Discussion 1: The Sorrow of Sayyidah Fatimah

The biography of Sayyidah Fatimah al-Zahra’
August 27, 2015
Discussion 2: Superiority of Women
August 27, 2015

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Important Discussions

We wish to briefly discuss few points regarding Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha wish will serve as a conclusion to her biography. Some points have been mentioned before, but will be further clarified. Other new points will be discussed which will remove the doubts of the readers and the true truth will be revealed regarding some exaggerated beliefs.

 

Discussion 1: The Sorrow of Sayyidah Fatimah

Previously, under the heading A grievous incident it was mentioned that this incident needs to be further clarified. We will present a short explanation.

Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu proposed to the family to marry the daughter of Abu Jahl. This is called khitbah in Arabic. When Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha learnt about it, she was extremely perturbed and out of natural self honour, she was enraged, thus went to her father Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to complain. Seeing the worry and anxiety of her made him grieve. He delivered a sermon regarding this expressing his anger and confirmed the anger of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha to be his anger.

The objection raised here is that in Islam when a man has the right to marry four women, then why the anger and tension over the intention of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu?

 

Clarification

We wish to clarify few points which will answer this objection.

1. When did this incident take place? The muhaddithin have stated that this took place after the Conquest of Makkah in 8 A.H. Sayyidah Fatimah’s radiya Llahu ‘anha mother Sayyidah Khadijah radiya Llahu ‘anhu had passed away long ago and her sisters had all left this world. She was alone.[1] Fadil al Zarqani has noted this in his kitab Sharh Mawahib al Laduniyyah in the following words which we reproduce in support of Fath al Bari for the benefit of the scholars.

و كانت هذه الواقعة اى خطبة على بنت ابى جهل بعد فتح مكة و لم يكن حينئذ تاخر من بناته صلى الله عليه و سلم غيرها و اصيبت بعد امها باخواتها فادخال الغيرة عليها مما يزيدها حزنا

This incident i.e. the proposal of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu to the daughter of Abu Jahl was after the Conquest of Makkah. At that time, no daughter of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was alive besides her and she was devastated after the loss of her mother by the loss of her sisters. Thus, igniting her self-honour would increase her devastation.[2]

 

2. The daughter of Abu Jahl who Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu proposed to; her name was Juwairiyah, Jamilah, Al ‘Awraʾ or Al Hayfaʾ according to different views. These four names are mentioned by the hadith commentators.[3]

 

3. The paternal uncles of the daughter of Abu Jahl – who are called Banu Hisham ibn Mughirah – one of them is Harith ibn Hisham and the other is Salamah ibn Hisham. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu extended his proposal via them. Both these brothers approached Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and asked his permission to marry their niece to Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu.[4]

 

4. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, out of grief, repeatedly pronounced that he does not allow it. He then delivered a sermon regarding it the gist of it which is that “I married my daughter to Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ who maintained a healthy relation with me. He told me and was true to his word and promised me and fulfilled his promise. (After praising his character, he said) Neither do I prohibit a permissible action nor allow a forbidden action. However, by Allah, the daughter of the Rasul of Allah and the daughter of the enemy of Allah will not join in one man’s wedlock. Fatimah is part of me. What hurts her, hurts me. I fear that out of self-honour, she will be trialled in her din (i.e. out of honour and anger, she might do something contrary to the shari’ah.)”[5]

From the sermon of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, the following is deduced:

The relationship of Sayyidina Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu with Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was a blissful one. Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was pleased with his character and manners, hence praised and commended him. No word of complaint against Sayyidina Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu ever came to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was never displeased with him.

From the words part of me etc. it is evident that whatever hurts and upsets Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, hurts and upsets Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Thus, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was hurt and upset at the intention of Sayyidah ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu (which was removed thereafter by him)

She will be trialed in her din – words of this nature indicate that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was worried about her din and was concerned about her peace of heart. He wanted to protect her from agitation and tension. In those days, there was no support for Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha by her family besides Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who she could confide in and who could console her. Her mother and sisters, one after the other, left his transitory life for the eternal life. It was very necessary for Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to consider her emotions at that time which he did.

There are some masaʾil found in Islam which are exclusive to Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which the scholars refer to as the specialties of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam e.g. his marrying more than four wives, the perpetual impermissibility of anyone marrying his wives after his death salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam etc. Similarly, his daughters’ husbands are not allowed to have co-wives; this is counted among his specialties. Thus, senior ‘ulamaʾ have clearly stated this. ‘Allamah Ibn Hajar al ‘Asqalani rahimahu Llah writes:

و الذى يظهر لى انه لا يبعد فى خصائصه صلى الله عليه و سلم منع التزوج على بناته

It is apparent to me that it is not unlikely that one of the specialties of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is that no one can marry upon his daughters.[6]

 

‘Allamah Suyuti rahimahu Llah has with reference to Ibn Hajar written in his book Al Khasaʾis al Kubra:

لا يبعد فى خصائصه صلى الله عليه و سلم منع التزوج على بناته

It is not improbable that one of the specialties of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is that no one can marry upon his daughters.[7]

 

The ruling of the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is different to the general principle of marrying up to 4 wives

In this ruling, the natural likes of the daughters of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam have been considered to save them from the demands of self-honour with co-wives and they remain protected from falling into fitnah with regards to their din. Owing to this wisdom and betterment, the son-in-laws of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam viz. Sayyidina Abu al ‘As radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu did not get married again, and in fact did not even desire to get married again (while being married to his salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam daughters)

This is also a possibility that the prevention of co-wives for his daughters is not only for the sake of his daughters but rather for the sake of the protection of the iman of the upcoming co-wives. When co-wives have rifts, they do not speak evil about one another’s husband or in-laws but rather in a fit of rage, they attack one another’s family. For example, if Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha speaks something bad about Abu Jahl and thereupon out of family honour, her co-wife thinks evil or harbours ill-feelings about the parents of Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha, then won’t her iman be at jeopardy? Thus, Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam prevented co-wives upon his daughters to save them from losing their iman. The heart that holds ill-feelings towards Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is not the heart of a Muslim.

 

NEXT⇒ Discussion 2: Superiority of Women


[1]Fath al Bari Sharh Bukhari vol. 9 pg. 270, 271 – Kitab al Nikah; The chapter concerning a man defending his daughter out of self-honour and justice

Fath al Bari Sharh Bukhari vol. 7 pg. 69 – Abwab al Manaqib; The chapter concerning the in-laws of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam among whom is Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu

[2]Sharh Mawahib al Laduniyyah vol. 3 pg. 205 –Sayyidah Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha

[3]Fath al Bari Sharh Bukhari vol. 7 pg. 69 – Abwab al Manaqib; The chapter concerning the in-laws of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

[4]Fath al Bari Sharh Bukhari vol. 9 pg. 269 – Kitab al Nikah; The chapter concerning a man defending his daughter out of self-honour and justice

[5]Bukhari vol. 2 pg. 787 – Kitab al Nikah; The chapter concerning a man defending his daughter out of self-honour and justice

Bukhari vol. 1 pg. 438 – Kitab al Jihad; The narrations concerning the armour, staff and sword of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam

Bukhari vol. 1 pg. 438 – Kitab al Manaqib; The chapter concerning the in-laws of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam among whom is Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu

Fath al Bari Sharh Bukhari vol. 9 pg. 270, 271 – Kitab al Nikah; The chapter concerning a man defending his daughter out of self-honour and justice

Fath al Bari Sharh Bukhari vol. 7 pg. 69 – Abwab al Manaqib; The chapter concerning the in-laws of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam among whom is Sayyidina Abu al ‘As ibn Rabi’ radiya Llahu ‘anhu

Al Bidayah vol. 6 pg. 333 – Regarding who passed away in the year 11 A.H

[6]Fath al Bari Sharh Bukhari vol. 9 pg. 270 – Kitab al Nikah; The chapter concerning a man defending his daughter out of self-honour and justice

[7]Al Khasaʾis al Kubra vol. 2 pg. 255 – The speciality of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that no one can marry upon his daughters

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