بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
The immediate bay’ah of Sayyidina ‘Ali to Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma was mentioned in the Siddiqi section coupled with an exposition of substantiations and corroborations. In the Faruqi section of Ruhama’ Baynahum, Sayyidina Ali’s bay’ah to Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhuma will be discussed with Allah’s help and assistance.
The Muslims should be aware that when the last moments of Sayyidina Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu drew closer, he made various bequests and rendered various advices to all. At this crucial time, he paid special attention to the issue of khilafah of the Muslims. Having the welfare of Islam and the Muslims at heart, he planned to appoint Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu his successor. He presented a document to the Muslims at the hands of Sayyidina ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu who announced, “The name of your leader has been decided in this document, are you happy?” All the people expressed their approval. In fact, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu exclaimed that if Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu has been appointed as leader therein, then that is best. Otherwise, they will not accept anyone besides him as khalifah and leader. Accordingly, it became manifest at that time that Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu was chosen as the khalifah and leader of the Muslims. All the Muslims approved of this and expressed their pleasure over it. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu together with the people pledged allegiance to Sayyidina ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu.
This incident has been documented by a number of scholars. Ibn Sa’d mentioned it briefly in al Tabaqat (discussion on Abu Bakr), Ibn Athir al Jazari included it in Usd al Ghabah (discussion on ‘Umar) through one chain, and Muhibb al Tabari related it in al Riyad al Nadirah. ‘Allamah al Suyuti documented this incident in Tarikh al Khulafa’ (the section of the fatal sickness of Sayyidina Abu Bakr al Siddiq radiya Llahu ‘anhu) with reference to Ibn ‘Asakir and so did Ibn Hajar al Haytami al Makki in al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah (second section regarding Abu Bakr appointing ‘Umar during his final sickness). Forthcoming, the text of the incident coupled with the translation will be presented for the benefit of the readers.
ثم أمره فخرج بالكتاب مختوما و معه عمر بن الخطاب و أسيد بن سعيد القرظي فقال عثمان للناس أتبايعون لمن في هذا الكتاب فقالوا نعم و قال بعضهم (قال ابن سعد علي القائل) و هو عمر فأقروا بذلك جميعا ورضوا و بايعوا إلخ
He (Abu Bakr) then commanded him (‘Uthman). Accordingly, he left with the sealed document accompanied by ‘Umar ibn al Khattab and Usayd ibn Sa’id al Qurazi. ‘Uthman said to the people, “Will you pledge allegiance to the man in this document?”
They replied in the affirmative. One of them said, (‘Ali was the speaker) “It is ‘Umar.”
They all agreed to this and were pleased and subsequently pledged allegiance.
This incident has been documented with the same wording by the forthcoming authors:
عن يسار بن حمزة قال لما ثقل أبو بكر أشرف على الناس من كوة فقال يأيها الناس إني قد عهدت عهدا أفترضون به فقال الناس قد رضينا يا خليفة رسول الله فقال علي لا نرضى إلا أن يكون عمر بن الخطاب
On the authority of Yasar ibn Hamzah:
When Abu Bakr fell ill, he gazed at the people from a small window. He then announced, “O people, I have made a decision (regarding the khilafah). Will you be pleased with it?”
The people replied, “We are definitely happy, O successor of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”
‘Ali then exclaimed, “We will not be pleased except that it be ‘Umar ibn al Khattab.”
In both of the above narrations, Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu expressed his view regarding the issue of khilafah during the last moments of Sayyidina Abu Bakr’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu life. We now wish to present the sermons he delivered during his khilafah on the same theme. After studying them, the readers will be able to easily reach a satisfying conclusion and will be alleviated of the need of farfetched interpretations. The tales of coercion and despotism will carry no more weight than fabricated tales. If a little impartiality is observed, the issue will become evident.
To meet the above purpose, three narrations will be brought; two from the books of the Ahlus Sunnah and one from the books of the Shia which will appear at the end to bring this discussion to a close.
The author of Kanz al ‘Ummal mentioned this narration in the chapter of fitan (trials) under the incident of Jamal. We documented it in the Siddiqi section in detail and we will quote it here briefly. This is actually Sayyidina ‘Ali’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu response to the questions of ‘Abdullah ibn al Kawwa’ and Ibn ‘Abbad. He says:
فلما قبض رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم نظر المسلمون في أمرهم فإذا رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم قد ولى أبابكر أمر دينهم فولوه أمر دنياهم فبايعه المسلمون وبايعته معهم وكنت أغزو إذا أغزاني وآخذ إذا أعطاني … فأشار لعمر ولم يأل فبايعه المسلمون وبايعته معهم وكنت أغزو إذا أغزاني و آخذ إذا أعطاني … فأخذ (عبد الرحمن بن عوف) بيد عثمان فبايعه ولقد عرض في نفسي عن ذلك فلما نظرت في أمري فإذا عهدي قد سبق بيعتي فبايعته وسلمت وكنت أغزو إذا أغزاني وآخذ إذا أعطاني
Thereafter when Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed on, the Muslims deliberated their affairs; they thus saw that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam made Abu Bakr in charge of their religious affairs (i.e. Salah) so they gave him charge over their worldly affairs. Hence, the Muslims pledged allegiance to him and so did I. I would thereafter join military expeditions when he demanded and would accept whatever bonuses and allowances he granted me.
He appointed ‘Umar and he did not compromise (the well-being of the Muslims in his decision). The Muslims pledged allegiance to him and so did I. I would thereafter join military expeditions when he demanded and would accept whatever allowances and booty he granted me.
He (‘Abdul Rahman ibn ‘Awf), thereafter, held the hand of ‘Uthman and pledged allegiance to him. I was a little dismayed by this but when I deliberated, I realised that my agreement took precedence over being given the bay’ah. Therefore, I pledged allegiance to him and submitted. I would thereafter join military expeditions when he demanded and would accept whatever bonuses he gave me.
Abu Talib al ‘Ushari wrote Fada’il Abi Bakr (The Virtues of Abu Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhu) wherein he quoted this narration from the famous muhaddith Abu ‘Awanah via his sanad. This narration appeared previously in the Siddiqi section, number five of the substantiating narrations. It will be repeated here for the benefit of the readers.
حدثنا أبو عوانة عن خالد الحذاء عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكرة قال أتاني علي بن أبي طالب عائدا فقال توفي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم فبايع الناس أبا بكر فبايعت و رضيت ثم توفي أبو بكر فاستخلف عمر فبايعت و رضيت ثم توفي عمر فجعلها شورى فبايعوا عثمان فبايعت ورضيت
Abu ‘Awanah narrated to us — from Khalid al Hadha’ — from ‘Abdul Rahman Ibn Abi Bakrah:
‘Ali ibn Abi Talib came to visit me when I had taken ill. He said, “Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam passed away and Abu Bakr was nominated as the khalifah. I pledged allegiance at his hands and was satisfied. Then Abu Bakr passed on and ‘Umar was appointed as the khalifah. I pledged allegiance to him as well and was pleased. Thereafter he passed on and left the issue of khilafah pending upon the decision of the shura, after which ‘Uthman was appointed as the khalifah. Hence, I pledged my allegiance to him and was pleased.”
Let the readers be rest assured that Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu first pick for the shura prior to his demise was Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu. Scores of muhaddithin and historians have mentioned this in their respective works. It is documented in volume 5 page 477 and 480 of Musannaf ‘Abdul Razzaq. We will quote it later in this book, if Allah wills, in chapter three, section four, number five.
After presenting the above, a narration of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu from the books considered reliable by the Shia will be presented for further corroboration. Hopefully, after perusing this narration, there will be no need for further references.
The background to this statement is that after the Battle of Jamal, the defeated group approached Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and began to apologise. Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu stopped their spokesperson and began his address, which is self-explanatory:
قال (علي) فبايعتم أبا بكر و عدلتم عني فبايعت أبا بكر كما بايعتموه … فبايعت عمر كما بايعتموه … فوفيت له ببيعته حتى لما قتل جعلني سادس ستة فدخلت حيث أدخلني … فبايعتم عثمان فبايعته إلخ
He said, “You pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr and abandoned me, so I pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr just as you did. I pledged allegiance to ‘Umar just as you did. I was loyal to him owing to the pledge. When he was killed, he appointed me as one of the six so I entered where he entered me. You then pledged allegiance to ‘Uthman and I followed suit.
These narrations establish that these luminaries were united in belief and practice, aswell as compassionate and merciful among themselves. There was absolutely no hatred or enmity between them. The tales of disputes and disagreements between them that people have invented, are all unfounded and untrue.
 Tabaqat Ibn Sa’d, vol. 3 pg. 142, discussion on Abu Bakr, Leidon print.
 Usd al Ghabah, vol. 4 pg. 70, discussion on ‘Umar ibn al Khattab; al Riyad al Nadirah fi Manaqib al ‘Asharah, vol. 2 pg. 88, section 10 regarding his khilafah; Tarikh al Khulafa’, pg. 61, section on his sickness, demise, and bequests, Delhi print; al Sawa’iq al Muhriqah, pg. 54, section 2 regarding Abu Bakr’s appointments of ‘Umar as successor, Egypt print.
 Kanz al ‘Ummal, vol. 6 pg. 82, Kitab al Fitan, under the incident of al Jamal, first edition, Dakkan.
 Fada’il Abi Bakr al Siddiq, pg. 5; Thulathiyyat al Bukhari, etc., Egypt publication, Maktabat al Salafiyyah, Multan.
 Al Amali, vol. 2 pg. 121, part 18, Najaf Ashraf print, Iraq.