Chapter 3 – Aisha’s Qualities, Academic Position, and Persuasive Invitation

The Demise of Sayyidah Aisha
June 21, 2021
Academic Competence
July 9, 2021

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Chapter 3

Aisha’s Qualities, Academic Position, and Persuasive Invitation

 

I never saw any two women more excellent than Aisha and Asma’.

-’Abdullah ibn al Zubair

Qualities of Aisha

External Qualities

Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha was a woman of exceptional beauty, fair in complexion with a tinge of redness, owing to which she was known as Humaira’. The Arabs would refer to one fair in complexion with the word: al ahmar (literally: red) due to their dislike of using the word al abyad (literally: white) as it bears a resemblance to leprosy. Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha had fair skin mixed with redness, which is the most pleasant of complexions.[1]

She had a very lean body in her youth. With the passing of time, she gained weight. She herself is responsible for affirming this:

 

سابقني النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فسبقته فلبثنا حتى إذا أرهقني اللحم سابقني فسبقني فقال هذه بتلك

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam raced me and I beat him. After some time after I had gained weight, he raced me and beat me. He commented, “We are now even!”[2]

 

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhu was closer to being tall in stature and disliked shortness. When she was young, she had long hair. She was afflicted with a severe illness resulting in the loss of hair. It flowed to just below her shoulders and she was only six at the time. Thereafter, her hair became beautiful again in length. She reports:

 

تزوجني النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأنا بنت ست سنين فقدمنا المدينة فنزلنا في بني الحارث بن خزرج فوعكت فتمرق شعري فوفى جميمة

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam married me when I was six years old. We arrived in Madinah and stayed by the Banu al Harith ibn Khazraj. I fell ill resulting in my hair falling off[3] and becoming extremely short[4].[5]

 

What indicates Sayyidah Aisha’s radiya Llahu ‘anha beauty is Sayyidah Umm Ruman’s radiya Llahu ‘anha statement recorded in the Slander Incident:

 

يا بنية هوني على نفسك الشأن فوالله لقلما كانت امرأة قط وضيئة عند رجل يحبها ولها ضرائر إلا أكثرن عليها

O my beloved daughter! Take things easy upon yourself. By Allah, very seldom is a pretty girl married to a husband who loves her and she has cowives, except that they transgress upon her.[6]

 

The wording of another narration is:

لقلما كانت امرأة حسناء عند رجل يحبها

Very seldom is a beautiful woman married to a man who loves her …[7]

 

Sayyidina ‘Umar’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu statement to his daughter Sayyidah Hafsah radiya Llahu ‘anha is further evidence:

 

لا يغرنك أن كانت جارتك هي أوضأ منك وأحب إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يريد عائشة

Let it not deceive you that your neighbour—referring to Aisha—is more pretty than you and more beloved to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[8]

Internal Qualities

Introduction

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha lived in the home of nubuwwah—when she had not yet passed the age of nine—after moving, in the prime of her life, from her father’s home to the home of the greatest nurturer, teacher, and trainer. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam encompassed her with his advice and included her in his guidance and instruction. Add to this, her emulating his actions and behaviour, following his path, and practicing upon his biography.

She relates a great angle, that of guidance and direction from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, where she erred. This proves her truthfulness and honesty in conveying from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam concern to teach and rectify her. Some examples are forthcoming:

She reports:

قلت للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حسبك من صفية كذا وكذا تعني قصيرة فقال لقد قلت كلمة لو مزجت بماء البحر لمزجته

I said to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, “Enough for you in Safiyyah is that she is like this and that.” i.e. short-statured.

He reprimanded, “You have uttered such a statement, if it is mixed with the water of the ocean, it would spoil it.”[9]

 

She reports:

وحكيت له إنسانا فقال ما أحب أني حكيت إنسانا وأن لي كذا وكذا

I mimicked[10] a person before him upon which he commented, “I would not like to mimic someone even if I was given an enormous recompense.”[11]

 

عن عروة بن الزبير أن عائشة رضي الله عنها زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قالت دخل رهط من اليهود على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالوا السام عليكم قالت عائشة ففهمتها فقلت وعليكم السام واللعنة قالت فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم مهلا يا عائشة إن الله يحب الرفق في الأمر كله فقلت يا رسول الله أولم تسمع ما قالوا قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قد قلت وعليكم

‘Urwah ibn al Zubair reports that Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha, the wife of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, reported:

A group[12] of Jews entered the presence of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and said, “Al Sam ‘alaykum, i.e. may death[13] befall you.”

Aisha says: I caught up so I retorted, “May death and curse be upon you.”

“Take it easy, O Aisha,” instructed the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. “Indeed, Allah loves compassion in all affairs.”

I submitted, “O Messenger of Allah, did you not hear what they said?”

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam explained, “I told them: and the same be upon you.”[14]

 

Another narration of Muslim reads:

 

أتى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أناس من اليهود فقالوا السام عليك يا أبا القاسم قال وعليكم قالت عائشة قلت بل عليكم السام والذام فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يا عائشة لا تكوني فاحشة فقال ما سمعت ما قالوا فقال أوليس قد رددت عليهم الذي قالوا قلت وعليكم

Some Jewish men came to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and said, “Al Sam ‘alaykum, i.e. death be upon you, O Abu al Qasim.”

“And upon you the same,” he replied.

She says: I said, “Death and reproach[15] be upon you!”

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “O Aisha, be not vulgar.”

I submitted, “Did you not hear what they said?”

He explained, “Did I not respond to their statement by saying: and upon you the same?”[16]

 

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam warned her:

 

يا عائشة إياك ومحقرات الذنوب فإن لها من الله عز وجل طالبا

O Aisha, beware of minor sins for they have a claimant from the side of Allah—the Mighty and Majestic.[17]

 

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha would comply, learn, and hasten to carry out the instructions of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Evidence to this is the following hadith:

 

اشترت نمرقة وسادة فيها تصاوير فلما رآها رسول الله قام على الباب فلم يدخل فعرفت في وجهه الكراهية فقالت يا رسول الله أتوب إلى الله وإلى رسوله ماذا أذنبت فقال ما بال هذه النمرقة فقالت اشتريتها لك تقعد عليها وتتوسدها فقال رسول الله إن أصحاب هذه الصور يعذبون ويقال لهم أحيوا ما خلقتم ثم قال إن البيت الذي فيه الصور لا تدخله الملائكة

She purchased a small cushion[18] which had pictures of animated objects on it. As soon as the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam glanced at it, he stood at the door and did not enter. She sensed revulsion from his facial expressions so she submitted, “O Messenger of Allah, I repent to Allah and His Messenger. What have I done wrong?”

He explained, “What is this cushion all about?”

She said, “I purchased it for you to sit upon and use as a pillow.”

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam explained, “Designers of these animated objects will be subjected to punishment and it will be said to them: Bring alive what you have created!”

He added, “Angels do not enter the home in which there are pictures.”[19]

 

Muslim adds in another hadith of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

فأخذته فجعلته مرفقتين فكان يرتفق بهما في البيت

I took it and converted it into two elbow rests upon which he would rest his elbows when at home.[20]

 

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha narrates to us about the character and mannerisms of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam from which she learnt plenty. She says to an enquirer about his character:

ألست تقرأ القرآن قال بلى قالت فإن خلق نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان القرآن

“Do you not recite the Qur’an?”

“Definitely,” the person replies.

She proclaims, “The character of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam was the Qur’an.”[21]

 

She describes him as:

لم يكن فاحشا ولا متفحشا ولا صاخبا في الأسواق ولا يجزي بالسيئة السيئة ولكن يعفو ويصفح

He was neither obscene nor uttered obscenities, nor was he rowdy in the market areas. He never treated evil with evil. Instead, he forgave and overlooked.[22]

 

She elucidates on the virtue of good character saying:

 

سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول إن المؤمن ليدرك بحسن الخلق درجة الصائم القائم

I heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asserting, “Certainly, a believer will obtain the rank of fasting and standing in prayer [at night] owing to good character.”[23]

 

There are many other reports of hers on this topic which had greatly impacted the soul of Sayyidah Aisha al Siddiqah radiya Llahu ‘anha and infused it with noble and praiseworthy traits.

 

1. Worship

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha was intensely inspired by the worship of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and his attitude towards it, as she was the closest of all people to the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the most learned of his private worship. Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha describes to the Ummah in many ahadith a perfect image of the worship of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[24]

One of the most amazing reports of hers concerning the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in this regard is the report of Ibn ‘Umair who entreats:

 

أخبرينا بأعجب شيء رأيته من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال فسكتت ثم قالت لما كان ليلة من الليالي قال يا عائشة ذريني أتعبد الليلة لربي قلت والله إني لأحب قربك وأحب ما سرك قالت فقام فتطهر ثم قام يصلي قالت فلم يزل يبكي حتى بل حجره قالت ثم بكى فلم يزل يبكي حتى بل لحيته قالت ثم بكى فلم يزل يبكي حتى بل الأرض فجاء بلال يؤذنه بالصلاة فلما رآه يبكي قال يا رسول الله لم تبكي وقد غفر الله لك ما تقدم وما تأخر قال أفلا أكون عبدا شكورا لقد نزلت علي الليلة آية ويل لمن قرأها ولم يتفكر فيها إِنَّ فِيْ خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الآية كلها

“Inform us of the most remarkable aspect you saw of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”

She remained silent for a while and then explained, “One night he said, ‘O Aisha, allow me[25] to worship my Rabb tonight.’

‘By Allah, I love your proximity,’ submitted I, ‘but I love what pleases you.’”

She continues: “He got up, attained purity, and then stood up to pray. He then wept and continued weeping until his lap was soaked. He continued weeping until his beard was soaked. He kept on weeping until the earth became wet.

Bilal then came to apprise him of salah. When he saw him weeping, he enquired, ‘O Messenger of Allah, why are you weeping whereas Allah has forgiven your previous and future errors?’

‘Should I not be a grateful servant,’ he responded. ‘Tonight, a verse was revealed upon me. Woe to the one who reads it but does not ponder:

 

إِنَّ فِيْ خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَالْفُلْكِ الَّتِيْ تَجْرِيْ فِي الْبَحْرِ بِمَا يَنْفَعُ النَّاسَ وَمَا أَنْزَلَ اللهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مِن مَّاءٍ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَبَثَّ فِيْهَا مِنْ كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ وَتَصْرِيْفِ الرِّيَاحِ وَالسَّحَابِ الْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُوْنَ

Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of the night and the day, and the [great] ships which sail through the sea with that which benefits people, and what Allah has sent down from the heavens of rain, giving life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness and dispersing therein every [kind of] moving creature, and [His] directing of the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven and earth are signs for a people who use reason.[26][27]

 

Such incidents had genuinely impacted her relationship with Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. She worshipped meticulously, stood in prayer at night, and was constant in Tahajjud.[28]

 

Qasim ibn ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al Siddiq reports the prolonged standing postures of his aunt Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. He—may Allah have mercy upon him—relates:

 

كنت إذا غدوت أبدأ ببيت عائشة أسلم عليها فغدوت يوما فإذا هي قائمة تسبح وتقرأ فَمَنَّ اللهُ عَلَيْنَا وَوَقَانَا عَذَابَ السَّمُوْمِ وتدعو و تبكي وترددها فقمت حتى مللت القيام فذهبت إلى السوق لحاجتي ثم رجعت فإذا هي قائمة كما هي تصلي و تبكي

My habit in the morning was to begin with the house of Aisha and greet her. Once I came and found her standing in prayer reciting: So Allah conferred favour upon us and protected us from the punishment of the Scorching Fire.[29] She was supplicating and weeping and repeating this verse. I continued waiting until I got tired of standing. So, I went to the marketplace for my work and returned only to find her standing in prayer and crying as was.[30]

 

‘Abdullah ibn Abi Musa relates:

 

أرسلني مدرك أو ابن مدرك إلى عائشة أسألها عن أشياء قال فأتيتها فإذا هي تصلي الضحى فقلت أقعد حتى تفرغ فقالوا هيهات أي انتظارك سيطول لأنها تطيل الصلاة من ركوع وسجود وقيام

Mudrik—or the son of Mudrik—sent me to Aisha to ask her about a few issues. I reached her and found her performing Salat al Duha. I said to myself, “I will sit and wait till she is done.” They said, “You will wait for a long time[31]” for she would lengthen the salah; the ruku’ (bowing), sujud (prostration), and qiyam (standing).

 

She favoured Salat al Tarawih with great importance. When Ramadan would set in, she would command her freed slave Dhakwan to lead them in salah and recite from the mushaf.[32]

She describes her standing in prayer with the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

كنت أقوم مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ليلة التمام فيقرأ بالبقرة وآل عمران والنساء فلا يمر بآية فيها استبشار إلا دعا ورغب ولا بآية فيها تخويف إلا دعا واستعاذ

I would stand with the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam on the night of the full moon[33]. He would recite al Baqarah, Al ‘Imran, and al Nisa’. Whenever he passed a verse of good tidings, he supplicated and expressed his desire and interest and whenever he recited a verse of warning, he supplicated and sought protection.[34]

 

She would follow him in salah standing in her room. Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma reports:

 

لما انكسفت الشمس على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم نودي بالصلاة جامعة فركع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ركعتين في سجدة ثم قام فركع ركعتين في سجدة ثم جلي عن الشمس فقالت عائشة ما ركعت ركوعا قط ولا سجدت سجودا قط كان أطول منه

When the sun eclipsed during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, an announcement was made calling the people to congregational salah. The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam performed two ruku’s in one rak’ah. He then stood up [for a second rak’ah] and bowed twice in one rak’ah. At last, the eclipse was over and the sun shone brightly. Aisha commented, “I never performed a ruku’ or sajdah longer than that!”[35]

 

She was punctual and consistent with optional forms of obedience, in emulation of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She reports his declaration:

 

إن أحب الأعمال إلى الله ما دووم عليه وإن قل وتقول وكان آل محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا عملوا عملا أثبتوه

“Undoubtedly, the most beloved actions to Allah are those done with consistency even though they are a little.”

She would say, “When the family of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam carried out an action, they carried it out with consistency.”[36]

 

If she slept away without completing her daily quota, she would complete it the next day. Qasim bin Muhammad entered her home before the morning prayer and found her performing salah:

قال لها ما هذه الصلاة قالت نمت عن جزئي الليلة فلم أكن لأدعه

He enquired, “What salah was this?”

She replied, “I slept away last night without completing my juz’ and I did not want to discard it completely.”[37]

 

She would encourage consistency in worship, especially Qiyam al Layl.

 

عن عبد الله بن قيس قال قالت عائشة لا تدع قيام الليل فإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان لا يدعه وكان إذا مرض أو كسل صلى قاعدا

‘Abdullah ibn Qais reports:

Aisha said to me, “Do not omit Qiyam al Layl for the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would never leave it out. When he was ill, or lazy, he would perform it while sitting.”[38]

 

She would fast regularly:

أن عائشة زوج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كانت تصوم الدهر ولا تفطر إلا يوم أضحى أو يوم فطر

‘Abdur Rahman ibn al Qasim reports from his father:

Aisha, the wife of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would fast continuously. She would not fast only on Eid al Adha and Eid al Fitr.[39]

 

Another narration states:

أن عائشة كانت تسرد الصوم

Aisha would fast continuously[40].[41]

 

She would not avoid fasting even on extremely hot days. Once, Sayyidina ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakr radiya Llahu ‘anhuma entered her presence on the Day of ‘Arafah. She was fasting and water was being sprinkled on her. ‘Abdur Rahman said to her:

 

أفطري فقالت أفطر وقد سمعت رسول الله يقول إن صوم يوم عرفة يكفر العام الذي قبله

“Open your fast.”

She retorted, “How can I break my fast when I heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, ‘Indeed, fasting on the Day of ‘Arafah expiates the sins of the previous year.’”[42]

 

She would fast while travelling:

عن ابن أبي مليكة قال صحبت عائشة في السفر فما أفطرت حتى دخلت مكة

Ibn Abi Mulaykah reports, “I accompanied Aisha on a journey. She never skipped a fast right up until she entered Makkah.”[43]

 

عن القاسم قال قد رأيت عائشة تصوم في السفر حتى أذلقها السموم

Qasim reports, “I saw Aisha fasting while travelling until the hot winds weakened[44] her.”[45]

 

She sought permission from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to sit in i’tikaf and he awarded her permission. She reports:

 

كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يعتكف في كل رمضان وإذا صلى الغداة دخل مكانه الذي اعتكف فيه قال فاستأذنته عائشة أن تعتكف فأذن لها فضربت فيه قبة فسمعت بها حفصة فضربت قبة وسمعت زينب بها فضربت قبة أخرى فلما انصرف رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من الغداة أبصر أربع قباب فقال ما هذا فأخبر خبرهن فقال ما حملهن على هذا آلبر انزعوها فلا أراها فنزعت فلم يعتكف في رمضان حتى اعتكف في آخر العشر من شوال

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would sit in i’tikaf every Ramadan. After performing Fajr, he would enter his secluded section. The narrator says: Aisha sought his permission to sit in i’tikaf and he awarded her permission. She pitched a tent in the Masjid. Hafsah heard of this so she pitched a tent. Zainab heard of this so she pitched another tent. When the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam returned from performing Fajr, he saw 4 tents and asked, “What is this?” When he was informed of their story, he said, “What has made them do this? Is it piety? Remove them as I do not want to see them.”[46]

 

They were accordingly removed. Consequently, he did not sit in i’tikaf in Ramadan and instead sat the last ten days of Shawwal in i’tikaf.[47]

This depicts her hastening towards obedience and her rushing towards worship, in emulation of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

Owing to her passion to spend the Night of Qadr exerting herself in worship and prayer, she enquired from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam about what supplication to make if she happens to find that night. She reports:

 

قلت يا رسول الله أرأيت إن علمت أي ليلة ليلة القدر ما أقول فيها قال قولي اللهم إنك عفو كريم تحب العفو فاعف عني

I enquired, “O Messenger of Allah, if I happen to come to know which night is the Night of Qadr, what should I recite?”

“Say:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ عَفُوٌّ كَرِيمٌ تُحِبُّ الْعَفْوَ فَاعْفُ عَنِّي

O Allah, You are Pardoning Benevolent and fond of pardoning, so pardon me.”[48]

 

With regards to Hajj, she was extremely eager not to miss it. She had asked the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

يا رسول الله ألا نغزو ونجاهد معكم فقال لكن أحسن الجهاد وأجمله الحج حج مبرور فقال رضي الله عنها فلا أدع الحج بعد إذ سمعت هذا من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

“O Messenger of Allah, should we not fight and wage war alongside you?”

He explained, “For you [women], the finest and best jihad is Hajj, an accepted Hajj.”

She vowed, “I will not miss Hajj after hearing this from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[49]

 

She performed Hajj on several occasions after the demise of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She would not mix with men while making tawaf but would perform tawaf away[50] from the men. A woman suggested:

انطلقي نستلم يا أم المؤمنين قالت عنك وأبت

“Come, let us make istilam, O Umm al Mu’minin.”

She refused saying, “You go.”[51]

 

When she intended making tawaf during the day, the mataf was cleared from men.[52]

The spots where she would stay during the Days of Hajj were marked. In the initial stages, she would alight close to the border of ‘Arafah, at Namirah, in emulation of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. However, after seeing the crowd of people there, she pitched her tent at a good distance from there and moved to al Arak[53]. At times, she would stay adjacent to Mount Thabir[54]. She would recite the Talbiyah for as long as she was in her home and those with her would do the same. After mounting and focusing on the mawqaf [place of wuquf], she would discontinue the Talbiyah. It was her habit to perform ‘Umrah after Hajj from Makkah in the month of Dhu al Hijjah. Afterwards, she abandoned this practice and would then leave before the crescent of Muharram and arrive at Juhfah where she would stay until the crescent rose. After seeing the crescent, she would begin reciting the Talbiyah for ‘Umrah.[55]

She would fast on the Day of ‘Arafah and perform wuquf until the earth between her and the people was whitened, after which she would call for a drink and break her fast.[56]

When her menstrual cycle began during her Hajj with the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, she cried remorsefully over the rituals of Hajj that she would miss. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam comforted her by his words:

 

هذا شيء كتبه الله على بنات آدم

This is something Allah decreed for the daughters of Adam.[57]

 

He commanded her to do as the Hujjaj do besides Tawaf of the House of Allah. After attaining purity and making tawaf, she submitted:

 

يا رسول الله أتنطلقون بحجة وعمرة وأنطلق بحجة قال ثم أمر عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر الصديق أن ينطلق معها إلى النتعيم فاعتمرت عمرة في ذي الحجة بعد أيام الحج

“O Messenger of Allah, are you returning with a Hajj and ‘Umrah whereas I only return with a Hajj?”

Hearing this, he commanded ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakr al Siddiq to take her to Tan’im [from where she may perform ‘Umrah]. She, thus, performed an ‘Umrah in Dhu al Hijjah after the Days of Hajj.[58]

 

2. Benevolence & Generosity

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha was extremely benevolent and generous, lavish in spending charity. Wealth would not remain in her possession. She would spend it on the poor and destitute. Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha sold a house she owned for 100 000 gold coins and spent the wealth on the poor. Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma censured her for this. ‘Urwah ibn al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports:

 

كان عبد الله بن الزبير أحب البشر إلى عائشة بعد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبي بكر وكان أبر الناس بها وكانت لا تمسك شيئا مما جاءها من رزق الله إلا تصدقت فقال ابن الزبير ينبغي أن يؤخذ على يديها فقالت أيؤخذ على يدي علي نذر إن كلمته فاستشفع إليها برجال من قريش وبأخوال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم خاصة فامتنعت فقال له الزهريون أخوال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم منهم عبد الرحمن بن الأسود بن عبد يغوث والمسور بن مخرمة إذا استأذنا فاقتحم الحجاب ففعل فأرسل إليها بعشر رقاب فأعتقتهم ثم لم تزل تعتقهم حتى بلغت أربعين فقالت وددت أني جعلت حين حلفت عملا أعمله فأفرغ منه

‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair was the most beloved person to Aisha after the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and Abu Bakr. He was the kindest of people to her. She would not withhold any of the sustenance of Allah that reached her but wound spend it in charity.

Ibn al Zubair said, “It is time that her hand be withheld.”[59]

She said, “My hand should be withheld? A vow is upon me if I talk to him.”

He interceded through many noble men of Quraysh and through the maternal uncles of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam in particular. However, she refused to budge.

The Zuhriyyun[60] told him, “The maternal uncles of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, among them is ‘Abdur Rahman ibn al Aswad ibn ‘Abd Yaghuth and Miswar ibn Makhramah. When they seek permission to enter, you should rush through the veil.”

He done just that [and she spoke to him]. He then sent to her ten slaves which she freed. She continued emancipating slaves until she freed forty. She remarked, “I wished that I had stipulated an action when making the oath, which I would carry out and get done with.”[61]

 

The following report of ‘Urwah ibn al Zubair bears testimony to her lavish spending and generosity:

 

أن معاوية بن أبي سفيان بعث إلى عائشة رضي الله عنها بمائة ألف فقسمتها حتى لم تترك منها شيئا فقالت بريرة أنت صائمة فهلا ابتعت لنا بدرهم لحما فقالت عائشة لو أني ذكرت لفعلت

Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan sent 100 000 silver coins to Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. She distributed them leaving nothing behind.

Barirah submitted, “You are fasting. Why did you not purchase meat for us for one silver coin?”

Aisha said, “Had I remembered, I would have.”[62]

 

He also reports:

رأيتها تصدق بسبعين ألفا وإنها لترقع جانب درعها

I saw her spending 70 000 [silver coins] in charity whereas the side of her dress was patched[63].[64]

 

Umm Dharrah reports:

 

بعث ابن الزبير إلى عائشة بمال في غرارتين يكون مائة ألف فدعت بطبق وهي يومئذ صائمة فجعلت تقسم في الناس قال فلما أمست قالت يا جارية هاتي فطري فقال أم ذرة يا أم المؤمنين أما استطعت فيما أنفقت أن تشتري بدرهم لحما تفطرين عليه فقالت لا تعنفيني لو كنت أذكرتني لفعلت

Ibn al Zubair sent to Aisha two bags[65] filled with wealth, amounting to 100 000 silver coins. She called for a tray—she was fasting that day—and began distributing the wealth among the people. As evening set in, she said, “O slave girl, bring food to break my fast.”

Umm Dharrah said, “O Umm al Mu’minin, were you not capable of purchasing with one silver coin from those that you spent some meat with which you could break your fast?”

She said, “Do not reproach[66] me. Had you reminded me, I would have done so.”[67]

 

She sold her apartment to Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu for 180 000 silver coins. The wealth was carried to her. She did not move[68] from her place until she distributed all of it.[69]

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha reports:

 

لبست مرة درعا لي جديدا فجعلت أنظر إليه وأعجبت به فقال أبو بكر ما تنظرين إن الله ليس بناظر إليك قلت ومم ذاك قال أما علمت أن العبد إذا دخله العجب بزينة الدنيا مقته ربه عز وجل حتى يفارق تلك الزينة قالت فنزعته فتصدقت به فقال أبو بكر عسى ذلك أن يكفر عنك

Once, I wore a new dress of mine. I began admiring it and was elated with it. Abu Bakr reprimanded, “What are you admiring? Indeed, Allah is not admiring you.”

“Why,” enquired I.

He explained, “Are you not aware that when vanity over worldly embellishments enters a bondsman, his Rabb—the Mighty and Majestic—detests him until he separates from that embellishment.”

She continues: I thus removed it and gave it away in charity.

Abu Bakr commented, “Perhaps this will serve as an expiation for you.”[70]

 

‘Ata’[71] reports:

أن معاوية بعث إلى عائشة رضي الله عنها بقلادة بمائة ألف فقسمتها بين أمهات المؤمنين

Muawiyah sent a necklace worth 100 000 silver coins to Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. She distributed it among the Ummahat al Mu’minin.[72]

 

Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma says:

 

ما رأيت امرأتين أجود من عائشة وأسماء وجودهما مختلف أما عائشة فكانت تجمع الشيء إلى الشيء حتى إذا اجتمع عندها قسمت وأما أسماء فكانت لا تمسك شيئا للغد

I never saw any women more generous than Aisha and Asma’. Their generosity was different. With regards to Aisha, she would gather items. After ample items accumulated, she would distribute them. As regards Asma’, she would not withhold anything for the morrow.[73]

 

She would assist the destitute in accordance with their need and standard. Once a beggar came to her. She gave him a piece of bread. The beggar took the bread and left. Sometime later, a dignified and well-dressed man passed her home. She provided a meal for him which he ate. She was questioned about this to which she replied, “The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said,

أنزلوا الناس منازلهم

Treat people according to their status.[74]

 

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha would never regard what she spent as insignificant. She learnt from the school of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam:

 

اتقوا النار ولو بشق تمرة

Save yourselves from the Fire even if it be with a piece of a date.[75]

 

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam counselled her such:

 

يا عائشة استتري من النار ولو بشق تمرة فإنها تسد من الجائع مسدها من الشبعان

O Aisha, screen yourself from Hell, even if it be with a piece of a date for it relieves the hungry man just as it relieves the satiated.[76]

 

Muslim reports in his al Sahih that she affirmed:

 

جاءتني مسكينة تحمل ابنتين لها فأطعمتها ثلاث تمرات فأعطت كل واحدة منهما تمرة ورفعت إلى فيها تمرة لتأكلها فاستطعمتها ابنتاها فشقت التمرة التي كانت تريد أن تأكلها بينهما فأعجبني شأنها فذكرت الذي صنعت لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال إن الله قد أوجب لها بها الجنة أو أعتقها بها من النار

A poor lady carrying two of her daughters came to me. I gave her three dates. She handed one date to each of her daughters and lifted the third to her mouth to eat. Her daughters looked hungrily at her. She, thus, shared the date she intended to eat in half between them. Her action surprised me so I mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam who remarked, “Certainly, Allah has awarded her with Jannat owing to that action or Allah has freed her from Hell.”[77]

 

وذات مرة كان استطعمها مسكين وبين يديها عنب فقالت لإنسان خذ حبة فأعطها إياه فجعل ينظر إليها ويعجب فقالت أتعجب كم ترى في هذه الحبة من مثقال ذرة كأنها تشير إلى قوله تعالى فَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ

One day, a needy person asked her for food. She had few grapes in front of her. She said to someone, “Take a grape and give it to him.”

The person began looking at her in amazement.

She remarked, “Are you amazed? How many atoms’ weight do you see in this grape,” as if she indicated towards Allah’s subhanahu wa ta ‘ala statement: So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it.[78] [79]

 

Another display of her generosity was in the number of slaves she emancipated. In expiation of one vow, she freed 40 slaves.[80]

The total number of slaves freed by her amounts to 67.[81] Likewise, Sayyidah Barirah radiya Llahu ‘anha approached her to seek her help in settling her kitabah. Till then, she had not paid anything towards it. Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha bought her and freed her.[82] The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had trained her to emancipate slaves. She owned a slave girl from the Tamim tribe. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam encouraged her:

 

أعتقيها فإنها من ولد إسماعيل

Set her free as she is from the progeny of Ismail.[83]

 

3. Ascetism & Abstention

Coupled with her fasting, praying, generosity, and benevolence, Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha despised being praised and spoken favourable of in her presence, fearing ostentation. She surrendered:

يا ليتني كنت نسيا منسيا

If only I was in oblivion, forgotten.[84]

Many a time, she would quote the couplet of Labid ibn Rabi’ah[85]:

وبقيت في خلف كجلد الأجرب

ذهب الذين يعاش في أكنافهم

Those under whose shadow and protection life is lived have departed.

And I remain behind among the successors like the skin of one afflicted by mange.[86]

 

She would then comment:

رحم الله لبيدا فكيف لو رأى زماننا

May Allah have mercy on Labid. Oh, what would be his condition had he seen our time!

 

‘Urwah ibn al Zubair said further:

رحم الله أم المؤمنين فكيف لو رأت زماننا

May Allah have mercy on Umm al Mu’minin. What if she saw our era?[87]

 

Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha lived in the home of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam surviving on the bare minimum. She says:

 

ما شبع آل محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم منذ قدم المدينة من طعام بر ثلاث ليال تباعا حتى قبض

The family of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not fill their bellies with wheat for three consecutive nights from the time he arrived in Madinah till he passed away.[88]

 

She also relates:

ما شبعت بعد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم من طعام إلا ولو شئت أن أبكي لبكيت وما شبع آل محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم حتى قبض

I did not eat food to my fill after the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam except that if I wished to cry, I would have. And the family of Muhammad salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam did not satiate themselves until he passed on.[89]

 

Gifts and presents would pour upon her, yet she would pay no attention to them. She simply spent them in the path of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala. She never relied upon the world and never felt comforted by it. She would let her hand loose to spend all of it liberally, imitating the manner of Abu al Qasim, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

This was her attitude from the beginning. The day the Verse of Takhyir (Choice) was revealed:

 

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ إِنْ كُنْتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا وَزِيْنَتَهَا فَتَعَالَيْنَ أُمَتِّعْكُنَّ وَأُسَرِّحْكُنَّ سَرَاحًا جَمِيْلًا وَإِنْ كُنْتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ اللهَ وَرَسُوْلَهُ وَالدَّارَ الْآخِرَةَ فَإِنَّ اللهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْمُحْسِنَاتِ مِنْكُنَّ أَجْرًا عَظِيْمًا

O Prophet, say to your wives, “If you should desire the worldly life and its adornment, then come, I will provide for you and give you a gracious release. But if you should desire Allah and His Messenger and the home of the Hereafter – then indeed, Allah has prepared for the doers of good among you a great reward.”[90]

 

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam began with her and gave her the choice between worldly enjoyments and between Allah, His Messenger, and the Abode of the Hereafter. Simultaneously, he prepared for her the excuse to take out what is in her soul, if she had any inclination to the world—and she is innocent of that—saying:

 

ولا عليك أن لا تعجلي حتى تستأمري أبويك

No need to hurry in your decision. First consult your parents.

 

She responded:

إفي هذا أستأمر أبوي فإني أريد الله ورسوله والدار الآخرة فاستن بها بقية أزواجه صلى الله عليه وسلم وقلن كما قالت

“Should I consult my parents in this matter? Most certainly, I desire Allah, His Messenger, and the Final Abode.”

The remainder of his wives followed suit and gave the same reply as her.[91]

 

The perfection of truthfulness and sincerity and the achievement of grandeur and dignity is apparent from her answer. Before answering, she presents a rhetorical question which negates the dare thought of this entering her heart, ever. Her rejection alone is sufficient as a response. Her subsequent affirmation depicts her ascetic heart, sound intelligence, and beautiful speech.

She had beautified herself with the quality of war’ (a high level of taqwa) at every station of her life. There she is during the life of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam preventing her foster paternal uncle from entering her presence until she obtains the Nabi’s salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam approval:

 

فليلج عليك عمك

Allow your [foster] uncle to enter your home.

 

Despite this, she submits:

إنما أرضعتني المرأة ولم يرضعني الرجل

The woman breastfed me, not the man.

 

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam repeats his answer and emphasises his point:

 

إنه عمك فليلج عليك

He is still your [foster] uncle. Let him enter your presence.[92]

 

When the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked her to stretch her hand from her room into the Masjid to hand the prayer mat to him, she submitted:

 

إني حائض

I am menstruating.

 

The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told her:

إن حيضتك ليست في يدك

Your menstruation is not in your hand.[93]

 

Another example of her cautiousness was her preventing a young girl [bearing bells] to enter her home, instructing:

 

لا تدخلنها علي إلا أن تقطعوا جلاجلها أجراسها سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول لا تدخل الملائكة بيتا فيه جرس

Do not allow her to enter my home except after cutting her bells. I heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, “The angels do not enter a home which has a bell.”[94]

 

Another example is her veiling herself from a blind man who entered her home. He enquired surprisingly:

 

تحتجبين مني ولست أراك

Are you adopting hijab from me whereas I cannot see you?

She explained:

إن لم تكن تراني فإني أراك

You undoubtedly cannot see me. I can certainly see you[95].[96]

 

One example of her cautiousness in issuing verdicts is the report of Shurayh bin Hani’[97] who says:

 

سألت عائشة عن المسح على الخفين فقالت ائت عليا فإنه أعلم بذلك مني فأتيت عليا فذكر عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بمثله

I asked Aisha about passing wet hands over leather socks. She replied, “Go to ‘Ali for he is more knowledgeable than me on this subject.” Accordingly, I went to ‘Ali and he mentioned the same thing from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.[98]

 

4. Submission, Obedience, and a Soft Heart

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha had a soft heart, was submissive and obedient, and never deemed herself virtuous. She did not depend on her proximity to the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This humble attitude of hers was recognised—just as her father’s radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. Narrations indicating this submissive obedient nature of hers are in great abundance, both in action and statement. One of them is her statement:

 

يا ليتني كنت ورقة من هذه الشجرة

Oh, I wish that I was a leaf of this tree.[99]

 

She remains on her prayer mat repeating the statement of Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala:

 

فَمَنَّ اللهُ عَلَيْنَا وَوَقَانَا عَذَابَ السَّمُوْمِ

So, Allah conferred favour upon us and protected us from the punishment of the Scorching Fire.[100]

 

She cries, lengthening her standing posture, supplicating:

رب من علي وقني عذاب السموم

O my Rabb! Show clemency upon me and protect me from the punishment of the Scorching Fire.[101]

 

Every time she recalled her journey in her effort to unite the Ummah on the Day of Jamal, based on her ijtihad, she would feel remorseful and sorrowful. She would express her regret by seeking forgiveness and crying so profusely that her scarf would become soaked with tears.

Here is her nephew, ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma, who alerted regarding a transaction or donation Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha had made:

 

والله لتنتهين عائشة أو لأحجرن عليها فقالت أهو قال هذا قالوا نعم قالت هو لله علي نذر أن لا أكلم ابن الزبير أبدا فاستشفع ابن الزبير إليها حين طالت الهجرة فقالت لا والله لا أشفع فيه أبدا ولا أتحنث إلى نذري فلما طال ذلك على ابن الزبير كلم المسور بن مخرمة وعبد الرحمن بن الأسود بن عبد يغوث وهما من بني زهرة وقال لهما أنشدكما بالله لما أدخلتماني على عائشة فإنها لا يحل لها أن تنذر قطيعتي فأقبل به المسور وعبد الرحمن مشتملين بأرديتهما حتى استأذنا على عائشة فقالا السلام عليك ورحمة الله وبركاته أندخل قالت عائشة ادخلوا قالوا كلنا قالت نعم ادخلوا كلكم ولا تعلم أن معهما ابن الزبير فلما دخلوا دخل ابن الزبير الحجاب فاعتنق عائشة وطفق يناشدها ويبكي وطفق المسور وعبد الرحمن يناشدانها إلا ما كلمته وقبلت منه يقولان إن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى عما قد علمت من الهجرة فإنه لا يحل لمسلم أن يهجر أخاه فوق ثلاث ليال فلما أكثروا على عائشة من التذكرة والتحريج طفقت تذكرهما وتبكي وتقول إني نذرت والنذر شديد فلم يزالا بها حتى كلمت ابن الزبير وأعتقت في نذرها ذلك أربعين رقبة وكانت تذكر نذرها بعد ذلك فتبكي حتى تبل دموعها خمارها

“By Allah, Aisha should most certainly stop or I will certainly ban her.”

She asked, “Did he say this?”

They replied in the affirmative.

She said, “Upon me is a vow that I will never ever speak to Ibn al Zubair.”

Ibn al Zubair interceded to her when the hijrah (abstention) prolonged, but she refused saying, “No, by Allah, I will never ever accept his intercession and I will not break my vow.”

When this became too burdensome upon Ibn al Zubair, he spoke to Miswar ibn Makhramah and ‘Abdur Rahman ibn al Aswad ibn ‘Abd Yaghuth, both belonging to the Banu Zuhrah clan, submitting, “I beg of you in the name of Allah that you will grant me access to Aisha’s presence for it is not permissible for her to vow to severe relations with me.”

Miswar and ‘Abdur Rahman came carrying their shawls. They sought permission to enter Aisha’s home saying, “May peace be upon you and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. May we enter?”

Aisha said, “Enter.”

They said, “All of us?”

“Yes,” she replied, “All of you may enter.”

She was not aware that Ibn al Zubair was with them. As they entered, Ibn al Zubair entered behind the veil and embraced Aisha and began pleading to her using Allah’s name, weeping as he pleaded. At the same time, Miswar and ‘Abdur Rahman pleaded with her in the name of Allah to speak to him and accept his apology saying, “The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam has prohibited cutting of ties, as you are well aware declaring, ‘It is not permissible for a Muslim to avoid speaking to his brother for more than three days.’”

When their advice and insistence increased, she began reminding them, while crying, “I have certainly taken a vow and a vow is serious.”

They continued persisting until she finally spoke to Ibn al Zubair.

Consequently, she set free forty slaves to expiate for this vow. When she would recall her vow thereafter, she would cry so much that her tears would wet her scarf.”[102]

 

She remained upon this determined behaviour, gracious attitude, and straight path until she met with her Rabb.

 

5. Love for Uniting the Ummah

The events of the Day of Jamal are well-known. Her journey was purely motivated by her resolved passion to unite the Ummah. She openly announced and publicised this more than adequately. Her clarification to Sayyidina ‘Imran ibn Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu and Abu al Aswad al Du’ali when ‘Uthman ibn Hunayf—the governor of Sayyidina ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu over Basrah—sent them to enquire from her the reason of her journey and arrival in Iraq is evidence. She informed them that seeking vengeance for Sayyidina ‘Uthman’s radiya Llahu ‘anhu murder had prompted her to come, for he was murdered unjustly in a sacred month and in a sacred city. She recited Allah’s words:

 

لَّا خَيْرَ فِيْ كَثِيْرٍ مِّنْ نَّجْوَاهُمْ إِلَّا مَنْ أَمَرَ بِصَدَقَةٍ أَوْ مَعْرُوْفٍ أَوْ إِصْلَاحٍ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذٰلِكَ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللهِ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيْهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيْمًا

No good is there in much of their private conversation, except for those who enjoin charity or that which is right or conciliation between people. And whoever does that seeking means to the approval of Allah – then We are going to give him a great reward.[103] [104]

 

With regards to the end result, after matters had spiralled out of control, she was never pleased with this. In fact, she continued trying to calm the people and unite them. Details will soon appear, Allah willing.

 

6. Jihad & Bravery

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha possessed a unique type of bravery. She would walk to al Baqi’ at night without fear or hesitation preventing her. She alighted in the arenas of war and participated with the Muslims in their battles against the polytheists by serving the Muslims. Sayyidina Anas radiya Llahu ‘anhu reports:

 

لما كان يوم أحد انهزم الناس عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ولقد رأيت عائشة بنت أبي بكر وأم سليم وإنهما لمشمرتان أرى خدم سوقهما تنقزان القرب وقال غيره تنقلان القرب على متونهما ثم تفرغانه في أفواه القوم ثم ترجعان فتملآنها ثم تجيئان فتفرغانها في أفواه القوم

On the Day of Uhud, the people fled from the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.

He continues: I observed Aisha bint Abi Bakr and Umm Sulaim—they had tucked their garments and I could see their anklets[105]—rushing[106] carrying (or transporting) waterskins on their backs and pouring water in the mouths of the men of the army, before returning, refilling them, and coming back to quench the thirst of the soldiers.[107]

 

In the Battle of the Trench, she descended from the fort where the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam had placed the women and children, and advanced to the front lines. She relates:

خرجت يوم الخندق أقفو آثار الناس فسمعت وئيد الأرض ورائي يعني حس الأرض الحديث

I left on the Day of the Trench following the tracks of the people. I heard the sound of the earth [i.e. footsteps] behind me … (until the end of the hadith).[108]

 

She sought permission from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to wage jihad. The Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam told her:

 

جهادكم الحج

Your [women] jihad is Hajj.[109]

 

She encouraged men to wage jihad. She had a mukatab who brought to her the last instalment of his kitabah. She notified him:

 

ما أنت بداخل علي غير مرتك هذه فعليك بالجهاد في سبيل الله فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول ما خالط قلب امرئ رهج في سبيل الله إلا حرم الله عليه النار

[Probably] you will not enter my home after this instance. Stick to jihad in the path of Allah for I have indeed heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam affirming: “Dust[110] in the path of Allah will not mix with the heart of a man except that Allah will forbid him upon the Fire.”[111]

 

7. Modesty

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha had an extraordinary level of modesty and bashfulness. One evidence of this is her own confession:

 

كنت أدخل بيتي الذي دفن فيه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأبي فأضع ثوبي وأقول إنما هو زوجي وأبي فلما دفن عمر معهم فوالله ما دخلته إلا وأنا مشدودة علي ثيابي حياء من عمر

I would enter my home where the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam and my father were buried and take off my extra clothes saying, “It is only my husband and father.” After ‘Umar was buried alongside them, by Allah, I never entered there except wearing my garments, out of bashfulness for ‘Umar.[112]

 

Another narration reads:

ما زلت أضع خماري وأتفضل في ثيابي في بيتي حتى دفن عمر بن الخطاب فيه فلم أزل متحفظة في ثيابي حتى بنيت بيني وبين القبور جدارا فتفضلت بعد

I used to remove my headscarf and wear my informal clothes[113] in my home until ‘Umar ibn al Khattab was buried there, whereafter I was meticulously cautious of my dressing until a wall was built between me and the graves. From then on, I would wear informal clothes [in my home].[114]

 

Hafiz ‘Imad al Din Ibn Kathir[115] (ar) explains:

 

ووجه هذا ما قاله شيخنا الإمام أبو الحجاج المزي أن الشهداء كالأحياء في قبورهم وهذه أرفع درجة فيهم

The reason for this as explained by our Sheikh Imam Abu al Hajjaj al Mizzi[116] is, “The martyrs are like the living in their graves. And this is the highest level among them.”[117]

 

When her modesty reached the lofty level of adopting bashfulness from Sayyidina ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu while he is deceased, then her bashfulness of men and women standing stark naked on the Plains of Qiyamah would be stronger. When she heard the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam explaining:

 

تحشرون حفاة عراة غرلا

You will be resurrected bare-footed, naked, and uncircumcised[118],

 

She asked in shock:

يا رسول الله الرجال والنساء ينظر بعضهم إلى بعض

O Messenger of Allah, men and women looking at each other?

 

The Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam explained:

الأمر أشد من أن يهمهم ذاك

The matter will be far more frightening than them having this inclination.”[119]

 

She would advise women:

مرن أزواجكن أن يستطيبوا بالماء فإني أستحييهم فإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يفعله

Command your husbands to attain purity with water [i.e. wash their private parts with water after relieving themselves], for I feel shy to tell them. Indeed, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would practice this.[120]

 

8. Enjoying Good and Forbidding Evil

One of the great qualities which Umm al Mu’minin possessed was enjoining good and forbidding evil, taking into consideration the various classes of the Ummah. She would advise the governors, the scholars, and the general masses.

One of her reprimands to the governors is the narration documented by al Bukhari in his al Sahih:

 

عن يوسف بن ماهك قال كان مروان على الحجاز استعمله معاوية فخطب فجعل يذكر يزيد بن معاوية لكي يبايع له بعد أبيه فقال له عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر شيئا فقال خذوه فدخل بيت عائشة فلم يقدروا عليه فقال مروان إن هذا الذي أنزل الله فيه وَالَّذِيْ قَالَ لِوَالِدَيْهِ أُفٍّ لَّكُمَا أَتَعِدَانِنِيْ فقالت عائشة من وراء حجاب ما أنزل الله فينا شيئا من القرآن إلا أن الله أنزل عذري

Yusuf ibn Mahik reports:

Marwan was appointed over Hijaz by Muawiyah. In his address, he spoke of Yazid ibn Muawiyah[121] so that allegiance might be sworn to him after his father. ‘Abdur Rahman ibn Abi Bakr told him something unpleasing, and as a result, he ordered that he be seized. The latter quickly entered the home of Aisha and they were not able to seize him.

Marwan remarked, “This is the one regarding whom Allah revealed:  But one who says to his parents, Uff to you; do you promise me…[122]

Aisha shouted from behind the veil, “Allah did not reveal anything about us in the Qur’an, except my innocence.”[123]

 

It is reported that Yahya ibn Sa’id ibn al ‘As[124] divorced the daughter of ‘Abdur Rahman ibn al Hakam irrevocably. ‘Abdur Rahman, thus, took her home. Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha sent word to Marwan ibn al Hakam—the governor of Madinah:

 

اتق الله وارددها إلى بيتها قال مروان في حديث سليمان إن عبد الرحمن بن الحكم غلبني وقال القاسم بن محمد أو ما بلغك شأن فاطمة بنت قيس قالت عائشة لا يضرك أن لا تذكر حديث فاطمة فقال مروان بن الحكم إن كان بك شر فحسبك ما بين هذين من الشر

“Fear Allah and return her home [as she should spend her ‘iddah in her former husband’s home].”

Marwan said—in the hadith of Sulaiman: “‘Abdur Rahman ibn al Hakam got the upper hand over me.”

Qasim ibn Muhammad quotes: “Has the incident of Fatimah bint Qais not reached you?”

Aisha countered, “It will not harm you if you do not mention the hadith of Fatimah.”[125]

Marwan ibn al Hakam said, “If evil is your justification, then evil enough for you is between these two.”[126] [127]

 

She admonished Sayyidina Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu for some of his actions, some of which have already passed.

Likewise, she would lecture the scholars from among the senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum when she felt that they did not reach the correct decision. One example is listed hereunder:

 

أن عبد الله بن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال من أهدى هديا حرم عليه ما يحرم على الحاج حتى ينحر هديه قالت عمرة فقالت عائشة رضي الله عنها ليس كما قال ابن عباس أنا فتلت قلائد هدي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بيدي ثم قلدها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بيده ثم بعث بها مع أبي فلم يحرم على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم شيء أحله الله حتى نحر الهدي

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma said, “Whoever sends a hadi (sacrificial) animal [to be slaughtered in the Haram], prohibited upon him what is prohibited upon the Haji until his hadi animal is slaughtered.”

‘Amrah continues: Aisha corrected, “It is not as Ibn ‘Abbas stated. I twined the garlands of the hadi animals of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with my own hands. Thereafter, the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam placed those garlands on the animals with his own hands. He then sent them with my father. Nothing became prohibited upon him which Allah had made permissible up until his hadi animals were slaughtered.[128]

 

A list of some of her corrections of the senior Sahabah radiya Llahu ‘anhum will soon appear.

As regards her instructing the general masses, she would enjoin good and prohibit evil on all occasions and times.

 

رأت امرأة بين الصفا والمروة عليها خميصة فيها صلب أي ثوب عليه خطوط متصالبة فقال لها عائشة انزعي هذا من ثوبك فإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا رآه في ثوب قبضه

She saw a woman between Safa and Marwah wearing a khamisah (marked garment) which had crosses on it, i.e. a garment which had lines in the shape of crosses. Aisha instructed her, “Remove this from your clothes because when the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saw this on a garment, he would cut[129] it out.[130]

 

ورأت أخاها عبد الرحمن يتوضأ فكأنه أسرع ليدرك صلاة الجنازة على سعد بن أبي وقاص رضي الله عنه فقالت له يا عبد الرحمن أسبغ الوضوء فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول ويل للأعقاب من النار

She saw her brother ‘Abdur Rahman performing wudu’. It was as if he was rushing to catch the Salat al Janazah upon Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas[131] radiya Llahu ‘anhu. She commanded him, “O ‘Abdur Rahman, make wudu’ properly for I have certainly heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam warning, ‘Save the heels from the Fire!’”[132]

 

She scolded Hafsah bint ‘Abdur Rahman when she saw her wearing a very thin scarf. She rushed to tear it and put on for her a thick scarf instead.[133][134]

 

Women from Hims or Sham entered the presence of Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. She cautioned them:

 

أنتن اللائي يدخلن نساؤكم الحمامات سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم يقول ما من امرأة تضع ثيابها في غير بيت زوجها إلا هتكت الستر بينها وبين ربها

You are from the area where women enter spas. I heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam stating, “Any woman who takes off her clothes in a home other than her husband’s has ripped apart the protected veil between her and her Rabb.”[135]

 

It reached her that members who were living in her house had backgammon[136]. She sent them a warning:

 

لئن لم تخرجوها لأخرجنكم من داري وأنكرت ذلك عليهم

“If you do not get rid of it, I will evict you from my home.” She disapproved of this for them.[137]

 

When Sayyidah Umm Mistah radiya Llahu ‘anha tripped over her dress[138] and cursed, “May Mistah[139] perish,” Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha reprimanded her:

 

بئس ما قلت أتسبين رجلا شهد بدرا

Evil indeed is what you uttered! Are you cursing a person who witnessed Badr?[140]

 

‘Abdullah ibn Shihab al Khawlani[141] reports:

 

كنت نازلا على عائشة فاحتملت في ثوبي فغمستهما في الماء فرأتني جارية لعائشة فأخبرتها فبعثت إلي عائشة فقالت ما حملك على ما صنعت بثوبيك قال قلت رأيت ما يرى النائم في منامه قالت هل رأيت فيهما شيئا قلت لا قالت فلو رأيت شيئا غسلته لقد رأيتني وإني لأحكه من ثوب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يابسا بظفري

I had come to visit Aisha. I had a wet dream and was wearing my two garments. I, thus, soaked them in water. A slave girl belonging to Aisha saw me so she informed her of this.

Aisha sent word for me and asked, “Why did you do that to your clothes?”

I replied, “I had seen a wet dream.”

She asked, “Did you see any impurity on them [your garments]?”

I said, “No.”

She explained, “Had you seen any impurity, you should have simply washed the impurity off. [It was not necessary to soak the garments in water.] I remember myself scratching it off the clothes of the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam with my fingernails when it was dry.”[142]

 

دخل شباب من قريش على عائشة وهي بمنى وهم يضحكون فقالت ما يضحككم قالوا فلان خر على طنب فسطاط فكادت عنقه أو عينه أن تذهب فقالت لا تضحكوا فإني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ما من مسلم يشاك شوكة فما فوقها إلا كتبت له بها درجة ومحيت عنه خطيئة

Some Qurashi youth entered the presence of Aisha while the latter was in Mina and they were laughing.

She asked, “What makes you laugh?”

“A certain person tripped on the rope of a tent[143] and nearly broke his neck or lost his eyesight,” they explained.

She said, “Do not laugh because I heard the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam saying, ‘Any Muslim who is afflicted with a thorn-prick or anything bigger, his rank is raised thereby and a sin is wiped out.’”[144]

 

Evidences for this are plenty. The amount we have mentioned is sufficient.

 

9. Justice in Disputes

Despite the competition between Sayyidah Umm al Mu’minin Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha and the rest of the Ummahat al Mu’minin radiya Llahu ‘anhunna—like other cowives—she would not speak of any of them except favourably and with beautiful praise. She speaks of Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Maimunah radiya Llahu ‘anha for example:

 

إنها كانت من أتقانا لله وأوصلنا للرحم

She was one of the most fearful of Allah and the best at maintaining family ties from us all.[145]

 

She praised Umm al Mu’minin Sayyidah Zainab radiya Llahu ‘anha:

 

ولم أر امرأة قط خيرا في الدين من زينب وأتقى لله عز وجل وأصدق حديثا وأوصل للرحم وأعظم صدقة وأشد ابتذالا لنفسها في العمل الذي تصدق به وتقرب به ما عدا سورة من حدة كانت فيها تسرع منها الفيئة

I never ever saw a woman more devout in her Din than Zainab, more fearful of Allah—the Mighty and Majestic, more truthful in speech, stronger in maintaining family ties, more charitable, more determined in spending her time in carrying out those actions which she could donate and grain proximity to Allah with, besides her sudden bursts of rage[146] from which she would recover[147] quickly.[148]

 

Sayyidina Hassan ibn Thabit radiya Llahu ‘anhu spoke negatively of her in the Slander Incident. Nonetheless, ‘Urwah reports something amazing:

ذهبت أسب حسان عند عائشة فقالت لا تسبه فإنه كان ينافح عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

I wanted to curse Hassan in front of Aisha. She stopped me saying, “Do not swear at him for he would defend the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam.”[149]

 

‘Abdur Rahman ibn Shumasah reports:

 

أتيت عائشة أسألها عن شيء فقالت ممن أنت قال رجل من أهل مصر فقالت كيف كان صاحبكم لكم في غزاتكم هذه فقال ما نقمنا منه شيئا إن كان ليموت للرجل منا البعير فيعطيه البعير والعبد فيعطيه العبد ويحتاج إلى النفقة فيعطيه النفقة فقالت أما إنه لا يمنعني الذي فعل في محمد بن أبي بكر أخي أن أخبرك ما سمعت من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول في بيتي هذا اللهم من ولي من أمر أمتي شيئا فشق عليهم فاشقق عليه ومن ولي من أمر أمتي شيئا فرفق بهم فارفق به

I came to Aisha to enquire about something from her. She investigated, “Where are you from?”

He replied, “From the people of Egypt.”

She probed, “How did your leader treat you in this war?”

He replied, “We did not disapprove any action of his. If any of our men’s camel died, he would give him a camel. If a slave died, he would give him a slave. If anyone needed money, he would give him the same.”

She said, “Harken! His treatment of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr my brother will not prevent me from informing you of what I heard from the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which he pronounced in this house of mine, ‘O Allah, whoever gains authority of any portion of my Ummah and is harsh towards them, then display harshness towards him. And if anyone gains authority of any portion of my Ummah and treats them compassionately, then treat him with compassion.”[150]

 

10. Humility & Detestation of being Praised

Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha disliked being praised and did not approve of anyone glorifying her. Sayyidina Ibn ‘Abbas radiya Llahu ‘anhuma sought permission to enter her home during her final illness. She knew that he came to praise and glorify her, so she refused to give him permission. Only after some people interceded on his behalf did she allow him to enter. As soon as he entered, he began to praise her. She submitted:

 

وددت أني كنت نسيا منسيا

I wished I was in oblivion, forgotten.[151]

 

There is a subtle point here. Sayyidah Aisha’s radiya Llahu ‘anha statement resembles the one made by Sayyidah Maryam bint ‘Imran radiya Llahu ‘anha who said:

 

يَا لَيْتَنِيْ مِتُّ قَبْلَ هٰذَا وَكُنْتُ نَسْيًا مَّنْسِيًّا

Oh, I wish I had died before this and was in oblivion, forgotten.[152]

 

This resemblance in speech is not by chance. It is due to the great resemblance between their personalities.

  • Sayyidah Maryam radiya Llahu ‘anha is a Siddiqah and Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha is a Siddiqah. This brings to light another point: the reason their unfortunate trials are similar.
  • Sayyidah Maryam radiya Llahu ‘anha is slandered and accused and Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha is slandered and accused.

Glorified be Allah! How many amazing angles of honour![153]

She was very humble. A proof for her humility is her instruction to Sayyidina ‘Abdullah ibn al Zubair radiya Llahu ‘anhuma:

 

لا تدفني معهم وادفني مع صواحبي بالبقيع لا أزكى به أبدا

Do not bury me with them. Instead, bury me with my cowives in al Baqi’. I will never ever be praised and glorified, i.e. I will not be praised and glorified and given a rank and speciality due to it.[154]

 

This contains the essence of humility, regarding oneself insignificant. Sayyidah Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha disliked being praised on account of her being buried alongside the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam which will be regarded as an honour for her.[155]

Since humility was one of her intrinsic traits and characteristics, the thought never crossed her mind that Allah subhanahu wa ta ‘ala will reveal Qur’anic verses in her favour which will be recited, wherein He announces her innocence from the slander hurled at her. The most she aspired for was for the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam to see a dream in which her innocence was declared. That is why she submits:

 

ولكن والله ما كنت أظن أن الله منزل في شأني وحيا يتلى ولشأني في نفسي كان أحقر من أن يتكلم الله في بأمر يتلى ولكن كنت أرجو أن يرى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في النوم رؤيا يبرئني الله بها

By Allah, I never imagined that Allah would reveal in my favour revelation which will be recited. My rank in my own sight was far more insignificant than Allah speaking about me in verses that will be recited. I had hope that the Messenger of Allah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would see a dream in which Allah would exonerate me.[156]

 

NEXT⇒ Academic Competence


[1] Ibn Tahir al Maqdisi: al Bad’ wa al Tarikh, vol. 5 pg. 11; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 140.

[2] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 2578; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 1623; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 39, Hadith: 24164; Sunan al Nasa’i, vol. 5 pg. 304, Hadith: 8943; Sahih Ibn Hibban, vol. 10 pg. 545, Hadith: 4691; al Mu’jam al Kabir, vol. 23 pg. 47, Hadith: 125; Sunan al Bayhaqi, vol. 10 pg. 17, Hadith: 20252. The hadith has been labelled sahih by Ibn al Mulqin in al Badr al Munir, vol. 9 pg. 424; al ‘Iraqi in Takhrij al Ihya’, pg. 482; al Albani in Sahih Sunan Abi Dawood; and al Wadi’i in al Sahih al Musnad, Hadith: 1631.

[3] Tamarraqa: to break, tear off, fall off. Al Fa’iq fi Gharib al Hadith, vol. 2 pg. 249; Mashariq al Anwar, vol. 1 pg. 377; Gharib al Hadith, vol. 2 pg. 354; Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 4 pg. 320.

[4] The word used in this narration is Jumaymah, which is the diminutive of jummah. The jummah of a human is the hair of the forelock. The forelock is the fringe of the hair. Al wafrah and al jummah refer to hair that reaches the ears only. If it exceeds this, it is not called wafrah. Mashariq al Anwar, vol. 2 pg. 292; Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 1 pg. 300.

[5] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3894; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1422.

[6] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2661; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2770.

[7] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4757.

[8] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2468; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1479.

[9] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 4875; Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2502. It has been classified sahih by Ibn Daqiq al ‘Id in al Iqtirah, pg. 118; al Shawkani in al Fath al Rabbani, vol. 11 pg. 5593; and al Albani in Sahih Sunan Abi Dawood.

[10] Hakaytu: mimicked his action. It is said: hakahu and hakahu. Generally used for despised mimicking. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 1 pg. 421.

[11] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 4875; Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2502; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 136, Hadith: 25094; Sunan al Bayhaqi, vol. 10 pg. 247, Hadith: 20954. Abu Dawood has kept silent on the hadith. Al Tirmidhi comments, “hasan, sahih.” Ibn Daqiq al ‘Id classified it sahih in al Iqtirah, Hadith: 118, and so did al Albani in Sahih Sunan Abi Dawood.

[12] Al raht min al rijal: less than ten men. It is said: up to forty. No woman is among them. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 2 pg. 283.

[13] Al sam: death. It is said: a speedy death. Fath al Bari, vol. 10 pg. 135; vol. 11 pg. 42.

[14] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 6024; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2165.

[15] Al Dham: it is one pronunciation of the word al dhamm (disparagement), the opposite of praise. Dhamm is pronounced with a tashdid, dham without a tashdid, and dhaym with a ya sakin. Fath al Bari, vol. 11 pg. 42.

[16] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2165.

[17] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 70, 151. Al Mundhiri in al Targhib wa al Tarhib, vol. 3 pg. 289 and al Albani in Silsilat al Ahadith al Sahihah, Hadith: 513, 2731 have authenticated the isnad.

[18] Al Namraqah or al Numruqah: small pillow. It is said: an arm rest. Sharh Muslim, vol. 14 pg. 90.

[19] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2105; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2107.

[20] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2107.

[21] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 746.

[22] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2016; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 174, Hadith: 25456; Musnad Abi Dawood al Tayalisi, vol. 3 pg. 125; Sahih Ibn Hibban, vol. 14 pg. 355, Hadith: 6443; Sunan al Bayhaqi, vol. 7 pg. 45, Hadith: 13682. Al Tirmidhi comments, “hasan, sahih.” It has been declared sahih by al Albani in Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2016; al Wadi’i in al Sahih al Musnad, Hadith: 1592; and Shu’ayb al Arna’ut in Tahqiq Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 174.

[23] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 4798; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 133, Hadith: 25057; Sahih Ibn Hibban, vol. 2 pg. 228, Hadith: 480; al Mustadrak, vol. 1 pg. 128; Shu’ab al Iman, vol. 6 pg. 236, Hadith: 7997. Ibn Muflih says in al Adab al Shar’iyyah, vol. 2 pg. 195, “All his narrators are reliable. Regarding al Muttalib, Abu Zur’ah says, ‘I hope that he heard from Aisha,’ while Abu Hatim confirms, ‘He did not meet her.’” Al Suyuti classified it hasan in al Jami’ al Saghir, Hadith: 2098 while al Albani classified it sahih in Sahih Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 4798.

[24] Sirat al Sayyidah Aisha, pg. 208; al Sayyidah Aisha Umm al Mu’minin wa ‘Alimat Nisa’ al Islam, pg. 161.

[25] Dharini: leave me. Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 5 pg. 281.

[26] Surah al Baqarah: 164.

[27] Sahih Ibn Hibban, Hadith: 620. al Mundhiri labelled it sahih in al Targhib wa al Tarhib, vol. 2 pg. 316. Al Albani classified it hasan in Sahih al Targhib, Hadith: 1468 and so did al Wadi’i in al Sahih al Musnad, Hadith: 1654. The origin of it appears in Sahih al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

[28] Musannaf ‘Abdur Razzaq, vol. 8 pg. 454, Hadith: 15887.

[29] Surah al Tur: 27.

[30] Ibn Abi al Dunya narrated it through his chain as appears in Ibn Rajab: Fath al Bari, vol. 4 pg. 247; Sifat al Safwah, vol. 2 pg. 31.

[31] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 125, Hadith: 24989. Al Haythami comments in Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 7 pg. 356, “The narrators are those of Sahih al Bukhari.” Shu’ayb al Arna’ut classified it sahih in Tahqiq Musnad Ahmed.

[32] Al Bukhari narrates it without an isnad with words of certainty before Hadith: 692. Sunan al Bayhaqi, vol. 2 pg. 253, Hadith: 3497. Al Nawawi classified the isnad sahih in al Khulasah, vol. 1 pg. 500. Refer to Ibn Hajar: Taghliq al Ta’liq, vol. 2 pg. 290.

[33] Laylat al tamam: It is the 14th night of the month since the moon’s light is complete on that night. The ta’ may be recited with a fathah or kasrah. It is said that laylat al timam (with a kasrah) is the longest night of the year. Al Nihayah, vol. 1 pg. 536.

[34] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 92; Musnad Abi Ya’la, Hadith: 4842. Hafiz declared it hasan in Nata’ij al Afkar, vol. 3 pg. 155. al Albani comments in Asl Sifat al Salah, vol. 2 pg. 506, “The isnad is jayyid (good).”

[35] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1051; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2152. The wording is Muslim’s.

[36] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 5861; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 782. The wording is Muslim’s.

[37] Al Daraqutni: al Sunan, vol. 1 pg. 246.

[38] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 1307; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 249, Hadith: 26157; al Mustadrak, vol. 1 pg. 452. al Albani labelled it sahih in Sahih Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 1307. Al Wadi’i commented in al Sahih al Musnad, Hadith: 1618, “It is sahih according to the standard of Muslim.”

[39] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 68.

[40] She would fast on those days concerning which no prohibition of fasting has appeared viz. the two Eids, the Days of Tashriq, and the days of menstruation. This removes the objection of her fasting continuously because many ahadith prohibit fasting continuously. The object of the narration is to show that she would fast in great abundance. Fath al Bari, vol. 4 pg. 221; al Suyuti: Sharh Muslim, vol. 3 pg. 245.

[41] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 75; al Faryabi: al Siyam, pg. 100, Hadith: 131; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 187.

[42] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 128, Hadith: 25014.

[43] Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 3 pg. 15.

[44] Adhlaqaha al samum: hot winds weakened her. Taj al ‘Arus, pg. 25 pg. 321.

[45] Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 3 pg. 16.

[46] Hafiz Ibn Hajar explains:

وكأنه صلى الله عليه وسلم خشي أن يكون الحامل لهن على ذلك المباهاة والتنافس الناشئ عن الغيرة حرصا على القرب منه خاصة فيخرج الاعتكاف عن موضوعه أو لما أذن لعائشة وحفصة أولا كان ذلك خفيفا بالنسبة إلى ما يفضي إليه الأمر من توارد بقية النسوة على ذلك فيضيق المسجد على المصلين أو بالنسبة إلى أن اجتماع النسوة عنده يصيره كالجالس في بيته وربما شغلته عن التخلي لما قصد من العبادة فيفوت مقصود الاعتكاف

Seems as if he feared that the factor prompting them to this was competition and rivalry which is the product of possessive jealousy, in eagerness to be close to him specifically, which will shift i’tikaf from its objective. Or when he permitted Aisha and Hafsah in the start, this was light in relation to what matters will lead to, i.e. the rest of the women observing the same making the Masjid constrained for the worshippers. Or from this angle that the gathering of women [his wives] by him will just be as good as him sitting at home, because majority of the time, they will divert him from being in seclusion and worshipping as he intended, thus defeating the object of i’tikaf. Fath al Bari, vol. 4 pg. 276.

[47] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2041; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1172. The wording is al Bukhari’s.

[48] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3513; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 3119; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 171, Hadith: 25426; Sunan al Nasa’i, vol. 4 pg. 407, Hadith: 7712; al Mustadrak, vol. 1 pg. 712; Shu’ab al Iman, vol. 3 pg. 338, Hadith: 3700. Al Tirmidhi labels it hasan sahih. Al Nawawi has classified the isnad sahih in al Adhkar, Hadith: 247. Ibn al Qayyim has classified it sahih in A’lam al Muqi’in, vol. 4 pg. 249; and al Albani concurs in Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 3513. Al Wadi’i says in Ahadith Mu’allah, Hadith: 459, “Its apparent suggests it is hasan. However, al Daraqutni affirms that ‘Abdullah ibn Buraydah did not hear directly from Aisha. Moreover, he differed therein regarding Sufyan.”

[49] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1861.

[50] Hajrah: on one side, away from them. Sharh al Sunnah, vol. 7 pg. 120.

[51] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1618.

[52] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1618 with the wording:

ولكنهن كن إذا دخلن البيت قمن حتى يدخلن وأخرج الرجال

When they [females] intended to enter the House, they would wait until the men are taken out before entering.

[53] Al Arak: an area in ‘Arafah from the direction of Sham. Sharh al Zarqani ‘ala al Muwatta’, vol. 2 pg. 345.

[54] Thabir: a famous mountain by Makkah. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 1 pg. 207.

[55] Muwatta’ Malik, vol. 3 pg. 489.

[56] Muwatta’ Malik, vol. 3 pg. 550; Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 3 pg. 588; al Bayhaqi: Ma’rifat al Sunan wa al Athar, vol. 6 pg. 348. Ibn Hajar labelled the isnad sahih in al Dirayah, vol. 2 pg. 22.

[57] Fath al Bari, vol. 3 pg. 589.

[58] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 7230.

[59] She should be banned and prevented from giving. ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 16 pg. 77.

[60] Al Zuhriyyun: Those attributed to Zuhrah. His name was al Mughirah ibn Kilab. ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 16 pg. 77.

[61] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3505.

[62]Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 67; Hilyat al Awliya’, vol. 2 pg. 47; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 187.

[63] In the printed version, the wording is:

ترفع جانب درعها

The side of her dress was raised.

Probably, this is a typo. The correct wording is:

ترقع جانب درعها

The side of her dress was patched.

And Allah knows best. The meaning is that she would patch her dress. Al dir’ of a woman: her dress. Gharib al Hadith, vol. 2 pg. 694; Mashariq al Anwar, vol. 1 pg. 256; Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 2 pg. 114.

[64] Ahmed: al Zuhd, pg. 165; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 66; Hilyat al Awliya’, vol. 2 pg. 47; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 187. Al Dhahabi labelled it sahih.

[65] Al ghirarah – with a kasrah on the ghayn: big bag made from wool or hair. Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 5 pg. 16; Taj al ‘Arus, vol. 13 pg. 226.

[66] Al ta’nif: ridicule, rebuke, blame. Tahdhib al Lughah, vol. 3 pg. 5; al Sihah, vol. 4 pg. 1407; Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 9 pg. 258.

[67] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 67; Hilyat al Awliya’, vol. 2 pg. 47; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 187.

[68] Ma ramat: i.e. she never moved. It is said: rama yarimu rayman, to depart and stand up. Fath al Bari, vol. 1 pg. 126.

[69] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 165.

[70] Hilyat al Awliya’, vol. 1 pg. 37.

[71] He is ‘Ata’ ibn Aslam ibn Safwan, Abu Muhammad al Qurashi, their freed slave. The Imam, the Sheikh of Islam, the Mufti and Muhaddith of Makkah. He was born in the khalifah of ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu and there are other reports as well. He was eloquent and had plenty knowledge, coupled with asceticism and worship. He passed away in 114 A.H. or 115 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 5 pg. 78; Shadharat al Dhahab, vol. 1 pg. 141.

[72] Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 6 pg. 90; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 187.

[73] Al Adab al Mufrad, Hadith: 280.

[74] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 4842; Muslim mentioned the last portion without an isnad, vol. 1 pg. 5, with the wording:

أمرنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أن تنزل الناس منازلهم

Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam commanded us to treat people according to their status.

[75] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1417; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1016. The hadith of ‘Adi ibn Hatim radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

[76] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 79. The isnad has been declared hasan by al Mundhiri in al Targhib wa al Tarhib, vol. 2 pg. 57; al ‘Iraqi in Takhrij al Ihya’, vol. 1 pg. 302; al Busiri in Ithaf al Khiyarah al Maharah, vol. 3 pg. 39; and Ibn Hajar in Fath al Bari, vol. 3 pg. 334.

[77] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2630.

[78] Shu’ab al Iman, vol. 3 pg. 254, Hadith: 3466.

[79] Surah al Zilzal: 7.

[80] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 6075.

[81] Subul al Salam, vol. 4 pg. 139.

[82] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2565; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1504.

[83] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2543.

[84] Musannaf ‘Abdur Razzaq, vol. 11 pg. 307; Fada’il al Sahabah, vol. 1 pg. 462, Hadith: 750; Abu Dawood: al Zuhd, pg. 279, Hadith: 318; Musnad al Shamiyyin, vol. 4 pg. 201, Hadith: 3102; Hilyat al Awliya’, vol. 2 pg. 45; Shu’ab al Iman, vol. 1 pg. 486, Hadith: 791.

[85] He is Labid ibn Rabi’ah ibn Malik, Abu ‘Aqil al ‘Amiri. The famous Poet and brave horseman. He arrived in the presence of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam the year his tribe reached. He embraced Islam and lived as a good Muslim. It appears in the hadith:

أصدق كلمة قالها الشاعر كلمة لبيد ألا كل شيء ما خلا الله باطل

The most truthful sentence declared by a poet, is the statement of Labid: Harken! Everything besides Allah is false.

He passed away in 41 A.H. Al Isti’ab, vol. 1 pg. 414; al Isabah, vol. 5 pg. 675.

[86] Al khalf: substitute, progeny, generation after generation. It is said: “These are evil successors,” to people who followed others more in number than them. The purport is those who disfigure the ones they associate with like how mange disfigures the skin. Al Sihah, vol. 4 pg. 1354; Diwan Labid Sharh al Tusi, pg. 55.

[87] Ma’mar ibn Rashid: al Jami’, vol. 11 pg. 246; al Bukhari: al Tarikh al Awsat, vol. 1 pg. 56; Abu Dawood: al Zuhd, Hadith: 316; Musannaf ‘Abdur Razzaq, vol. 11 pg. 246; Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 8 pg. 514; al Haythami: Baghyat al Bahith ‘an Zawa’id Musnad al Harith from Harith ibn Abi Usamah; Abu Bakr al Dinawari: al Mujalasah wa Jawahir al ‘Ilm, vol. 8 pg. 143, Hadith: 3453; al Saydawi: Mu’jam al Shuyukh, pg. 103; Ma’rifat al Sahabah, vol. 5 pg. 2422, Hadith: 5924. Al Dhahabi remarks in Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 187, “We heard it musalsal (uninterrupted) with this statement with a similar isnad.” Al Busiri said in Ithaf al Khiyarah al Maharah, vol. 6 pg. 145, “The narrators of the isnad are reliable.”

[88] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 6454; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2970.

[89] Ahmed: al Zuhd, pg. 164; Hilyat al Awliya’, vol. 2 pg. 46.

[90] Surah al Ahzab: 28 – 29.

[91] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2468; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1479. The hadith of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab radiya Llahu ‘anhu.

[92] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 5239; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1445. The wording is Muslim’s. The hadith of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha.

[93] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 298. The hadith of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha.

[94] Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 4231; Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 242, Hadith: 26094. The hadith of Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. Al Nawawi labelled the isnad jayyid (good) in al Majmu’, vol. 4 pg. 467. Al Albani labelled it hasan in Sahih Sunan Abi Dawood, Hadith: 4231.

[95] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 69 from Ishaq al A’ma (the Blind).

[96] Al Sayyidah Aisha Umm al Mu’minin wa ‘Alimat Nisa’ al Islam, pg. 171.

[97] He is Shurayh ibn Hani’ ibn Yazid, Abu al Miqdam al Harithi. He lived in the time of the Nabi salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam but only emigrated after his demise. He was from the students of ‘Ali radiya Llahu ‘anhu and the leaders of his army in the Battle of Jamal. He passed away in 78 A.H. Al Isabah, vol. 3 pg. 382.

[98] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 276.

[99] Abu Dawood: al Zuhd, Hadith: 319; al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 74; Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 2 pg. 189.

[100] Surah al Tur: 27.

[101] Musannaf ‘Abdur Razzaq, vol. 2 pg. 451; Shu’ab al Iman, vol. 2 pg. 375, Hadith: 2092.

[102] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 6074.

[103] Surah al Nisa’: 114.

[104] Al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 7 pg. 259.

[105] Khadam: plural of khadamah: anklet. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 2 pg. 15.

[106] Tanquzani from al naqz: to jump and rush i.e. they hastened carrying waterskins. Fath al Bari, vol. 6 pg. 78.

[107] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2880; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1811.

[108] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 141, Hadith: 25140; Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, vol. 7 pg. 373, Hadith: 2875; Sahih Ibn Hibban, vol. 15 pg. 498, Hadith: 7028. Ibn Kathir remarked in al Bidayah wa al Nihayah, vol. 4 pg. 125, “The isnad is jayyid (good) and it has corroborations.” Al Haythami said in Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 6 pg. 139, “Muhammad ibn ‘Amr ibn ‘Alqamah is present in the isnad. He is hasan in hadith. The rest of the narrators are reliable.” Al Albani labelled the isnad hasan in Silsilat al Ahadith al Sahihah, vol. 1 pg. 143.

[109] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 2875.

[110] Al rahaj: dust. Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 2 pg. 284.

[111] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 85, Hadith: 24592. Al Mundhiri comments in al Targhib wa al Tarhib, vol. 2 pg. 245, “The narrators are reliable.” Al Haythami remarks in Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 5 pg. 278, “The narrators are reliable.” Al Albani classified it sahih in Sahih al Jami’, Hadith: 5616.

[112] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 202, Hadith: 25701; al Mustadrak, vol. 3 pg. 63. Al Hakim commented, “It is sahih according to the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim but they have not documented it.” Al Haythami in Majma’ al Zawa’id, vol. 8 pg. 29 and al Albani in Takhrij Mishkat al Masabih, Hadith: 1712, stated, “The narrators are the narrators of Sahih al Bukhari.”

[113] Tafaddalat al mar’ah: when she wears her working clothes or she is covered with one garment. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 3 pg. 456.

[114] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 3 pg. 364; Ibn Shabbah: Tarikh al Madinah, vol. 3 pg. 945.

[115] He is Ismail ibn ‘Umar ibn Kathir, Abu al Fida’ al Dimashqi al Shafi’i. The Imam, the Scholar, the Hafiz. He was born in 701 A.H. He excelled in fiqh and tafsir and researched thoroughly the narrators and faults (of reports). Al Bidayah wa al Hidayah and al Tafsir are some of his famous writings. He passed away in 774 A.H. Ibn Hajar: Inba’ al Ghamar, vol. 1 pg. 39; Abu al Mahasin: Dhayl Tadhkirat al Huffaz, pg. 38.

[116] He is Yusuf ibn al Zaki ‘Abdur Rahman, Abu al Hajjaj al Mizzi al Shafi’i. The Imam, the Scholar, the Hafiz, the Muhaddith of Sham. He was born in 654 A.H. He assumed office of Sheikh in al Dar al Ashrafiyyah. He is the flag bearer of the science of narrators. Tahdhib al Kamal and Tuhfat al Ashraf are some of his books. He passed away in 742 A.H. Tadhkirat al Huffaz, vol. 4 pg. 193; Tabaqat al Shafi’iyyah, vol. 10 pg. 396.

[117] Al Ijabah li Irad ma Istadrakathu Aisha ‘ala al Sahabah, pg. 68.

[118] Al ghurl – plural of al aghral: uncircumcised. Gharib al Hadith, vol. 2 pg. 154.

[119] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 6527; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2859.

[120] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 19; Sunan al Nasa’i, vol. 1 pg. 42; Sahih Ibn Hibban, vol. 4 pg. 290, Hadith: 1443. Al Tirmidhi labels it hasan sahih. Ibn Daqiq al ‘Id comments in al Imam, vol. 2 pg. 537, “All the narrators are reliable and meet the standards of Sahih al Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.” Al Albani labelled it sahih in Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi. Al Wadi’i remarked in al Sahih al Musnad, Hadith: 1589, “Sahih according to the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim.”

[121] He is Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan ibn Harb, Abu Khalid al Qurashi al Umawi. His father Muawiyah radiya Llahu ‘anhu handed over the khalifah to him. His rule opened with the killing of Hussain radiya Llahu ‘anhu and ended with the Incident of Harrah. Despite his flaws, he has a few good deeds to his name like the Battle of Constantinople. He was born during the khalifah of ‘Uthman radiya Llahu ‘anhu and passed away in 64 A.H. Siyar A’lam al Nubala’, vol. 7 pg. 36; Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul Hadi: Mawaqif al Mu’aradah fi ‘Ahd Yazid ibn Muawiyah.

[122] Surah al Ahqaf: 17.

[123] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4827.

[124] He is Yahya ibn Sa’id ibn al ‘As, Abu Ayub al Qurashi al Umawi. He was reliable. ‘Abdul Malik ibn Marwan would favour him. He passed away in 80 A.H. Tarikh al Islam, vol. 6 pg. 501; Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 11 pg. 189.

[125] Because there is no proof therein for the permissibility of moving a divorcee from her house without a reason. Fath al Bari, vol. 9 pg. 478.

[126] If you suggest that the reason for Fatimah radiya Llahu ‘anha leaving was the evil that occurred between her and the relatives of her husband, then this reason is present here. Accordingly, he said, “Then evil enough for you is between these two.” This is taken as Marwan’s retraction from refusing to accept Fatimah’s report. He had, foretime, refused to accept this report from Fatimah bint Qais radiya Llahu ‘anha. Fath al Bari, vol. 9 pg. 478.

[127] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 5321, 5322; Sahih al Muslim, Hadith: 1481. The wording is al Bukhari’s.

[128] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1700; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1321.

[129] Al Asma’i says: He cut the portion with the cross. Al qadb: to cut. Gharib al Hadith, vol. 1 pg. 32.

[130] Musnad Ahmed, vol. 6 pg. 225, Hadith: 25923.

[131] He is Sa’d ibn Malik ibn Uhayb, Abu Ishaq al Qurashi. The eminent Sahabi, the seventh to embrace Islam, one of the ten promised Jannat, and one of the six whom ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu singled out for khalifah. He is the Conqueror of Iraq and the Mada’in of Kisra. His supplications were readily accepted and he is well-known for this. He passed away in 55 A.H. Al Isti’ab, vol. 1 pg. 182; al Isabah, vol. 3 pg. 13.

[132] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 240.

[133] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 71. Al Albani states in Jilbab al Mar’ah, Hadith: 126, “The chain of narrators meets the standards of al Bukhari and Muslim, besides Umm ‘Alqamah, whose like cannot be used as proof. Her narration is simply cited for support.”

[134] Al Sayyidah Aisha Umm al Mu’minin wa ‘Alimat Nisa’ al Islam, pg. 172.

[135] Jami’ al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2803; Sunan Ibn Majah, Hadith: 3036. Al Tirmidhi classifies it hasan and Ibn Muflih classified it jayyid (good) in al Adab al Shar’iyyah, vol. 3 pg. 325. Al Haytami al Makki labelled it sahih in al Zawajir, vol. 1 pg. 129. Al Shawkani comments in Nayl al Awtar, vol. 1 pg. 320, “His narrators are the narrators of Sahih al Bukhari.” Al Albani classified it sahih in Sahih Sunan al Tirmidhi, Hadith: 2703.

[136] Al nard: a game played; an Arabicised Persian word. Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 3 pg. 421.

[137] Al Adab al Mufrad, Hadith: 1274; Mu’atta’ Malik, vol. 5 pg. 1396; Sunan al Bayhaqi, vol. 10 pg. 216, Hadith: 21488. Al Albani comments in Sahih al Adab al Mufrad, Hadith: 961, “The isnad is hasan. Mawquf report.”

[138] Mirtiha: garments from wool, and sometimes of silk. Al Fa’iq, vol. 3 pg. 359.

[139] He is Mistah ibn Uthathah ibn ‘Ubbad, Abu ‘Ubbad al Qurashi radiya Llahu ‘anhu. He participated in Badr, Uhud, and the all the other major battles. However, he was involved in the slander against Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anha. He passed away in 34 A.H. Al Isti’ab, vol. 1 pg. 463; al Isabah, vol. 6 pg. 93.

[140] This is a portion of the hadith of the Slander Incident. Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4750; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2770.

[141] He is ‘Abdullah ibn Shihab al Khawlani. It is said that his agnomen is Abu al Jazl. He is from the senior Tabi’in and lived in the time of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. Ibn Khalfun has declared him reliable. He reports from ‘Umar and Aisha radiya Llahu ‘anhuma. One hadith of his appears in Sahih Muslim. Tahdhib al Tahdhib, vol. 5 pg. 254; al Isabah, vol. 5 pg. 72.

[142] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 290.

[143] Al tunb: The rope of tents, canopies, and their like. Lisan al ‘Arab, vol. 1 pg. 560. Al fustat: house of hair. Al Sihah, vol. 3 pg. 1150.

[144] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2572.

[145] Al Tabaqat al Kubra, vol. 8 pg. 138; al Mustadrak, vol. 4 pg. 34. Ibn Hajar labelled the isnad sahih in al Isabah, vol. 4 pg. 412.

[146] Sawrah: outburst; fit (of fury). Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 2 pg. 420.

[147] Al fay’ah: the state of retracting from a condition a person was experiencing. Al Nihayah fi Gharib al Hadith wa al Athar, vol. 3 pg. 483.

[148] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2442.

[149]  Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 3531; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2488.

[150] Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 1828.

[151] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4753.

[152] Surah Maryam: 23.

[153] Hayat Umm al Mu’minin Aisha, pg. 367, with variation.

[154] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 1391.

[155] Hafiz comments:

اي لا يثنى علي بسببه ويجعل لي بذلك مزية وفضل وأنا في نفس الأمر يحتمل أن لا أكون كذلك وهذا منها على سبيل التواضع وهضم النفس بخلاف قولها لعمر كنت أريده لنفسي فكأن اجتهادها في ذلك تغير أو لما قالت ذلك لعمر كان قبل أن يقع لها ما وقع في قصة الجمل فاستحيت بعد ذلك أن تدفن هناك وقد قال عنها عمار بن ياسر وهو أحد من حاربها يومئذ إنها زوجة نبيكم في الدنيا والآخرة

“I should not be praised due to it. A speciality and virtue should not be reserved for me, whereas I am actually not on that pedestal.” This is out of her humility and self-effacement. This is contrary to her statement regarding ‘Umar radiya Llahu ‘anhu, “I wanted it for myself.” It is as if her ijtihad changed in this regard or her statement to ‘Umar was before the happenings of the Battle of Jamal. She felt ashamed thereafter to be buried there. ‘Ammar ibn Yasir radiya Llahu ‘anhu—who had fought against her in those days—declared, “She is definitely your Nabi’s wife in this world and the Hereafter.”

Fath al Bari, vol. 3 pg. 258; Ibn al Jawzi: Kashf al Mushkil min Hadith al Sahihayn, vol. 1 pg. 1244; ‘Umdat al Qari, vol. 8 pg. 228.

[156] Sahih al Bukhari, Hadith: 4750; Sahih Muslim, Hadith: 2770. Ibn al Qayyim states:

تأمل هذا التشريف والإكرام الناشئ عن فرط تواضعها واستصغارها لنفسها حيث قالت ولشأني في نفسي كان أحقر من أن يتكلم الله في بأمر يتلى ولكن كنت أرجو أن يرى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في النوم رؤيا يبرئني الله بها فهذه صديقة الأمة وأم المؤمنين وحب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهي تعلم أنها بريئة مظلومة وأن قاذفيها ظالمون لها مفترون عليها قد بلغ أذاهم إلى أبويها وإلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وهذا كان احتقارها لنفسها وتصغيرها لشأنها

Ponder over this honour and admiration, the source of which is her excessive humbleness and her insignificance in her eyes. She submits: “My rank in my own sight was far more insignificant than Allah speaking about me in verses that will be recited. I had hope that Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would see a dream in which Allah would exonerate me.” This is the Siddiqah of the Ummah, the Mother of the believers, and the Beloved of Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. She uttered this despite her certainty that she is innocent and oppressed, those who slandered her are oppressing her and fabricating lies against her, and their harm has affected her parents and Rasulullah salla Llahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. This was her realisation of herself as worthless and insignificant. Jila’ al Afham, pg. 239.

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