uniting their hearts, but Allah created a bond of love between them, verily he is mighty and wise.[11]

 

In Fawa’id Mudih al Qur’an, Shah ‘Abdul Qadir has stated:

The Arabs were at logger heads with one another and were thirsty for each other’s blood but Allah united them and made them brothers after the advent of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

 

Verse 4

 

إِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوا وَهَاجَرُوْا وَجَاهَدُوْا بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنْفُسِهِمْ فِيْ سَبِيْلِ اللّٰهِ وَالَّذِينَ آوَوْا وَّنَصَرُوْا أُولَٰئِكَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍۚ

Without doubt those who embraced iman migrated and strove in the path of Allah with their wealth and lives, and those who gave them shelter and aided them, they are guardians of each other.[12]

 

Verse 5

 

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللّٰهِۚ وَالَّذِيْنَ مَعَهٓ أَشِدَّآءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَآءُ بَيْنَهُمْۖ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُوْنَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللّٰهِ وَرِضْوَانًاۖ سِيْمَاهُمْ فِيْ وُجُوْهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِيْ التَّوْرَاةِۚ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيْلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهفَآزَرَهفَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوْقِهٖ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيْظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ وَعَدَ اللّٰهُ الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَعَمِلُوْا الصّٰلِحٰتِ مِنْهُمْ مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيْمًا

Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is the Rasul of Allah and those who are with him are stern against the disbelievers and compassionate amongst themselves. You will see them at times bowing and at times prostrating seeking the grace and pleasure of Allah. Their signs are apparent on their faces because of excessive prostration. This is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Injil is like that of a plant that spouts its shoot and strengthens it after which it becomes strong and stands on its stem, pleasing the farmer so that the disbelievers are enraged because of them. Allah has promised forgiveness and a handsome reward for those from among them who have Iman and do righteous deeds.[13]

 

Shah ‘Abdul Qadir in Fawa’id Mudih al Qur’an has mentioned that the ‘signs on their faces’ refers to the radiance of their faces due to performing nocturnal prayers, and on account of it they would stand out amongst the people. The illustration of the ‘plant’ refers to the believers being few in number initially and then gradually growing in number and strength in the time of Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the khalifas radiya Llahu ‘anhum. The Sahabah of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam were all flag bearers of iman and were embodiments of virtuous deeds, but Allah Ta’ala does not give his bondsmen such glad tidings because of which they become complacent, therefore the glad tiding mentioned in the verse is exclusive to those who have a pleasant end (on iman), but this type of a glad tiding itself is a great merit.

 

Explanation of Verse 1

There are many verses of this nature in the Qur’an, I have sufficed here on the mention of five, their meanings are apparent, i.e. brotherhood and mutual love are firmly grounded in the people of iman and it is necessary to constantly preserve them, the fear of Allah should be the driving force behind these attributes in order to secure his mercy and protection at all times.

 

Explanation of Verse 2

The believers should firmly hold on to the rope of Allah and should never forget this great bounty of Allah which he has bestowed on them, Allah Ta’ala changed their deep rooted hostility into unity and supplanted their everlasting antagonism into affinity, now everyone is a brother to the next person, Allah Ta’ala, Most Merciful saved them from the dreadful consequences of enmity and hatred, which tantamount to entry into hell fire.

 

Explanation of Verse 3

The discussion in the first two verses was regarding the believers in general, in the third verse specific mention is made of those who accepted iman at the hands of Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, and he is reminded by Allah of His favour which He granted him and the support by means of the believers whose hearts were filled with love and unity and( he is also reminded of the fact) that he would not have been able to bring about unity amongst them even if he were to spend all the treasures of the world but Allah through his power and wisdom united them.

 

Explanation of Verse 4

In the fourth verse, Allah Ta’ala refers to these people more specifically that they strive, migrate, and spend all that they have for the cause of Allah’s din (the Muhajirin) and among them is a group that assists and accommodates the immigrants (who are the Ansar), and that they are all friends and brothers. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in this verse has unequivocally stated the mutual friendship and beneficence that were widespread in the lives of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.

 

Explanation of Verse 5

In the fifth verse, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has described them in much more detail that these pure souls who were the companions of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam are:

 

1. Stern against the disbelievers and are not awe struck by them at all.

2.Benevolent and affectionate to one another and do not hold grudges against each other.

3. Always engaged in the worship of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, they do not do anything for the pomp and fame of this world; instead they do whatever they do for the pleasure of their Rabb.

The first two qualities are pertaining to their social interactions with friends and foe, the third quality is with regards to themselves i.e. regarding their righteousness deeds and asceticism (therefore it can safely be said that directing repugnant accusations towards the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum is a symptom of wickedness and direct slur of this verse of the glorious Qur’an).

4. The fourth attribute of this group mentioned in the noble Qur’an is that the signs of piety and godliness are discernable on their faces, the radiance and light of the pious can never possibly be seen on the faces of people who are wretched and tend to do things to please others. These splendid feats of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum are not only mentioned in the Qur’an but are also mentioned in previous divine scriptures such as the Torah and the Injil.

 

Then Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala informs us by way of illustration of the progressive advancement of Islam and the Muslims which will most definitely materialise, it will remain unobstructed and will continue to flourish unremittingly till it reaches its culmination. All the issues of contention can be easily resolved by analysing the harmony between the example and those referred to by it.

The last portion of this verse informs us of the good end and pleasant outcome of this group of people, it first informs us of their prosperity in this worldly life and then of their triumph and reward in the hereafter, thus it is mentioned that Allah will absolve them of their shortcomings and will recompense them for their virtuous deeds.

The summary of this verse is that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has first mentioned the thoroughness of their faith, the perfection of their devotions, their sincerity and their gradual development, and then Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has announced their marvellous end result by assuring them of his forgiveness and a great reward.

 

Ahead we shall mention some commentaries of the scholars of tafsir (Qur’an exegesis) regarding this verse:

 

هذه صفة المؤمنين أن يكون أحدهم شديدا عنيفا علي الكفار رحيما برا بالأخيار غضوبا عبوسا في وجه الكافر ضحوكا بشوشا في وجه أخيه المؤمن كما قال الله تعالي يايها الذين آمنوا قاتلوا الذين يلونكم من الكفار و ليجدوا فيكم غلظة. وقال النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم مثل المؤمنين في توادهم وتراحمهم كمثل الجسد الواحد إذا اشتكي منه عضو تداعي له سائر الجسد بالحمي و السهر وقال النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم المؤمن للمؤمن كالبنيان يشد بعضه بعضا و شبك النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم بين أصابعه.(تفسير ابن كثير تحت هذه الآية)

A distinct attribute of the Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is that they are harsh against the disbelievers and are genial to their brethren, they express sombre faces to the nonbelievers and cheerful ones to their brothers, just as Allah has commanded in another verse of the Qur’an: “O you who believe! Fight those people of disbelief who are near you and they should notice severity in you.” And Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is reported to have said: “The example of the believers in their mutual affinity and reciprocal compassion is like that of a body, the entire body is afflicted with restlessness and pain due to the ailment of one limb.” He has also stated: “A believer is like a building each part of which is supported and upheld by the next, to another believer,” Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam then entwined both his hands for further elaboration.[14]

 

وهما جمعا شديد و رحيم ونحوه أذلة علي المؤمنين أعزة علي الكفرين. وبلغ من شدتهم علي الكفار أنهم كانوا يتحرزون من ثيابهم أن تلزق بثيابهم و من أبدانهم أن تمس أبدانهم وبلغ من تراحمهم فيما بينهم أنه كان لا يري مؤمن مؤمنا إلا صافحه و عانقه (تفسير مدارك للنسفي تحت هذه الآية)

The scholars of tafsir have written that the sternness of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum towards the kuffar was of such a degree that they would be very cautious of not letting the clothes and bodies of the disbelievers touch their clothes and bodies, and their cordialness towards the believers was of such a nature that they would shake hands and embrace whenever they would run into one another.[15]

 

وفي وصفهم بالرحمة بعد وصفهم بالشدة تكميل و احتراس فإنه لو اكتفي بالوصف الأول لربما توهم إن مفهوم القيد غير معتبر و يتوهم الفظاظة والغلظة مطلقا فدفع بإرداف الوصف الثاني . ومآل ذالك أنهم مع كونهم أشداء علي الأعداء رحماء علي الإخوان. ونحوه قوله تعالي أذلة علي المؤمنين أعزة علي الكفرين (روح المعاني تحت الآية)

They have also written that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala after mentioning the sternness of Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum towards the infidels has made mention of their softheartedness amongst themselves, because if mention of the first attribute was to be made specifically then it would seem as if they were only harsh and knew no kindness. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala dispelled this possibility by mentioning their leniency as well; similar to the verse: “humble toward the believers, powerful against the disbelievers,” (hence they possessed the ultimate of both these outstanding qualities).[16]

 

ومن حق المؤمنين أن يراعوا هذه السنة أبدا فيتشددوا علي مخالفيهم و يرحموا أهل دينهم (تفسير غرائب القرآن للنيسابوري تحت الآية)

The right of a believer is that all Muslims to live by these qualities i.e. they should be stern towards disbelievers and kind towards believers.[17]

والمراد بالذين معه عند ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما من شهد الحديبية و قال الجمهور جميع أصحابه صلي الله عليه و سلم ورضي الله تعالي عنهم (تفسير بحر المحيط و روح المعاني)

According to Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhu “those with him” refers to the Sahabah only to the veterans of the truce of Hudaybiyyah, while the majority are of the view that it refers to all of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum.[18]

 

A brief commentary of the verse, “and those who are with him are stern against the disbelievers and compassionate amongst themselves,” has been presented before you. Volumes are required to elaborate on each of the magnificent traits of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum mentioned in this verse, at this juncture I wish to only expound a little on the quality “compassionate amongst themselves”.

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala had sent Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam as a mercy for the whole of mankind and he had granted his close companions, students, those who were willing to sacrifice their lives for his sake and those who were around him at any given time; the very same mercy and kindness that he had sent his Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with. Thus they were cordial and merciful amongst themselves. Furthermore, this attribute of mercy was not only in a select few from among them rather it was prevalent in them all, just as they had always been scrupulous regarding observance of fast, establishing of salah, discharging of zakat, performance of hajj, enjoining good, preventing evil, conscious of Allah, sincerity etc., so too were they meticulous about displaying mercy and compassion to one another. This is supported by a verse of the Noble Qur’an, Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says about the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum:

 

وألزمهم كلمة التقوي و كانوا أحق بها و أهلها و كان الله بكل شيئ عليما

And he (Allah) made the word of piety inseparable from them as they were worthy of it and most deserving of it, and Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala is omniscient.[19]

 

Substantiation of the Claim

Now I endeavour to substantiate my claim by making it evident to the readers that the afore mentioned characteristic i.e. “compassionate amongst themselves” was a characteristic deep rooted in every Sahabi radiya Llahu ‘anhu, whether he belonged to the Muhajirin or the Ansar, and whether he lived in Makkah or in Madinah, whether he be from the Quraysh or not. The books on Islamic history are replete with narratives and tales of the geniality, well-wishing, sympathy and empathy of these illustrious souls and there is not the slightest of suspicion in this regard, however, in this work I only intend to bring to the fore the love, understanding, compassion and mercy that existed between the three khalifas and ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhum, the reason being that much has been circulated in the public about the alleged contempt, disunity, antagonism and frustration that existed between them; this propaganda has been brought into play with a lot of effort to misguide the common masses into believing that they (the three khalifas) were enemies of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, they had grave differences with him, vigorously opposed him, oppressed him, usurped his privileges and rights, and they similarly tyrannized the household of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, in a manner inconceivable and indescribable. Therefore I have intended to:

  1. Prove the love, friendship and unity that existed between them, whereas people always spread the contrary.
  2. Present the blood relations that connected them all, whereas people write and publish strange stories about their contempt for each other.
  3. Reproduce incidents which inform us of the kindness, mutual sympathy and understanding that existed between them whereas on the contrary some people forge stories regarding their disturbances and misunderstandings.[20]
  4. In essence I will endeavour to highlight how they venerated, loved, sympathised, and dealt justly with one another. And refute all the incidents these ‘well-wishers’ fabricate and report to the people, with the help of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala.
 

As it was previously mentioned, the first volume of this book will be the Siddiqi section, the second volume will be the Faruqi section and the third volume will be the ‘Uthmani section, hence we will now commence the first volume in which there are five chapters.

 

NEXT⇒ Chapter One


[1]  Plural of hadith

[2]  Plural of Imam

[3] Ihtjaj al Tabarsi, pg. 229

[4]Rijal al Kashshi, Mughirah ibn Sa’id, pg. 146 (Mumbai print), pg. 221 (Tehran print)

[5]Al Amali of Saduq pg. 221, discourse: 58

[6]Al Amali of Sheikh al Tusi pg. 237

[7]  vol. 1 pg .365

[8]Tadhkirat al Huffaz, vol. 1 pg. 12, Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 5 pg. 242

[9]  Surah al Hujurat: 10

[10]  Surah Al ‘Imran: 103

[11]  Surah al Anfal: 63

[12]  Surah al Anfal: 72

[13]  Surah al Fath: 29

[14]Tafsir ibn Kathir, under the commentary of this verse.

[15]Tafsir Madarik , under the commentary of this verse.

[16]Ruh al Ma’ani, under the commentary of this verse.

[17]Tafsir Ghara’ib al Qur’an, under the commentary of this verse.

[18]Bahr al Muhit and Ruh al Ma’ani

[19]  Surah al Fath: 26

[20]  It would have been appropriate to cite some incidents that they have fabricated regarding the alleged ‘enmity’ of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum verbatim from their sources, but this was not possible due to time constraints. In these times — which are filled with different trials and tribulations — it is of paramount importance to develop the atmosphere of unity and reconciliation among Muslims, and the fire of discord and disunity should not be ignited. I have therefore refrained from quoting such incidents. If any person is keen on really learning of these dreadful reports, then he does not have to read many books, it will be sufficient for him to simply read the Sanami Quraysh’ supplication, this supplication according to them is the greatest solution to the severest of hardships, it has been ascribed to ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and is easily found in all their books, for example mention of it is made in Sahifah ‘Alawiyyah and Ihqaq al Haqq (of Qadi Nur Allah Shostari).

It would not be without benefit to mention that in the old texts of our friends, the so called demerits of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum are mentioned under one chapter, now they have progressed and have started publishing independent books regarding this topic e.g.

  1. Hadrat ‘Umar 2nd volume, by ‘Sayed ‘Ali Haydar ibn ‘Sayed ‘Ali (head of the Islah newspaper) khajwa, Bihar.
  2. A’ina-e Mazhab Sunna by Dr. Nur Hussain of Jhang.
  3. Mahiyyat-e Muawiyah by Ahmed ‘Ali Karbala’i
  4. Kaleed-e Munazarah by Barkat ‘Ali, etc.
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