Do the Shi`ah Circulate Among Themselves Secret Copies?

The Amount of Narrations Pertaining to this Fabrication in the Books of the Shi`ah, and the Weight that it Holds According to Them
April 14, 2016
The Contents of the Narrations on Alterations in the Book of the Shi`ah
April 14, 2016

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Do the Shia Circulate Among Themselves Secret Copies?

 

Do the Shia have a book which includes all of these fabrications and has the Shia version of tales instead of that which was revealed by Allah (which is referred to as the Qur’an by them)? What do their tales state? What does their condition state regarding this exception? How true is the statement of Sheikh Muhibb al Din al Khatib, “the Shia have their own copies (of the Qur’an) which are different to the normal copy”?[1]

Muhibb al Din once published a copy of a ‘concocted Surah’, which was named Surah al Wilayah.[2] He explained that this was a photocopy from a handwritten Iranian Qur’an, which was in the possession by Mr Brian, the orientalist.[3] This was also stated by the scholar of the Shia, the author of Fasl al Khitab. Prior to him, the one who passed the verdict of kufr upon the Shia said, “they made up their own copy.” So now begs the question: do the Shia have a secret copy which they keep among themselves, as stated by these writers?

After going through all their texts and the statements of their scholars, I say; they have narrations in which it is said that they should continue practising upon the Qur’an until their copy appears with their awaited Imam. Al Kulayni says in al Kafi:

 

.. عدة من أصحابنا عن سهل بن زياد عن محمد بن سليمان عن بعض أصحابه، عن أبي الحسن – رضي الله عنه – قال: قلت: جعلت فداك إنا نسمع الآيات في القرآن، ليس هي عندنا كما نسمعها، ولا نحسن أن نقرأها كما بغلنا عنكم، فهل نأثم؟ فقال: لا، اقرؤوا كما تعلمتم فسيجيئكم من يعلمكم

 

… many of our scholars from — Sahl ibn Ziyad from — Muhammad ibn Sulaiman from — one of his companions from — Abu al Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu, he says: “I said, ‘may I be sacrificed for you, we hear verses in the Qur’an which are not in our (copies) the way we hear it, and we are not good at reciting it in the way that reached us from you people. So, will we be sinful?’” He replied, “no, recite it the way you learnt it, as the one who will teach you will soon come to you.”[4]

 

We can deduct from this text that they recite their fabrications to one another from his statement, “which are not in our (copies) the way we hear it,” and “in the way that reached us from you people”.[5] They complained that they were not good at reciting that which they heard or that which reached them, whereupon their Imam promised them that the one who will teach them will shortly appear. This promise, as they falsely claim, was fulfilled during the era of their Imam — Abu al Hassan.

The words, ‘will come to you shortly,’ indicate that a teacher was to go to those who could not recite properly. However, this teacher did not come. That generation, as well as many other generations passed, yet no teacher appeared. Thereafter, the scholars of the Shia decided to re-interpret this to be a reference to their awaited Mahdi.[6] The Shia have been instructed to recite the Qur’an and to wait for that which will be brought by their awaited one. They have been prohibited from reading their tales, due to them not being good at reciting it, as indicated by the above quoted text. Thus, they do not have a secret copy which they circulate among themselves. This is what we learn from this narration of al Kafi.

 

Al Mufid says:

 

إن الخبر قد صح من أئمتنا – عيلهم السلام – أنهم أمروا بقراءة ما بين الدفتين، وأن لا نتعداه، بلا زيادة فيه ولا نقصان منه، حتى يقوم القائم -عليه السلام – فيقرأ الناس القرآن على ما أنزله الله تعالى وجمعه أمير المؤمنين – عليه السلام

It has been authentically reported from our Imams that they have been commanded to recite that which is between the two covers, and we should not go beyond that, neither adding on, nor removing anything, until the Qa’im appears. Thereupon people will recite the Qur’an in the manner that Allah revealed it and Amir al Mu’minin compiled it.[7]

 

Ni’mat Allah al Jaza’iri says:

 

قد روي في الأخبار أنهم عليهم السلام أمروا شيعتهم بقراءة هذا الموجود من القرآن في الصلاة وغيرها والعمل بأحكامه حتى يظهر مولانا صاحب الزمان فيرتفع هذا القرآن من أيدي الناس إلى السماء، ويخرج القرآن الذي ألفه أمير المؤمنين فيقرأ ويعمل بأحكامه

It has been reported in the narrations that he commanded his Shia to recite this portion, which is found in the Qur’an in salah and outside salah and to practise upon its commands until our master, Sahib al Zaman, appears. Thereupon, this Qur’an will disappear from the hands of the people to the skies and the Qur’an that was compiled by Amir al Mu’minin will appear. It will then be recited, and its commands will be acted upon.[8]

 

If this was the case, why is it that a few extra verses are narrated from each of the Imams? Also, how can it be acceptable to practise upon an altered version? It seems as if these texts, which call towards practising upon the Qur’an are, in a subtle way, contradicted by other texts which suggest that the Qur’an should not be learnt, as it was — according to their belief — altered. Whoever learns the altered version will have difficulty in learning the one which will be brought by their awaited one. Al Mufid reports with his isnad from Jabir al Ju’fi , who reports from Abu Jafar (al Baqir):

 

إذا قام قائم آل محمد صلى الله عليه وآله ضرب فساطيط، ويعلم الناس القرآن على ما أنزل الله عز وجل، فأصعب ما يكون على من حفظه اليوم، لأنه يخالف فيه التأليف

When the Qa’im from the progeny of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam will appear, he will put up tents and he will teach people the Qur’an in the manner that it was revealed by Allah, the Most Honoured, the Most Glorified. The one who will find it most difficult is the one who memorised it today, as it is opposes its sequence.[9]

 

This is the narration of al Mufid, who is revered by them to the extent that they believe that he reached a level that is beyond the reach of humans, as their awaited Imam “addressed him by the titles, ‘the righteous brother’ and ‘the guided master.’”[10] This narration appears in their book, al Irshad, which is among the most valued of their reliable books. Al Majlisi says regarding it:

 

كتاب الإرشاد أشهر من مؤلفه

The book al Irshad is more famous than its author.[11]

 

Similarly, al No’mani reports in al Ghaybah, a narration which echoes the meaning of the above-quoted narration. He reports, with his (forged) chain of transmission to Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu that he said:

 

كأني بالعجم فساطيطهم في مسجد الكوفة يعلمون الناس القرآن كما أنزل، قلت: يا أمير أو ليس هو كما أنزل؟ فقال: لا، محي منه سبعون من قريش بأسمائهم وأسماء آبائهم، وما ترك أبو لهب إلا إزراء على رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وآله – لأنه عمه

 

It is as if I am with the non-Arabs, their tents are put up in the Masjid of Kufah, and they are teaching the people Qur’an in the manner that it was revealed. I asked, “O Amir al Mu’minin, is it not (found) in the way it was revealed?” He replied, “No! The names of seventy people from Quraysh, along with the names of their fathers have been deleted. Abu Lahab was only left so that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam could be disgraced, as he is his paternal uncle.”[12]

 

Al No’mani quotes two narrations[13] which convey the same meaning. It seems as if the one who fabricated this narration was an irreligious non-Arab, as he confines the promised teaching to them. The deep hatred that he carries in his heart for the Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, who conquered the lands of his people and spread Islam between them is also quite apparent in his narration. Thus, he pacifies himself, upon not finding their names alongside the name of Abu Lahab, by saying that the Qur’an was altered.

This narration, which discourages the learning of the Qur’an, had a strong effect upon Shia communities. This was witnessed by Musa Jar Allah, who spent some time in their communities and could not find any of their students or teachers who memorised the Qur’an. In fact, he did find someone who could recite even a portion of it correctly, leaving no question of whether any of them had any idea of the different manners of recital. His opinion was that this was a result of the Shia anticipating the copy of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, which disappeared along with the Qa’im from the ‘progeny of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam’.[14]

 

Have the Shia gathered all of their lies in one place to facilitate easy learning of the promised copy, when it does appear? Al Majlisi quotes al Mufid:

 

“.. نهونا عليهم السلام عن قراءة ما وردت به الأخبار من أحرف يزيد على الثابت في المصحف، لأنه لم يأت على التواتر وإنما جاء بالآحاد، وقد يلغط الواحد فيما ينقله، ولأنه متى قرأ الإنسان بما يخالف ما بين الدفتين غرر بنفسه مع أهل الخلاف، وأغرى به الجبارين، وعرض نفسه للهلاك، فمنعونا عليهم السلام من قراءة القرآن بخلاف ما يثبت بين الدفتين لما ذكرناه

 

They have prohibited us from reciting the additional portions which appear in the narrations, which do not appear in the (original) copy, as it is not reported with tawatur. It can only be established through ahad, and a single person can err in that which he transmits. Added to that, whenever a person recites anything other than what is between the two covers, he puts his life at risk, at the hands of the opposition and he provokes the oppressors. He puts his life in danger, so they have prohibited us from reciting the Qur’an against that which is established between the two covers, for the reasons that we have mentioned.[15]

 

This means that the concocted verses which contradict the revelation of Allah, which are spread out in their books have not been compiled in a copy that could be circulated due to two reasons; firstly, their fear of the Muslims, and secondly, it is only established through ahad narrations, and a single person could commit an error in that which he narrates. It should be noted that the hesitance as far as accepting the ahad narrations is confined to the Usulis. As for the Akhbari Shia, they believe that anything which is narrated by their scholars from the Imams, in the many books that they have authored, is authentic, mutawatir and established from its author. Their ahadith are thus, established from the infallibles.[16]

Hence, they accept every narration regarding this concoction, which appears in the books of their scholars. This is why the scholar of the Shia, who they describe as “Imam al Fuqaha al ‘Izam Ra’is al Islam” (the forerunner of the great jurists, the leader of Islam), Jafar Kashif al Ghita says:

 

وصدرت منهم – يعني من الأخباريين – أحكام غريبة وأقوال منكرة، منها قولهم بنقص القرآن مستندين إلى روايات تقضي البديهة بتأويلها وطرحها..

Strange laws and incorrect utterances have emerged from them (the Akhbaris). Among them is their view that the Qur’an was shortened, which they base upon such narrations which are obviously meant to either be interpreted or rejected.[17]

 

Thus, the Akhbaris believe in the authenticity of all of these tales which appear in the books of their scholars. (Yes, you may express surprise at their acceptance of every letter that appears in these books which are attributed to their scholars — despite the great degree of incongruity in the chains and texts of the narrations — and their simultaneous attacks upon the Book of Allah) They believe obvious lies and reject established realities. Can there be a punishment greater than this kind of deformation? Their temperaments, intellects and standards have all been overturned.

Nonetheless, the reason cited, that it cannot be spread due to it being transmitted through ahad narrations, is a matter that is not agreed upon by the Shia. The reason that is agreed upon is that of fear. This means that the circulation of a secret version by the Akhbaris is highly possible. Perhaps this is the explanation to that which was published by Muhibb al Din al Khatib and Ahmed al Kisrawi (who was originally a Shi’i) regarding Surah al Wilayah, which was photocopied from the Iranian copy.[18]

However this was a mere compilation of all those fabrications, which — according to them — are examples of that which appears in the copy of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. As for the copy itself, it remains hidden and anticipated, just like their awaited Mahdi, who has not yet appeared. The Qur’an will be practised upon until he makes his appearance. The compilation of these fabrications was merely to lull the sceptics and confused ones among them.

A point that I have noted from the speech of their scholars is that they have no difference of opinion regarding the existence of the copy of Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. This is to the extent that even those who outwardly reject the view that alterations took place, from the classical as well as contemporary scholars such as Ibn Babawayh al Qummi (in al I’tiqadat — as will appear) and al Khu’i (in al Bayan) believe that the copy of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu does exist.[19]

The only question is; does it contain additional verses or rather, the additions are regarding the interpretations and sequence? This question will be answered shortly.

 

The “Copy of ‘Ali”

 

We have already stated that the copy of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu was mentioned in the first book written by the Shia, just as it was mentioned in some narrations of the Ahlus Sunnah — which have been categorised as unauthentic, as explained by the expert on the subject, Ibn Hajar. However, the picture painted by the books of the Shia is a different one, as explained. They have discussed this copy greatly and — according to their beliefs — it contains additions to the Book of Allah.

An all-out effort was made by the ‘reliable one’ of their religion, al Kulayni to spread this lie, in his book al Kafi. He dedicated a special chapter to it named, “the Qur’an was not compiled in its complete form by anyone except the Imams.” Thereafter, he quoted six of their narrations to prove this. Among them was that which he narrated from Jabir al Ju’fi, who claimed to have heard Abu Jafar (al Baqir) saying:

 

ما ادعى أحد من الناس أنه جمع القرآن كله كما أنزل إلا كذاب، وما جمعه وحفظه كما نزله الله تعالى إلا علي بن أبي طالب والأئمة من بعده

No person has claimed to have gathered the entire Qur’an in the form that it was revealed, except that he was a great liar. None gathered it and memorised it in the manner that it was revealed by Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala except ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib and the Imams who appeared after him.[20]

 

In Tafsir al Qummi, the best book of tafsir according to them, it is reported from Abu Jafar (al Baqir)radiya Llahu ‘anhu:

 

ما أحد من هذه الأمة جمع القرآن إلا وصي محمد صلى الله عليه وآله

No person of this ummah gathered the Qur’an except the Wasi of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[21]

 

The narration of al Kulayni creates the impression that each Imam gathered the Qur’an. Thus, it seems as if there are a few copies, not just one. However, the narration of al Kulayni contradicts this by explicitly stating that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu alone gathered it. Their narrations and chapter headings also state that whoever claims that the Qur’an was gathered by anyone besides the Imams is a great liar. This is despite the fact that they assert that it was compiled in the era of Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This, they ‘prove’ from a narration which appears in al Bihar.[22] Was it Hassan, Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhuma and the rest of the Imams who took up the responsibility of compiling it in his salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam era?

Some narrations have it that some of the Shia discovered this copy. One narration states:

 

.. عن ابن الحميد قال: دخلت على أبي عبد الله – رضي الله عنه- فأخرج إليّ مصحفاً، قال: فتصفحته فوقع بصري على موضع منه فإذا فيه مكتوب: “هذه جنهم التي كنتم بها تكذبان. فاصليا فيها لا تموتان فيها ولا تحييان

Reported from Ibn Humaid; he says, “I entered the presence of Abu ‘Abdullah (al Sadiq), who took out and presented to me a copy. I went through it whereupon my eyes fell upon a portion of it. I found that it stated, ‘this is the Hell-fire that the two of you would belie. So enter into it; you will not die there or live.’”

 

Al Majlisi says:

 

يعني الأولين

This is a reference to the first two.[23]

 

They are referring to the two beloveds of the Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, his two fathers-in-law, successors, viziers and the best of the creation after the Rasul, the prophets; i.e. Abu Bakr and ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. This narration allows the chosen companions of the Imams to take a look at the contents of their version or copy of the “Qur’an”. However, another narration of al Kafi contradicts this. Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Nasr says:

 

دفع إليّ أبو الحسن مصحفاً وقال: “لا تنظر فيه، ففتحته وقرأت فيه: لم يكن الذين كفروا؛ فوجدت فيها اسم سبعين رجلاً من قريش بأسمائهم وأسماء آبائهم قال: فعبث إليّ: ابعث بالمصحف

Abu al Hassan gave a copy to me and said, “do not look into it.” I opened it and read in it, ‘lam Yakun… (Those who disbelieved were not…),” I found in it the names of seventy men of Quraysh, along with the names of their fathers. Thereupon he sent (someone to me saying), “send the copy.”[24]

 

In this narration, the Imam entrusted one of his confidants with the copy and prohibited him from taking a look at what is inside it. However, he opposes his Imam and he abuses the trust that was placed on him. He does not only read the contents but also spreads it. Thus, the copy which is referred to in this narration is a secret copy which is to be kept hidden from the general public as well as the chosen ones. None should read it except the Imam.

The narrator indicates that among the contents of this copy is the declaration that the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum were disbelievers. Thus, this is not the Book of Allah, which was revealed for the benefit of humanity — in which the merits of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum are extolled. Rather, it is a copy that is circulated by the hands of the Batiniyyah in a very secretive manner. In it, there are forgeries against the Ahlul Bayt; another act aimed at disgracing them.

This fabrication appears once again, with wording that is different to the previous narration. Basa’ir al Darajat reports from al Bazanti[25] that al Rida handed to him that alleged copy. Al Bazanti said:

 

وكنت يوماً وحدي ففتحت المصحف لأقرأ فيه، فلما نشرته نظرت فيه في “لم يكن” فإذا فيها أكثر مما في أيدينا أضعافه، فقدمت على قراءتها فلم أعرف شيئاً فأخذت الدواة والقرطاس فأردت أن أكتبها لكي أسأل عنها، فأتاني مسافر قبل أن أكتب منها شيئاً، معه منديل وخيط وخاتمه فقال: مولاي يأمرك أن تضع المصحف في المنديل وتختمه وتبعث إليه بالخاتم، قال: ففعلت

 

One day, I was alone, so I opened the copy to read from it. When I spread it out, I looked in it at Lam Yakun. I found that it had much more than what was in our copy. I tried to read it but I could not understand anything. Thus, I took some ink and a paper and I was about to write it down, so that I could ask regarding, when all of a sudden a traveller came to me (before I could even write anything) carrying a handkerchief, a thread and a seal. He said, “my master commands you to place the copy in the handkerchief, seal it and send it to him with the seal.” I complied.[26]

 

This al Bazanti says in this narration, “I did not understand anything from it”, yet in the previous narration, he is reported to have said that he found in it the names of seventy people from Quraysh along with the names of their fathers. Another narration of his, which appears in Rijal al Kashshi paints yet another picture of what had transpired. It says:

 

عن أحمد بن محمد بن أبي نصر قال: لما أتي بأبي الحسن رضي الله عنه أخذ به على القادسية، ولم يدخل الكوفة، أخذ به على برّاني البصرة، قال: فبعث إليّ مصحفاً وأنا بالقادسية ففتحته فوقعت بين يديّ سورة “لم يكن” فإذا هي أطول وأكثر مما يقرأها الناس، قال فحفظت منه أشياء قال: فأتى مسافر ومعه منديل وطين وخاتم فقال: هات: فدفعته إليه فجعله في المنديل، ووضع عليه الطين وختمه فذهب عني ما كنت حفظت منه، فجهدت أن أذكر منه حرفاً واحداً فلم أذكره

 

Ahmed ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Nasr says; when Abu al Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu was brought, he was taken to al Qadisiyyah, and he did not enter al Kufah. ‘Ali Barrani took him to Basrah, so he sent a copy to me whilst I was in al Qadisiyyah. I opened it and the surah Lam Yakun appeared before me. It was larger and lengthier than that which the people recite. I memorised portions of it. Then, a traveller came, who had with him a handkerchief, clay and a seal. He said, “bring!” thereupon, I handed it to him. He placed it in the handkerchief, placed clay upon it and sealed it. Thereafter, whatever I had memorised escaped me. I tried to recall a single word, but I was unable to do so.[27]

 

These are three narrations, all from this al Bazanti. In the narration of Basa’ir al Darajat, he claims that he did not understand any of that which he read, and he tried to write that which he read, but before he could do that, he was approached by the messenger of the Imam. In the narration of al Kashshi, he claims that he memorised a portion of it, but this was forgotten as soon as the copy went out of his possession. In the narration of al Kafi, we learn that he understood that which he read, and he managed to recall that which he memorised. It was with regards to the enemies of the ummah from Quraysh. Contradictory tales, as is the case with all fabrications.

If it was difficult to write down anything from it, or to memorise a portion of it, then how were the alleged verses written and memorised (and later transmitted)? Indeed, these are tales which belie one-another. The narrations of the Shia claim that this copy is in the possession of their awaited Imam. Their scholar, Ni’mat Allah al Jaza’iri says:

 

إنه قد استفاض في الأخبار أن القرآن كما أنزل لم يؤلفه إلا أمير المؤمنين – إلى أن قال: -وهو الآن موجود عند مولانا المهدي رضي الله عنه مع الكتب السماوية ومواريث الأنبياء

It appears in many narrations that the Qur’an, in the manner in which it was revealed, was not gathered by anyone besides Amir al Mu’minin… Right now, it is in the possession of our leader, al Mahdi, along with the heavenly books and the inheritance of the prophets.[28]

 

Added to that, some copies which were in the possession of the Shia, were believed by them to have been written by ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Ibn al Nadim (a Shi’i) says that he saw a Qur’an which had the handwriting of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. One of the families who claim to be from the offspring of Hassan radiya Llahu ‘anhu have been passing it down the generations.[29] Ibn ‘Anbah — who claims to be of ‘Alawi descent — indicates towards two copies that were written by Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. One of them comprises of three volumes and the other is just one volume. He saw them himself, but they were burnt when the Mash-had caught on fire.[30]

 

Abu ‘Abdullah al Zanjani, one of the leading contemporary Shia scholars, says:

 

ورأيت في شهر ذي الحجة سنة 1353ه‍ في دار الكتب العلوية في النجف مصحفاً بالخط الكوفي كتب على آخره: كتبه علي بن أبي طالب في سنة أربعين من الهجرة

I saw in the month of Dhu al Hijjah, in the year 1353 A.H, in Dar al Kutub al ‘Alawiyyah in Najaf, a copy that was written in the Kufic script. At the end of it, the following was written, “this was written by ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib in the year 40 A.H.”[31]

 

This is why Mirza Makhdum al Shirazi (who lived among the Shia and read many of their books, as stated previously) said:

 

Among the ironies is that despite this (their claim of alterations) they believe that many of the copies of the Qur’an were by ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Imams from his progeny. However, they did not contain anything more than that which is found in in the rest of the copies, (the contents of) which are mutawatir, and are too many to be counted.[32]

 

These supposed viewings of the copy of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu clearly contradict their claim that the copy of ‘Ali is in the possession of their awaited Mahdi. There can be no doubt that Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu would recite and govern by nothing besides the copy upon which the Sahabah had consensus. Ibn Abi Dawood reports with an authentic chain from Suwaid ibn Ghafalah who narrates that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

 

لا تقولوا في عثمان إلا خيراً، فوالله ما فعل في المصاحف إلا عن ملأ منا

Speak nothing but good regarding ‘Uthman, for — by the oath of Allah — he did not do anything as far as the copy is concerned, except that it was in conjunction with a group from us.[33]

 

This has been reported in the books of the Shia, as will appear shortly. Sahih al Bukhari has it that when Amir al Mu’minin ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu completed the compilation of the Qur’an, he sent one copy to each land, and he ordered that all other written forms of the Qur’an, be it on a loose page or in a complete book, should be burnt.[34] It is possible that on account of this, the copy of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu — which they claim existed — was also burnt.

It should also be noted that among the famous Qurra’ (experts of the Qur’an, from the aspect of recitation) there are some whose chain include members of the Ahlul Bayt. It is on this basis that Dr ‘Abdul Sabur Shahin proves that the Ahlul Bayt had nothing to do with this fabrication and that the claims the Shia regarding them were nothing but false allegations. Among the seven famous Qurra’ is Hamzah al Zayyat whose chain is:

 

Hamza al Zayyat from — Jafar al Sadiq from — Muhammad al Baqir from — Zayn al ‘Abidin from — his father (Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu) from — his father (‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu).[35]

 

Thus, these pious personalities, who belonged to the Ahlul Bayt, did not differ with the consensus of the Muslims and the copy of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu. One of the signs that indicate their approval of it is that they taught the contents thereof to the masses without adding or removing a single letter, or claiming anything that could raise doubts regarding the Book of Allah.[36]

Dr Muhammad Baltaji says:

 

We can add to that the fact that the recital of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu of the Qur’an has been narrated from Zaid ibn ‘Ali (the brother of Imam Baqir and the paternal uncle of Imam al Sadiq). This is admitted by the Imami Ithna ‘Ashariyyah (Twelvers) as well.[37]

 

I would like to add on to this an admission and acknowledgement of another Shia scholar, al Majlisi. He says:

 

والقراء السبعة إلى قراءته (يعني قراءة علي) يرجعون، فأما حمزة والكسائي فيعولان على قراءة علي.. وأما نافع وابن كثير وأبو عمرو فمعظم قراءاتهم يرجع إلى ابن عباس، وابن عباس قرأ على أبي بن كعب وعلي، والذي قرأ هؤلاء القراء يخالف قراءة أبي فهو إذاً مأخوذ عن علي – عليه السلام -.

وأما عاصم فقراه على أبي الرحمن السلمي وقال أبو عبد الرحمن: قرأت القرآن كله على علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام، فقالوا: أفصح القراءات قراءة عاصم لأنه أتى بالأصل وذلك أنه يظهر ما أدغمه غيره، ويحقق من الهمز ما لينه غيره.. والعدد الكوفي في القرآن منسوب إلى علي عليه السلام وليس في الصحابة من ينسب إليه العدد غيره، وإنما كتب عدد ذلك كل مصر عن بعض التابعين

 

The seven Qurra’ all refer to his qira’ah (recital). As for Hamzah and al Kisa’i, their (Qira’ah) goes up to ‘Ali. As for Nafi’, Ibn Kathir and Abu ‘Amr, most of their qira’ah is from Ibn ‘Abbas and Ibn ‘Abbas learnt from Ubay ibn Ka’b as well as ‘Ali. The qira’at (plural of qira’ah) of these (three) opposes the qira’ah of Ubay. Thus, it is taken from ‘Ali.

As for ‘Asim, he learnt from Abu ‘Abdur Rahman al Sulami who said, “I recited the entire Qur’an to ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib ‘alayh al Salam.” Thus they say, “the most distinct qira’ah is the qira’ah of ‘Asim, as he done that which was the original (law), i.e. he does izhar (to recite each letter separately upholding all its dimensions) of that which others do idgham (to combine two letters either entirely, or as far as their qualities of articulation are concerned) of, and he recites the Hamzah distinctly in cases where others pronounce it lightly…” Further, the Kufic count of the Qur’an is attributed to ‘Ali. None of the other Sahabah have any count attributed to them. Rather, each city recorded that from one of the Tabi’in.[38]

 

In fact, they even claim, as stated by their scholar, ‘Ali ibn Muhammad al Tawusi al ‘Alawi al Fatimi in his book Sa’d al Sa’ud:

 

ثم عاد عثمان فجمع المصحف برأي مولانا علي بن أبي طالب – رضي الله عنه –

Thereafter ‘Uthman returned and compiled the Qur’an according to the view of our master, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[39]

 

They also claim that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

 

أيها الناس الله الله إياكم والغلو في أمر عثمان وقولكم حراق المصاحف فوالله ما حرقها إلا عن ملأ من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

O people! Fear Allah, fear Allah! Be careful not fall into extremism regarding the matter of ‘Uthman, and (stay away from) your derogatory title, “the one who burnt the Qur’an”. By the oath of Allah, he did not burn the Qur’an except in conjunction with a group from the Sahabah of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[40]

 

There is even more to it than this. They say:

 

إنه ورد عن أهل البيت عليهم السلام أن عثمان بن عفان لما رأى اختلاف الصحابة في قراءة القرآن طلب من علي عليه السلام مصحف فاطمة الذي كانت هي – سلام الله عليها – دونته بإشارة أبيها، وطابقه مع المصاحف الأخرى التي كانت بيد الصحابة، فما طابق منها مصحف فاطمة نشره وما لم يطابقه أحرقه. فعلى هذا يكون المصحف الذي بأيدينا مصحف فاطمة لا مصحف عثمان، وعثمان كان ناشره لا مدونه ومرتبه

 

It has been reported from the Ahlul Bayt ‘alayhim al Salam that when ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan saw the differences in the recitation of the Qur’an of the Sahabah, he asked ‘Ali ‘alayh al Salam for the copy of Fatimah Salam Allah ‘alayha , which she compiled upon the indication of her father. He compared it to the other copies which were in the possession of the Sahabah. He published whatever conformed to the copy of Fatimah, and burnt whatever did not conform to it. Hence, the copy that in our hands is the copy of Fatimah, not the copy of ‘Uthman. He was just the one who disseminated it. He did not gather it or compile it.[41]

 

Does not all of this destroy their claims and all that they have built upon them? It is another proof of the contradictions in their narrations. This kind of contradictions is a definite sign of the falsity of the religion. It appears, from the last quotation, that there is an effort on their part to retract from their view, which made them targets of contempt, brought upon them shame and criticism and destroyed their religion, without having any effect upon the Qur’an.

However, retracting from this view brings upon them another dilemma and contradiction; this Qur’an was transmitted to us by Abu Bakr and ‘Uthman and their brethren radiya Llahu ‘anhum. These are the very individuals who have received the greatest amount of vilification, revilement and verdicts of kufr against them from the Shia. How is it then possible that one heart and one mind can accept the authenticity of the Qur’an and simultaneously believe that its compilers were traitors?

Perhaps they concocted the last quotation (in which it is stated that ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu compared the Qur’an to the supposed copy of Fatimah) to get them out of this predicament. However, this places them in a third dilemma and contradiction, i.e. it contradicts their narrations which claim that the copy of Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha is something other than the present Qur’an.[42] That which is established from ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu is that he sent a message to Hafsah radiya Llahu ‘anha saying, “send to us the pages, we wish to copy them into books.”[43] However, these people made this out to be something that took place between ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, as is their habit in attributing the merits of the prophets and Sahabah to the twelve Imams, by distorting ahadith and modifying them in their books, so that they fit upon the Imams. With regards to the verses of the Qur’an; they seek ‘secretive’ interpretations or they claim that alterations took place, as you have already seen.

 
 

NEXT⇒ The Amount of Narrations Pertaining to this Fabrication in the Books of the Shia, and the Weight that it Holds According to Them


[1]  Refer to the footnotes of Mukhtasar al Tuhfat al Ithna ‘Ashariyyah pg. 12

[2]  He published this in al Khutut al ‘Aridah pg. 12, Mukhtasar al Tuhfah pg. 31, Majallat al Fath, edition 842, pg. 9. This was also published, prior to his publications, by the al Ustadh Ahmed al Kisrawi who was originally a Shia in his book al Shia wa l-Tashayyu’.

[3]  Muhibb al Din says that this copy was discovered to be in the possession of Brian and photocopied by one who he refers to as ‘the reliable and trustworthy one’, Muhammad ‘Ali Sa’udi, who was – as stated by Sheikh Muhibb al Din – one of the high-ranking ministers of justice in Egypt. Refer to the footnotes of Mukhtasar al Tuhfah, pg. 32, al Khutut al ‘Aridah pg. 11.

[4]Usul al Kafi

[5]  There are many narrations in which it is claimed that their Imams recite something other than the Qur’an. Tafsir Furat says:

عن حمران قال: سمعت أبا جعفر يقرأ هذه الآية: “إن الله اصطفى آدم ونوحاً و آل إبراهيم وآل محمد على العالمين” قلت: ليس يقرأ كذا، قال: أدخل حرف مكان حرف

Humran reports, “I heard Abu Jafar reciting this verse, ‘Indeed, Allah chose Adam and Nuh, the family of Ibrahim and the family of Muhammad over the worlds.’” I said, “it is not recited like that.” He replied, “replace a letter with another.” (Tafsir Furat pg. 18, Bihar al Anwar 92/56)

There are many other similar texts which indicate that they attribute recitation to the Imams, which have nothing to do with that which Allah had revealed and that which the Muslims recite. Will anyone still regard these people as the supporters of the Ahlul Bayt?

[6] Refer to al Mazindarani: Sharh Jami’ (of al Kafi) 11/47. There are many other texts of the Rafidah which clearly state that this is the Qa’im or the Mahdi, as will be mentioned shortly.

[7]Bihar al Anwar 92/74

[8]Al Anwar al No’maniyyah 2/363-364

[9]  Al Mufid: al Irshad pg. 413

[10]  The preface of the book in which all the addresses of the awaited Mahdi to al Mufid, which appear in al Ihtijaj, have been recorded, pg. 277.

[11]  Al Majlisi: Bihar al Anwar 1/27

[12]  Al No’mani: al Ghaybah pg. 171-172, Fasl al Khitab, scroll seven, Bihar al Anwar 92/60

[13]  Refer to al Ghaybah pg. 194, Bihar al Anwar 25/364

[14]  Al Washia pg. 116. There are other narrations in their books which encourage the learning of the Qur’an and memorising it. They also mention some rewards for the one who does so. One example is the narration of Abu Jafar (al Baqir), who said to one of his companions, Sa’d al Khaffaf:

يا سعد، تعلموا القرآن..

O Sa’d, learn the Qur’an…(Usul al Kafi 2/596)

The author of al Kafi then adds the chapter, “the chapter regarding the one who memorises the Qur’an and then forgets it.” Under this chapter, he quotes six narrations in which the reward that is lost out by the one who forgets a portion of the Qur’an is mentioned. (Usul al Kafi 2/607-609). He adds another chapter titled, “the chapter regarding its recital”. Under this chapter, he reports from Abu ‘Abdullah (al Sadiq):

القرآن عهد الله إلى خلقه فقد ينبغي للمرء المسلم أن ينظر في عهده وأن يقرأ منه في كل يوم خمسين آية

The Qur’an is the bequest of Allah (directed) towards His creation. Therefore, it is necessary for a Muslim to look at His bequest and recite fifty verses thereof daily. (Usul al Kafi 2/609)

Similarly, he has another chapter heading, “the houses in which Qur’an is recited”. In it is a narration; Layth ibn Abi Sulaim reports from Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

نوروا بيوتكم بتلاوة القرآن ولا تتخذوها قبوراً

Illuminate your houses with the recitation of the Qur’an, and do not make them graves. (Usul al Kafi 2/610)

Another chapter heading reads, “the reward of reciting the Qur’an”. Herein, seven narrations discuss the great rewards of the one who recites and learns the Qur’an. (Usul al Kafi 2/611-613). One chapter heading is, “reciting the Qur’an from a copy”. This chapter contains five narrations which state the reward of reciting the Qur’an whilst looking into a copy of it. (Usul al Kafi 2/613-614).

There are other chapters which contain the same message. These contradict the other narrations. In fact, it is proof — from their own books — that their ‘narrations’ from the Ahlul Bayt are forgeries and concoctions. Otherwise, how was it possible that he instructed the recitation of the Qur’an, mentioned that great rewards are received by the one who recites it, encouraged all Muslims to recite it daily and illuminate their houses by means of it; if he believed that it was distorted? Does this not point out the great contradiction that exists in their religion?

[15] Bihar al Anwar 92/74-75

[16] Wasa’il al Shia 20/61

[17]  Jafar Kashif al Ghita: Haqq al Mubin from al Tabataba’i: al Anwar al No’maniyyah (footnote) 2/359

[18]  These fabrications have been gathered by the author of Fasl al Khitab and arranged according to the Surahs of the Qur’an. However, they are not in the form of a complete copy. A copy from Pakistan came into my possession, which was printed by the Shia there. The publishers filled up this copy with their fabrications. However, they did not interfere with the original text. Rather, it was published like Tafsir Jalalayn, i.e. the text of the Qur’an was placed in the centre and the rest was placed around it.

[19]Al Bayan pg. 223

[20]Usul al Kafi 1/228. Take note that this narration was reported by Jabir al Ju’fi, who is considered a liar by the Ahlus Sunnah. Added to that, the books of the Shia state that he did not have a good relationship with Abu Jafar. (Refer to Rijal al Kashshi pg. 191). Thus, this narration is one of his many lies. Al Kulayni, who wished to spread this lie did not find anything questionable with it. If the Qur’an was not gathered by anyone besides ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu, then where is that which he gathered? If he had gathered it, then what was the need for the “Imams who appeared after him” to gather it? Unless they believe that the Imams had a share in gathering it, although they did not even exist when it was being gathered. How is it possible that the majority have not seen this book, and no Muslim knew about it? How can this accusation be accepted, which was transmitted by a handful of liars, especially when the consensus of the Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum— including ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu — upon practicing on this glorious Qur’an and submitting to it, is being rejected? Furthermore, all the leading scholars of the ummah (which obviously included scores of scholars from the Ahlul Bayt) upheld this consensus. These are undoubtedly baseless statements which cannot be accepted by a brain that is free from wayward desires and sinister motives. These can never enter a heart that is imbued with iman.

[21] Tafsir al Qummi pg. 744 (printed in Iran), Bihar al Anwar 92/48

[22]  Al Mar’ashi: al Ma’arif al Jaliyyah pg. 7

[23]Bihar al Anwar 92/48

[24]Usul al Kafi 2/631

[25]  Al Bazanti is the narrator of the previous fabrication. This individual, who reports these lies and makes claims against the Book of Allah, the Sahabah and the close relatives of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is considered by them to be reliable (although he abused the trust that his Imam placed in him and he disobeyed him). Mujam Rijal al Hadith of al Khu’i states:

وقيل: أبو علي المعروف بالبزنطي، كوفي ثقة لقي الرضا، وكان عظيم المنزلة عنده، روى عنه كتاباً، ومات سنة 221ه

It is said, Abu ‘Ali. He was commonly known as al Bazanti. He is a Kufi and he is reliable. He met al Rida and he held a great position in his sight. He narrated a book from him. He passed away in the year 221 A.H. (Mujam Rijal al Hadith 2/231)

[26]Basa’ir al Darajat pg. 246, from Bihar al Anwar 92/51

[27]Rijal al Kashshi pg. 588-589

[28]Al Anwar al No’maniyyah 2/360-362

[29]Al Fahrist pg. 28

[30] ‘Umdat al Talib fi Ansab Al Abi Talib pg. 130-131

[31]  Al Zanjani: Tarikh al Qur’an pg. 67-68

[32]Al Nawaqid scroll 104 of the manuscript

[33]Fath al Bari 13/18

[34]Sahih al Bukhari (with Fath al Bari 13/11)

[35]  ‘Abdul Sabur Shahin: Tarikh al Qur’an pg. 170

[36]  Ibid pg. 165

[37]Manahij al Tashri’ al Islami 1/189, the reference cited from the sources of the Shia is Ta’sis al Shia li ‘Ulum al Islam pg. 285, 343, al Fahrist of al Tusi pg. 115

[38]Bihar al Anwar 92/53-54, Manaqib Al Abi Talib 2/42-43

[39]  From Tarikh al Qur’an of l-Zanjani, who is among the contemporary Shia pg. 67

[40]Tarikh al Qur’an of l-Zanjani pg. 68

[41]  Al Mar’ashi: al Ma’arif al Jaliyyah pg. 27

[42]  Refer to the discussion regarding Fatimah under the topic, “having Iman upon the Book”.

[43]  Refer to Sahih al Bukhari (with Fath al Bari 13/11)

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