Describing their Imams with the Names and Attributes of Allah

Their Denial of the Attributes of Allah
June 13, 2017
Interpolation in Order to Support Their Stance of Denial
June 13, 2017

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Discussion Three

Describing their Imams with the Names and Attributes of Allah

 

This is something exclusive to the Shia wherein they are isolated from the rest of the Ummah. The early scholars from among the Shia attributed to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala the features of the creation. Subsequently, this was followed by a diametrically opposite stance which can be deemed as its counter, and that is the stance of Tatil (denial). Hence, they assimilated Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala with non-existent, inanimate and impossible objects thereby refuting and denying the texts containing his names and attributes.

As a result, they did not describe Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in the manner he described himself nor in the manner that the Rasul salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam described Him. Not in their first standing and not in their second. And if this is really the case then they haven’t stopped there. Instead the matter has escalated to the extent that they have ascribed to their Imams some of the attributes which are exclusive to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala; giving birth to a third stance which is assimilating the creation with the creator—resembling the Christians, just as they, in turn, resembled the Jews.

They have contrived an innovation in the Ummah of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam by claiming that their Imams are the Asma (names) of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala; for they aver that the names of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala mentioned in the Qur’an refer to their twelve Imams. This entails denying the names of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and according them to the creation. They also claim that there is emphatic mention of this from the infallibles. This is a blatant lie, so woe be to them due to their fabrications. Al Kulayni narrates in Usul al Kafi:

 

عن أبي عبد الله في قول الله عز و جل: (و لله الأسماء الحسني فادعوه بها) قال: نحن والله الاسماء الحسني التي لا يقبل الله من العباد عملا إلا بمعرفتن

Abu ‘Abdullah al Sadiq states regarding the verse, And Allah has beautiful names so call unto him by way of them.[1] “We are the names of Allah without the recognition of whom Allah will not accept any deed from his servants.”[2]

 

This subject matter has been narrated by the founding fathers of the dogma who all narrate it from Jafar al Sadiq and others.[3]

Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says, “And for Allah there are beautiful names.” And these people say, “We are the beautiful names.” Can there be any opposition to Allah and his book more blatant than this? It is from these contaminated sources that the Batiniyyah (those who believe in esoteric knowledge rather than exoteric) and those who dieficate their Imams draw, and from its dirty waters do they saturate themselves.

Some narrations unpack what has been vaguely transmitted in these reports. Hence they narrate from Abu Jafar that he said:

 

نحن وجه الله نتقلب في الارض بين أظهركم و نحن عين الله في خلقه و يده المبسوطة بالرحمة علي عباده عرفنا من عرفنا و جهلنا من جهلنا

We are the countenance of Allah who roams among you on the earth. We are the eye of Allah in his creation. We are His hand of mercy which has been spread out to the creation. Those who have recognised us have recognised us and those who are ignorant of us are ignorant of us.[4]

 

Another narration from Abu ‘Abdullah states:

 

و عن أني عبد الله (إن الله خلقنا فأحسن صورنا وجعلنا عينه في عباده، ولسانه الناطق في خلقه، و يده المبسوطة علي عباده بالرأفة و الرحمة، ووجهه الذي يؤتي منه، وبابه الذي يدل عليه وخزانه في سمائه و أرضه، بنا أثمرت الأشجار و أينعت الثمار،و جرت الانهار، و بنا ينزل غيث السماء و ينبت عشب الأرض و بعبادتنا عبد الله و لولانا ما عبد الله

Allah created us and perfected our creation and then made us His eye among his servants, His tongue amidst his creation, His hand that has been spread with compassion and mercy, His countenance wherefrom he is approached, His door which leads to him and His treasurers in the heavens and the earth. Through us do trees bear fruit, fruits ripen, rivers flow, rains pour and the earth gives of its proceeds. And it is due to our worship that Allah is worshipped. If it were not for us Allah would not have been worshipped.[5]

 

Likewise, they allege that Amir al Mu’minin ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu said:

 

و زعموا أن أمير المؤمنين عليا قال: (أنا عين الله و أنا يد الله و أنا جنب الله و أنا باب الله

I am the hand of Allah, I am the side of Allah, and I am the door of Allah.[6]

 

He also said (as they allege):

و قال كما يفترون- أنا علم الله و أنا قلب الله الواعي، و لسان الله الناطق، و عين الله الناظره، و أنا جنب الله و أنا يد الله

I am the knowledge of Allah, I am the retaining heart of Allah, the speaking tongue of Allah, the observing eye of Allah, the side of Allah, and the hand of Allah.[7]

 

In al Tawhid of Ibn Babuwayh al Qummi Abu ‘Abdullah is narrated to have said:

 

إن لله عز و جل خلقا من رحمته، خلقه من نوره…فهم عين الله الناظره و اذنه السامعةنو لسانه الناطق في خلقه بإذنه…بهم يمحو السيئات، و بهم يدفع الضيم، و بهم ينزل الرحمة، و بهم يحيي ميتا، وبهم يميت حيا، و بهم يبتلي خلقه، و بهم يقضي في خلقه قضيته

Verily for Allah there is a creation from His divine mercy; He has created them from His light… they are His observing eye, His hearing ear, and His speaking tongue amidst His creation… Through them does He omit evil, supresses oppression, sends down mercy, revives the dead, gives death to those who are alive, tests His creation, and decrees His intention regarding them.[8]

 

Al Majlisi has quoted thirty six traditions which purport that the Imams are the countenance of Allah and his hand.[9] The following is reported from ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu in Rijal al Kashshi:

أنا وجه الله أنا جنب الله أنا الاول و أنا اللآخر و أنا الظاهر و أنا الباطن

I am the countenance of Allah, the side of Allah, the First, the Last, the Apparent, the Hidden.[10]

 

Similarly, there are many a narrations in several of their sources which explain the following verses:

 

وَيَبْقٰى وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ

Only the countenance of your Rabb the majestic and benevolent will remain.[11]

 

كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجْهَهُ

Everything but his countenance will perish.[12]

 

With narrations which they narrate from Imam Jafar such as:

نحن وجه الله

We are the countenance of Allah.[13]

 

نحن الوجه الذي يؤتي الله منه

We are the countenance of Allah wherefrom he is approached.[14]

 

نحن وجه الله الذي لا يهلك

We are the countenance of Allah which will perish.[15]

 

There are many other narrations of this nature.[16]

In Tafsir al Ayyashi there appears a narration which makes the bodies of the believers quiver; it describes the happenings of the Day of Judgment. The end of the narration states the following:

ثم يؤتي بنا فنجلس علي عرش ربنا

Then we will be summoned and we will be made to sit upon the ‘Arsh of Allah.[17]

 

We seek the protection of Allah from such a slander and fabrication.

Furthermore, their texts which explain the names and attributes of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala with the Imams are found in abundance. Similarly, they have accorded the Imams some of the exclusive attributes of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala, such as having knowledge of the unseen. The author of al Kafi has established a chapter in this regard, Chapter: Regarding the Imams having knowledge of the past and the future, and that nothing is hidden from them.[18] In this chapter he has included a number of narrations. Likewise, he has established another chapter with the title, Chapter: The Imams acquire knowledge when they intend to do so. Hereunder as well he has mentioned many a narrations. One of the narrations reads as follows:

قال أبو عبد الله –كما يفترون- إني لأعلم ما في السماوات و ما في الأرض و أعلم ما في الجنة و أعلم ما في النار، و أعلم ما كان و ما يكون

Abu ‘Abdullah says, “Most certainly I know what is in the heavens and what is on the earth. I know what is in Jannat and what is in Jahannam. I know what transpired in the past and what is to ensue in the future.”

 

و عن سيف التمار قال: كنا مع ابي عبد الله رضي الله عنه جماعة من الشيعة في الحجر فقال: علينا عين؟ فالتفتنا يمنة و يسرة فلم نر أحدا، فقلنا ليس علينا عين فقال: ورب الكعبة ورب البنية ثلاث مرات لو كنت بين موسي و الخضر لأخيرتهما أني أعلم منهما و لأنبأتهما بما ليس في أيديهما، لأن موسي والخضر عليهما السلام أعطيا علم ما كان و لم يعطيا علم ما يكون و ما هو كأئن حتي تقوم الساعة، و قد ورثناه من رسول الله صلي الله عليه و آله وراثة

Saif al Tammar relates that he and a group of the Shia, were with Abu ‘Abdullah in the Hijr (the area around the Ka’bah where Ismail ‘alayh al Salam is buried).

Abu ‘Abdullah said, “Is there a spy watching us?”

We looked to the right and to the left and did not spot anyone so we informed him that there is no spy watching us. Thereupon he said, “By the Lord of the Ka’bah and the Lord of this structure (three times)! If I were between Musa and Khidar I would inform them that I am more knowledgeable than them, and I would inform them of what is in their hands. Because they were granted the knowledge of previous events, not of future happenings ,nor of things to happen till the emergence of Qiyamah. Whereas we have inherited that from the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[19]

 

Nevertheless, these words do not require any comments. They are the remnants of the esoteric sects which had some appearance in the history of Islam; who believed in the deification of ‘Ali and the Imams. The Twelvers have included them all in the very edifice of their dogma.

They project all of this to the Ahlul Bayt in order to use them as a springboard by the aid of which they can spread their erroneous ideas. Or else why would someone say, “I am the First, the Last, the Apparent, and the Hidden.” Is there any difference between him and Firoun who claimed, “I am your supreme lord?” And how can the leading Shia scholars, the likes of al Kashshi and al Tusi, narrate such blasphemous beliefs. And how can the Shia consider al Kulayni to be a reliable narrator when he narrates such blatant heresies. Is there any excuse for any apologetic?

Nonetheless, Al Majlisi, their supreme Sheikh, has resorted to metaphor in trying to explain some of their texts in this regard. He says,

 

إن تلك المجازات شائعة في كلام العرب فيقال لفلان وجه عند الناس، ولفلان يد علي فلان و أمثال ذالك والوجه يطلق علي الجهة ، فالأئمة الجهة التي أمر الله بالتوجه إليها، ولا يتوجه إليه تعالي إلا بالتوجه إليهم، و كل شيء هالك باطل مضمحل إلا دينهم و طريقتهم و طاعتهم، و هم عين الله أي شاهده علي عباده، فكما أن الرجل ينظر بعينه ليطلع علي الأمور فكذالك خلقهم الله ليكونوا شهداء من الله عليهم ناظرين في أمورهم. و إطلاق اليد علي النعمة و الرحمة و القدرة شائع فهم نعمة الله التامة، ورحمته المبسوطه،و مظاهر قدرته الكاملة، و الجنب:الجانب والناحية وهم الجانب الذي أمر الخلق باالتوجه إليهم…و يحتمل أن يكون كناية عن أن قرب الله تعالي لا يحصل إلا بالتقرب بهم ، كما أن قرب الملك يكون بجنبه.

These metaphors are very frequently used in the Arabic language. It is said, “so-and-so has a Wajh (good social standing) with the people,” and “so-and-so has a favourable hand over so-and-so,” among other examples. Sometimes the word Wajh (lit. face) is translated as direction. Hence the Imams are the direction which Allah has ordered us to face; a person cannot truly be devoted to Allah if he is not devoted to the Imams. Everything is going to perish and be doomed to destruction besides their creed, their path, and obedience to them. And they are the eye of Allah, i.e. the witnesses of Allah upon his servants; hence, just as a person sees with his eyes in order to grasp things, likewise, Allah created them so that they be his witnesses over the creation and see into their affairs. The use of the word Yad (lit. hand) in the meaning of bounty, mercy, and ability is widespread, hence, they are the complete bounty of Allah, his enveloping mercy, and the manifestation of his complete power. As for the word Janb (lit. side) it means angle or direction, and they are the direction that Allah has ordered the creation to face. It is also possible that it implies that proximity to Allah can only be attained through proximity to them (just as the close associate of a king is always by his side).[20]

 

This apologetic approach is an indication that their scholars are satisfied with this outright disbelief. Or else why would someone search for a way out from such blatant heterodoxy? Why did al Majlisi not discard it completely and why did he not cleanse the garb of Shi’ism from the defilement of the leading heretics and the lords of disbelief? Al Majlisi’s interpretation can only be valid if the interpretation of Firoun’s claim, “I am your supreme lord,” is proven to be valid as well. Otherwise, this is merely a camouflage of falsehood and an egotistic defence of the heretics’ verdicts and stances.

A metaphorical meaning, if it is assumed that it was intended[21], cannot be applied at this juncture. For in order to apply a metaphorical meaning there has to be a link between the actual literal meaning and the metaphorical one, coupled with the presence of a clear indicator which makes the actual meaning inapplicable.[22] The literal meaning is primary; the metaphorical meaning will not be applied unless the literal meaning is practically inapplicable.[23]

Therefore, we find that many sub-sects of the Twelvers have taken these statements in their literal sense, the result of which is that they deified the Imams due to the purport of these heresies which the scholars of the Twelvers have transmitted to them. These statements actually deserved to be discarded and belied, for there is no reason to resort to metaphor. Can there possibly be any indicator which allows the attribution of the attributes of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala to the Imams? Where is the indicator in their statement that the names of Allah, viz. al Awwal (the first), al Akhir (the last), al Zahir (the Apparent) and al Batin (the Hidden), are traits of the Imams? With regards to the verse, “Allah has beautiful names so call unto him by way of them,” where is the indicator which averts this verse from its literal meaning—i.e. the names of Allahsubhanahu wa ta ‘ala? There is no such indicator unless it is their claim that the Imams share a portion of the divinity of Allah. Hence al Kulayni has documented the following narration:

إن الله خلطنا بنفسه

Allah has mingled us with himself.[24]

 

If this is the indicator, then it establishes their exaggeration and does not deny it. And it accords the Imams a portion of the attributes of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. You will notice that the commentary of al Majlisi suggests exaggeration with regards to the Imams and is almost an echo of those extreme narrations.

So is it possible to draw a comparison between the proverb of the Arabs: So-and-so has a face (status) among people and the alleged statement of the Imam, “I am the face of Allah,” and would it be fine to assert that the link between the two is that ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the Imams are the direction which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has instructed us to face? Do they have any evidence in this regard which they can furnish for us?

People do not turn but to Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in their devotions and supplications, and do not face but the House of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala in their prayers. There are no intermediaries between Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala and His creation except in the aspect of conveying His revelation to them, and those intermediaries were none other than the Prophets of guidance ‘alayh al Salam; every person besides the Rasul of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is such that some of his views are worth approval and some not. So how is it then possible to claim that the Imams are the direction to which the people are obligated to face?

As to the claim, “The Imams know what happened and what is to happen and that nothing is concealed from them,” this is an attribute of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala which is exclusive to him. Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says:

 

قُل لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا اللّٰهُ

Say, “No one besides Allah has knowledge of the unseen in the heavens and the earth.”[25]

 

وَعِندَهُ مَفَاتِحُ الْغَيْبِ لَا يَعْلَمُهَا إِلَّا هُوَ

And by him are the keys of the unseen, no one besides him possess knowledge thereof.[26]

 

إِنَّ اللَّٰهَ لَا يَخْفٰى عَلَيْهِ شَيْءٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ

Verily Allah, nothing in the earth and heaven is concealed from him.[27]

 

And Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala ordered the best of his creation and the Prophet of guidance to say:

 

وَلَوْ كُنتُ أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ لَاسْتَكْثَرْتُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ وَمَا مَسَّنِيَ السُّوْءُ

And if I possessed knowledge of the unseen I would have sought good in abundance and no evil would have come my way.[28]

 

قُل لَّا أَقُوْلُ لَكُمْ عِندِيْ خَزَائِنُ اللّٰهِ وَلَا أَعْلَمُ الْغَيْبَ

Say, “I do not say to you that I have the treasures of Allah and I do not have knowledge of the unseen.”[29]

 

So Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala ordered him to handover all his affairs to Him and that he inform the people that he does not possess knowledge of the unseen nor does he have any information regarding it with the exception of that which Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala reveals to him as Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala states:

عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ فَلَا يُظْهِرُ عَلَىٰ غَيْبِهِ أَحَدًا إِلَّا مَنِ ارْتَضٰى مِن رَّسُوْلٍ

He is the knower of the unseen. Hence he does not inform anyone of it besides those whom he selects, i.e. a Messenger.[30]

 

The scholars have stated that whoever lays claim to any aspect of the knowledge of the unseen is out of the fold. For Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala has attributed the knowledge of the unseen to Himself specifically in many verses of the Noble Qur’an; He does not, thus, inform anyone about it beside his chosen Messengers.[31] And this is the true knowledge of the unseen which has been barred from the creation.[32]

Amidst all these heterodox and foolish claims with regards to the Imams, I came across some narrations in the books of the Shia which strip the Imams of these attributes which are only appropriate for Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. Abu ‘Abdullah says (as the author of al Kafi narrates):

 

يا عجبا لأقوام يزعمون أنا نعلم الغيب. ما يعلم الغيب إلا الله عز وجل. لقد هممت بضرب جاريتي فلانة فهربت مني فما علمت في أي بيوت الدار هي…

Eerie indeed are those who claim that we have knowledge of the unseen. Only Allah has knowledge of the unseen. I intended to hit my slave girl so-and-so, thus she ran away and I do not know in which of the rooms of the house she is hiding.[33]

 

If Abu ‘Abdullah really had knowledge of the future and nothing was concealed from him, and if he really could attain knowledge whenever he desired, as al Kulaini proves by establishing chapters in this regard after citing this narration, then the place of the slave girl would not have been concealed on him.

The Imams would always complain regarding the false claims of such people, whose statements are compiled by the author of al Kafi and which he has attributed to the Imams. Therefore, it appears in a narration cited by the author of al Bihar and the author of al Ihtijaj that some of the Imams said:

 

تعالي الله عز وجل عما يصفون سبحانه وبحمده، ليس نحن شركاء في علمه ولا في قدرته، بل لا يعلم الغيب غيره كما قال في محكم كتابه تبارك وتعالي:قُل لَّا يَعْلَمُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا الله… قد آذانا جهلاء الشيعة وحمقاؤهم، ومن دينه جناح البعوضة أرجح منه، ,أشهد الله الذي لا إله إلا هو وكفي به شهيدا… أني بريئ إلي الله وإلي رسوله ممن يقول: أنا نعلم الغيب أو نشارك الله في ملكه أو يحلنا محلا سوي المحل الذي رضيه الله لنا.

Exalted is Allah from what they ascribe to him. We are not His partners in His knowledge and power. Instead no one knows the unseen besides Him as He has mentioned in his divine revelation, “Say: No one in the heavens and the earth know the unseen besides Allah.” The ignorant and the foolish of the Shia have harmed us. The one who subscribes to the creed of the wing of a mosquito is weightier than this. I make Allah my witness, the one besides Who there is no deity, and Allah is sufficient a witness… I am free before Allah and His Rasul from any person who says, “We know the unseen or that we are partners with Him in his kingdom or that He will station us in a position other than the position He selected for us.”

 

Hence, we see that the narrations of the Shia expose what is contained within them by themselves and they contradict each other as well.

And the claim of the Imams that they are the source of sustenance and rain, etc., as well as many such claims which are narrated by the scholars of the Twelvers are the remnants of the extremists among them whose ideologies were rejected by the Imams. It has appeared in their narrations that when Abu ‘Abdullah was told:

إن المفضل بن عمرو يقول: إنكم تقدرون أرزاق العباد

Mufaddal ibn ‘Amr says, “You destine the sustenance of the bondsmen.”

 

He said:

والله ما يقدر أرزاقنا إلا الله. ولقد احتجت إلي الطعام لعيالي فضاق صدري وأبلغت إلي الفكرة في ذلك حتي أحرزت قوتهم فعندها طابت نفسي. لعنه الله وبرئ منه.

By the oath of Allah! No one but Allah decrees our sustenance. I needed food for my family due to which I was uneasy. My concern induced a solution for me after which eventually I managed to amass provisions for them. Then only did I feel relieved. May Allah curse him and be free from him.”[34]

 

These narrations are, however, like a white hair upon a black ox. In Taqiyyah there is a loophole for every narration which induces unrest upon the scholars of the Shia. If you want an example, then listen to what the commentator of al Kafi has to say regarding the narration I cited above shortly (wherein Abu ‘Abdullah expresses his astonishment at people who ascribe the knowledge of the unseen to him. After which he, in refuting that, mentions that his slave girl hid away in the house and he did not know where she was, implying that how can the knowledge of past and the future, then, be attributed to him). The commentator of al Kafi says:

 

والغرض من هذا التعجب وإظهاره ألا يتخذه الجهال إلها، أو يدفع عن وهم بعض الحاضرين المنكر لفضله ما نسبوه أليه من العلم بالغيب حفظا لنفسه. وإلا فهو رضي الله عنه كان عالما بما كان وما يكون فكيف يخفي عليه مكان الجارية. فإن قلت: إخباره بذلك علي هذا يوجب الكذب. قلت: إنما يوجب الكذب لو لم يقصد التورية وقد قصدها، فإن المعني ما علمت علما غير مستفاد منه تعالي بأنها في أي بيوت الدار.

The reason for this astonishment and its expression is to prevent the laymen from deifying him. Or, in order to save himself, he said that to eliminate the suspicion of a person who was present who did not concede his virtue. Otherwise, he possessed the knowledge of the past and of the future so how would the hiding spot of the slave girl be obscure to him. If you say, “For him to give information of this sort necessitates him lying.” My reply is: It would only necessitate a lie if he did not intend dissimulation whereas he intended it; because he meant to say: I did not know, via a medium of knowledge other than Allah, in which of the rooms of the house she was.[35]

 

How weird indeed is this obscure interpretation in order to refute this narration and prove that the Imam had knowledge of the past and the future. So much so that he went on to ascribe a lie to the Imam and in doing so, destroyed one of their principal beliefs which is the infallibility of the Imams.

If the Imams intent by this statement as alleged was to prevent the laymen from deifying him then is it your endeavour—through your affirmation—to invite towards his deification? And where is the evidence that there was a person present whom the Imam feared whereas the chain of transmission consists of Shia alone? And on the basis of which law of language can this be considered dissimulation?

As for al Sha’rani, another scholar of theirs who added additional notes to the commentary, he was not impressed with this wild interpretation of the narration. Therefore, he concluded that the narration is a fabrication.[36]

And like this, the heretics propagate these false beliefs in the name of the Ahlul Bayt. Then when they (the Ahlul Bayt) debunk their fabrications and expose their falsity before the masses, the scholars of the Shia interpret their denial as Taqiyyah. Taqiyyah has thus become a ploy which the extremists deploy in order to keep Shi’ism in the confines of extremism, denial of the truth, and disrespect to the Ahlul Bayt.

Zurarah ibn A’yan had claimed that Jafar ibn Muhammad had knowledge of the people of Jannat and the people of Jahannam. Jafar refuted this claim when it reached him and considered its proponent to be out of the fold. However when Zurarah was told of this he said to the person,

 

لقد عمل معك بالتقية

He has practiced Taqiyyah with you.[37]

 

 NEXT⇒ Discussion Four – Interpolation in Order to Support Their Stance of Denial


[1] Surah al A’raf: 180.

[2] Usul al Kafi 1/143-144.

[3] Tafsir al ‘Ayyashi 2/42; al Ikhtisas p.252; Bihar al Anwar 94/22; al Nuri al Tabarsi: Mustadrak al Wasa’il 1/371; al Burhan 2/52; Tafsir al Safi 2/254-255.

[4] Usul al Kafi 1/143; al Burhan 3/240.

[5] Usul al Kafi 1/144; al Tawhid p.151; Bihar al Anwar 24/197; al Burhan 3/240-241.

[6] Usul al Kafi 1/145; Bihar al Anwar 24/194.

[7] Al Tawhid p.164; Bihar al Anwar 24/198.

[8] Al Tawhid p.167.

[9] Bihar al Anwar 24/191-203.

[10] Rijal al Kashshi p. 211; Bihar al Anwar 94/180; Basa’ir al Darajat p. 151.

[11] Surah al Rahman: 27.

[12] Surah al Qasas: 88.

[13] This narration was cited previously.

[14] This narration was cited previously.

[15] Al Tawhid p. 150; Bihar al Anwar 24/201; Tafsir al Safi 4/108; al Burhan 3/241.

[16] Al Tawhid p. 149-153; Bihar al Anwar 24/191; al Burhan 30/240-242: there are thirteen narrations from various books of the Shia in al Burhan which convey this message.

[17] Tafsir al ‘Ayyashi 2/312; al Burhan 2/439; Bihar al Anwar 3/302.

[18] Usul al Kafi 1/260-262.

[19] Ibid 1/258.

[20] Bihar al Anwar 24/202

[21] Majmu’ Fatawa Sheikh al Islam 7/87-119; Mukhtasar al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah p. 242.

[22] Al Maraghi: ‘Ulum al Balaghah p. 296; Hafi Nasif and company: al Balaghah p. 341.

[23] Abu Shammah: Daw’ al Sari p. 106.

[24] Usul al Kafi 1/146.

[25] Surah al Naml: 65.

[26] Surah al An’am: 59.

[27] Surah Al ‘Imran: 5.

[28] Surah al A’raf: 188.

[29] Surah al An’am: 50.

[30] Surah al Jinn: 26, 27. The text is from the Tafsir Ibn Kathir 2/293.

[31] Tafsir al Qurtubi 7/2-3.

[32] The scholars have categorised the knowledge of the unseen into two:

 

Completely unseen: which is the knowledge which only Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala possesses. This is what is meant by ‘completely unseen’ and it is regarding this type of knowledge that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala says, “Say: no one in the heavens and the earth has knowledge of the unseen besides Allah.” And relatively unseen: which is the knowledge that some might have while others do not. E.g. the angels have knowledge of their realm which humans do not or for example that some humans have with regards to usage of some means which other humans do not have. So this is not included in the purport of the ‘unseen’ which is mentioned in the Qur’an (which is the exclusive domain of Allah) because it is only ‘unseen’ considering the individuals who don’t possess it but it is attainable knowledge for those who possess it. All people are such that they are unaware of things which others are aware of so this will relatively unseen and not completely unseen. (Majmu’ Fatawa Sheikh al Islam 16/110; Tafsir al Manar 7/422.)

[33] Usul al Kafi 1/257.

[34] Bihar al Anwar 25/301; Rijal al Kashshi p. 323. See a similar narration in Bihar al Anwar 25/32; Rijal al Kashshi p. 324-325. Likewise refer to: Bihar 25/316; Rijal al Kashshi p. 518-519.

[35] Al Mazindarani: Sharh Jami’ 6/30-31.

[36] Ta’aliq ‘Ilmiyyahi 6/31.

[37] Mizan al I’tidal: biography of Zurarah 2/69-70.

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